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  The Break Through
By Jan Rutowski

The idea of perpetual motion is nothing new. It was discovered and proven by ORFFYREUS in the beginning of the 18 century. He invented a working system using the gravity force to power his wheel. This made him famous in history. He described his invention in a book written in Latin and German.  The front page begins with a dedication to God, to the public, to man of learning, and to himself as discoverer. His work was certified by scientists of the day.  Why don't we have this great invention to this very day ?To understand one another we communicate in words or sentences.  In words we can express precisely the thought of the mind. So far everything seems to be correct.  Wrong! We know that over the centuries some words change in meaning.  If we look in the dictionary from 17-18 century some words have a totally different meaning to the one we know today.  It is a big problem because even a small change in meaning  can change the way people think. Worse still, they are convinced they are right when, in fact, they are wrong.  A few words of explanation in reference to perpetual motion .         
To  gain an understanding of anything at all one must depend  on definition What we classify as emotion - pleasure - pain - sound - colour - intuition are difficult to measure although they can be described in physical form .  My concern is the two words "perpetual" and "forever".  The  word " perpetual " convey a different meaning to different people. Example.  To a student of physics it speaks of a cycle that is repeating it self or action "non stop". An astronomer immediately thinks of something continuing        " forever ".But how far is "forever"?  Thousands of  years or perhaps millions .  In resent years the concept of perpetual motion has passed into oblivion.  I would like to explain why this is so.  Most perpetual motion devices were usually designed with weights falling down or swinging around the force of gravity. Before Newton no one knew what was holding them to the ground. There was no definition for such a force. They simply didn't know about it.  The knowledge of sixteenth and seventeenth century classified gravity force (weights) in the same category as colour, smell, taste. Now you can see what we are faced with. By the changing of colour or smell we do not expect the wheel to turn. To this day this is impossible.  After Newton's introduction of his "Principia" our concept of gravity force changed completely . Weight are no longer classified with taste, smell or colour. but nobody bothered to change the law in relation to perpetual  motion.  So it has remained like this to this very day.  Not many people know that we have three classes of perpetual motion.


There are pseudo types of perpetual motion but who is going to be bothered to look into a definition  from 17 century and start changing all of that.  The definition for the "perpetual motion" machine in Newton's time was :
" A machine that works without outside energy input. Later it was added that it has to do a useful work as well, and it will continue to do so till it wears out.  It was as practical then as the  car is to us today. If something breaks down you change the part and continue driving . As time passes we observe  the definition tend to undergo changes even to the extent to claim that the machine is an impossibility, and now we read; (quote, The World Book Encyclopedia ) Perpetual motion machine is a hypothetical device that can continuously produce work with no energy input, continuously convert energy completely into work, or continuously produce more energy than it consumes.  No one has ever succeeded in building a perpetual motion machine, and almost all scientists and engineers believe no one ever will.  For a machine to achieve perpetual motion , it would have to violate one or both of two laws of thermodynamics. These laws summarise how machines work.

  The first law states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Energy may change form - for example, from internal energy to mechanical motion - but the total of any system remains the same . A system may be anything from a simple object to a complex machine.

The second law says that heat , by itself, can flow only from a hot object to a colder object.  Inventors have proposed at least two kinds perpetual motion machines. The first kind would run forever with no energy input. The second kind would continuously convert energy completely into work. A machine that would continuously yield more energy than it consumes is considered by some experts to be a third type of perpetual motion machine. Other experts class this device with the first kind of perpetual motion machine.  The first kind of perpetual motion machine violates the first law of thermodynamics. This machine will not work, because resistance opposes the moving parts of all machines. To keep running, the machine must use energy to overcome this resistance. Without energy input, therefore the machine soon stops.  The second type of perpetual motion machine violates the second law. This type of machine traditionally does work by exploiting the natural flow of heat from a domly moving molecules in the sea or the atmosphere. But no machine has been able to do this, either.  A machine that would continuously produce more energy than it consumed also violates the first law of thermodynamics. this machine would have to create energy.  Some people have considered artificial satellites as possible sources of perpetual motion. This quotation can go for ever. It comes from The World Book Encyclopedia.

How about ORFFYREUS's wheel? It was proven and certified by friends of Sir.Isaac Newton.  ORFFYREUS wheel violates all of the laws. His wheel was working simply on geometrical division in the wheel it self.  Please continue reading my article, the answer is in the wheel.

The original Webster International Dictionary -1905-.
Perpetual Motion (Mech.)
An incessant motion conceived to be attainable by a machine supplying its own motive force independently of any action from without.

My question is ; Why above definition did not stay forever without changes?

Not many people are able to understand that present prejudice in education is one of the main reasons why Perpetual Motion has not been discovered.  By the time someone has the knowledge needed to invent Perpetual Motion, he is convinced it cannot be done.( quote from book. Perpetual Motion Inventors R.A.Ford.)

Who changed this definition and why ? What was the reason for hiding this significant invention ?  For further information the following books can be recommended.
1.Perpetuum mobile (second series 1870 ) by Henry Dircks
2.Strangest of All 1962 by Frank Edwards.
3.Oddities, A Book of Unexplained Facts (1965) by Rupert Gould
4.Physics for Entertainment (1975) by Ya Perelman.
5.Nature Engine ( 1971 ) by Dipankar R.Dutta.

ORFFYREUS very short story can be found in Encyclopedia of Britannica look under " Perpetual Motion".
Here I'm going to quote a few good examples from book R.A.Ford.
With the passing years, the conviction that Perpetual Motion is impossible has become so strong that a few scientists are aware that there are three classes of Perpetual Motion.( quote from book. Perpetual Motion Inventors R.A.Ford.)   

Perpetual motion may not have been invented because of the overspecialisation of educated men.( quote from book. Perpetual Motion Inventors R.A.Ford.) Before any invention can be discovered, it must be theoretically possible.  The inventor must have an understanding of how the invention works and be able to get the needed parts. After this may come years of development before investors are convinced it is practical and will return a profit.  ( quote from book. Perpetual Motion Inventors R.A.Ford.)

The reason college professors feel that Perpetual Motion is an impossibility is because they have heard of cases in the past where people have worked on Perpetual Motion , and it has always been a failure. They have come to feel that it is contrary to their educational knowledge to assume that Perpetual Motion is a possibility.  We should be understanding towards them for they may not be aware of all the facts.( quote from book. Perpetual Motion Inventors R.A.Ford.)

Elias Bessler - ORFFYREUS - (  was born 1680 in Zittau - Saxony )  He studied ,theology ,medicine, mechanics and the art of painting ,In his later  years he also worked as a watch-maker.  When he was 34 years old he constructed his first wheel which turns without any outside motive power. This wheel lifts 18 pounds a few feet high.  The wheel also was used to power his grinder in his workshop.    In 1712 in the province of Gera - ORFFYREUS - presented his second wheel.  He also published a book with explanatory notes and illustrated it with drawings.  In my opinion ,history is not giving a true account of the events, surrounding ORFFYREUS wheels. All the information I have been able to trace ,points to the fact that the wheel was covered with canvas, so the insides wasn't seen.  It seems a contradiction, on the one hand,  to publish a book  with all the explanation, and then on the other hand try to keep it a secret.  In 1713 ORFFYREUS presented a still bigger wheel with a diameter of 1,5 m and  a thickness of 15 cm. The revolution of this wheel can reach up to 50 turns per minute, and was able to raise 40 pounds off the ground.  It was displayed at Draswitz near Lipsk.  In the Encyclopedia Britannia the definition for perpetual motion goes as follows: it is a machine which once set in motion will continue that motion non stop without any outside input of energy ,added to that description such machine have to do useful work as well, and it was doing exactly that.  ORFFYREUS next wheel was presented in Merseburg and the size was 2 m in diameter and 30 cm thick. The constructor became very famous and he received a certificate acknowledging his wheel was the perpetual motion machine, stating that the sufficient precautions had been taken, to ensure that the performance of the machine was not due to fraud.  It was signed by a number of scientists some of whom were well known and friends of sr.Isaac Newton.  History shows that from that moment things started to turn sour for ORFFYREUS.  As his invention became  more and more popular the general feeling  in the community  turned against him .His certificate proves the existence of perpetual motion, and this was an insult to influential people. It contravened  the accepted law of nature and physics.  The breaching of these laws landed him in jail (for insulting a monk ).  In these circumstances ORFFYREUS met  up with Prince Karl of Saxony who bailed  him out and offered  him lodging in his castle.  Now ORRFYREUS is working on his new wheel. He had a workshop, tools and an influential sponsor.  But now new problems appeared Prince Karl was faced with financial tax problems  imposed upon him. His castle became a major tourist attraction. He informed  scientists throughout  Europe about ORRFYREUS project and many people arrived to see the perpetual motion wheel. Somehow a co-operation was formed between Prince Karl and ORFFYREUS, together they decided to sell the secret of the wheel.

I personally think that it was from this moment that they started to cover the center of the self turning wheel. Earlier the wheel was known to be very simple  According to Prince Karl's note it is said: to be so simple that a carpenter boy could make it.  They negotiated with England for some time and apparently the sum  of 20000 pounds was ask for the secret. For that time it was impossible for anyone to meet such a demand.  ORFFYREUS believed that soon or later fortune would be his, if he could convince influential rulers, scientists and bankers, that he had indeed discovered the real secret of perpetual motion.  Between scientists and bankers a dispute developed. Bets were made involving  large sums of money. Most of them still had doubt that such a machine was in existence.  To resolve this dilemma they formed a committee which included some eminent men such as intellectuals, scientists with a knowledge of mechanics.  Back in the castle in the year 1717 committee decided to seal off the room where  the perpetual motion wheel was situated. Members of the committee specified the exact position in the room for the wheel. Thus the chance of any outside  interference was eliminated. The door was sealed off with wax, and continually watched by guards. After 20 days the door was opened, and to everyone's amazement the wheel was still turning. The wheel was stopped ,everything checked, and then restarted.  Again the door was locked for a few weeks.  When the door was opened the wheel was found to be still running with the same regularity.  There were those who lost lots of money, but they refused to pay, they maintained that such a machine do not exist. It goes contrary to the law of physic and nature.  Again ORFFYREUS was accused of foul play. This despite the fact that he fulfilled all the demands in accordance to the definition on perpetual motion.  ORFFYREUS won the prize but never saw the money.  There is also evidence to the existence of ORFFYREUS wheel in the Russian chronicles. It is on record that Tsar Peter the Great was willing to pay 100 000 rubble's for the secret .He had planned a trip to Saxony but later same year he died .  ORRFERUS was left penniless unable to honour his obligation to his sponsor and Prince Karl in turn could not pay the tax-man.  Some of the scientists, who  were members of the jury tried to look under the canvas to reveal  the secret. This angered ORFFYREUS so much that he went into  a rage and smashed his machine to pieces with an axe.  This is the fascination of the story: there are facts in history that should be faced. There a pieces of testimonies of extremely knowledgeable witnesses. It is a dilemma to the world of physics .This perpetual motion machine was certified by Duke Karl in 1718. Let us presume that ORFFYREUS wheel was a simple  discovery, that is still to be announced, and this would be a challenge to rethink and re-examine the laws of science.  Think about the benefit to HUMAN CIVILIZATION.
This is a letter to Sir Isaac Newton written by Professor of mathematics    W. J. Gravesande.    (Quote Source :"Perpetuum Mobile" by Dircks)      It is a hollow wheel, or you can say drum, 14 inches (35 cm.) thick and 12 feet (3.5 metres) diameter .It is very light, as it consists of several cross-pieces of wood framed together, and everything is covered over with canvas, to prevent the inside from being seen. Through the centre of this wheel or drum runs an axis of about 6 inches (15 centimetres ) diameter cut at bough ends by iron axes of about three-quarters of an inch          (2 centimetres) diameter upon which the machine turns. I have examined these axes, and I'm firmly persuaded that nothing from without the wheel in the least contributes to its motion. When I turned it but gently, it always stood still as soon as I took away my hand; but when I gave it any tolerable degree of velocity , I was always obliged to stop it again by force ; for when I let it go, it acquired in two or three turns its maximum velocity , (then) it revolved at 25 or 26 times in a minute.

This letter is directed to  J.T. Desaguliers and written by Baron Fischer, architect to the Emperor of Austria. I must assure you that I'm quite persuaded that there exists no reason why this machine should not have the name of Perpetual Motion given to it; and I have good reason to believe that it is one, according to the experiments which I have been allowed to make by permission of His Serene Highness.who had the patience to be present at the trials which I made during two hours.  It is a wheel which is 12 feet (3 metres ) in diameter, covered with oil-cloth. At every turn of the wheel can be heard about eight weights , which fall gently on the side towards which the wheel turns. This wheel turns with astonishing rapidity , making 26 turns in a minute when moving freely. Having tied a cord to the axle, to turn an Archimedean screw for raising water, the wheel then made 20 turns in a minute. This I noticed several times by my watch and I always found the same regularity.  I then stop the wheel with much difficulty, holding on to the circumference with both hands . An attempt to stop it suddenly would rise a man from the ground. Having stopped it in this manner, it remained stationary; and here  - Sir,- is the greatest proof of it being a Perpetual Motion. I restarted it very gently, to see if it would of itself regain its former rapidity- which I doubted, believing, as they said in London, that it only preserved for a long time the impetus of the impulse first communicated. But to my great astonishment, I observed that the rapidity of the wheel augmented little by little until it had made two turns, and then it regained its former speed, until I observed by my watch that it made the same 26 turns a minute as before, when acting freely; and 20 turns when it was attached to the screw to raise water.  This experiment,-Sir- showing the speed of the wheel to augment , from the very slow movement that I gave to it , to an extraordinary rapid one, convinces  me more then if I had only seen the wheel moving a whole year, which would not have persuaded me that it was perpetual motion, because it might have diminished little by little until it ceased altogether; but to gain speed instead of losing it, and to increase that speed to a certain degree in spite of the resistance of the air and the friction of the axle, makes me unable to see how anyone can deny the truth of so describing it.  I also turned it in a contrary way, when the wheel performed as before.  I carefully examined the axles of the wheel, to see if there was any hidden artifice; but I was unable to see anything more than the two small axles which the wheel was suspended at its centre.

ORFFYREUS provided description of his invention in published pamphlet....          the translation reads in part 
( Quote Source:"Perpetuum Mobile" by Dircks)
" The internal structure of the machine is of a nature according to the laws of mechanical perpetual motion, so arranged that certain disposed weights, once in rotation, gain force from their own swinging, and must continue this movement as long as their structure does not lose its position and arrangement.."  " Unlike all other automata, such as clocks or springs, or other hanging weights which required winding up, or whose duration depends on the chain which attaches them, these weights , on the contrary, are the essential parts, and constitute the perpetual motion itself; since from them is received the universal movement which they must exercise so long as they remain out of the centre of gravity; and when they come to be placed together, and so arranged one against another that they can never obtain equilibrium, or the punctum quietus which they unceasingly seek in their wonderfully speedy flight, one or other of them must apply its weight at right angles to the axis, which in its turn must also move."


The drawings and function of ORFFYREUS two wheels come from his book. They do not give a clear view. Too many details tend to distort the overall picture.  I've studied the drawings for some time and I've made a working model. During the study I selected seven points from ORFFYREUS statements.  Then I proceeded to prove the possibility of the continuos motion of his wheels.  This are the seven points from his book.

1.  weights on one side were further from the axle .
2.  continual imbalance give wheel rotation .
3.  once in rotation ,gain force from their own swinging.
4.  apply its weight at right angles to the axis .
5.  weights passed over the zenith position.
6.  simple arrangement of levers and weights.
7.  eight weights falling at every turn.

The wheel has two parts, one rotates, the other is motionless. The latter was designed to collect weights, rise them up, and supply them back to the wheel at a right angle passing through zenith point.  It is very difficult to imagine such a wheel.  The drawings I have shown two different working system.  The wheel displayed in Duke Karl Castle has a diameter divided in to six equal parts. On that drawing there's a scale, which in fact is equilibrium  where one side has twenty weights and the other twelve.  To keep the balance eight weights are missing. So I discover point NR. 7- -eight weights tapping at every turn. Those eight missing weights are on the frame of the wheel.  They are on one side and always on one side ,and because of this they turn the wheel.  The second wheel was built in Draschwitz near Lipzig. This wheel has a radius divided into three equal parts and only one part was used. This part  was divided into two equal parts ,these two equal parts were divided one into six the other into seven. Now I want to explain the rest points previously mentioned.  very important is the first point. "The weights are always on one side and further from the centre."  Consider a pushbike standing upside-down, place object on top of wheel, now observe, the wheel will turn, and the object will fall off, but the wheel  continues to rotate. For better understanding let's glue an object for example a fifty cent piece ,to top of tyre. Now the wheel starts to rotate with the coin from top to bottom, and surprise, is not stopping will continue turning towards starting point. However, it will stop before reaching this point , it will then swing back and forth with less and less momentum till  stops. Now if one weight is giving this movement let's find out what happens if we have two weights. Place one weight at top of the wheel, and the other at the bottom. We now discover that the wheel is not moving at all  cause it is in balance.  Let's now go back to our first point.  m convinced the problem, with the weights always being at one side and further from the centre, is solved by using only one weight placed on top of the wheel and taken off at the bottom.  This is the only situation in which the wheel turns by itself.  Now if we, somehow, find a method whereby weights are placed on top of the wheel, then travel down with a frame, taken off, and lifted beck again to starting point, then we can keep the wheel in constant rotation.  Keep in mind that everything has to be automatic without any outside interference.  Let's imagine that the weights we use are golf -balls and the wheel in our project have the ability to catch the ball at the top of the wheel and release it at the bottom.  The biggest problem is with the raising of the balls. Contrary to common physics , this cannot be achieved without outside input of energy. But is this so ? Hands up who believe and understand scientists. Through  science we know a lot , but in everyday life the average person does not connect motion to simple physics .

A playground and children on a seesaw ( equilibrium ).How many of us can associate a see-saw with the push-bike wheel, or draw the circumference around equilibrium ? So far not many. But this is the answer to ORFFYREUS wheel. Imagine two children (same weight) on a see-saw. They are in perfect balance and neither can touch the ground. All we have to do is to place one child closer to axle , and the other child becomes heavier and touch the ground. That is a fact.  Now place one child on one arm of equilibrium about three meters long. On the other arm about 30 cm. from centre we place a very heavy person. Is the child's weight able to raise the heavy person up ? OF COURSE .This is simple physics . From this little exercise we learn that any object gains in weight the further it is place from the centre , the opposite applies as we move toward the centre on opposite side of see-saw.  The child gains advantage at the rate of about ten times more then the very heavy person.  Come back to the wheel. One ball is ale to lift up seven or eight balls , but only to the height of one.  That is just enough to place next ball to rotate wheel.  The description from ORFFYREUS book look very close to the situation with the see-saw . " Weights are situated further from centre of gravity , weights are in motion , and they are on one side of the wheel. In that arrangement the weights are non stop supplied to the wheel in zenith position ninety degrees  angle to the axle.  Wheel must turn till someone stops it.  ORFFYREUS discovered the paradox of the possibility of lifting up those weights in the centre of the wheel and used the idea in his famous wheel.  I call this the power of one , where one unit is always able to lift rest of the units coming from division of radius in the wheel.

Now I have to remind you that the wheel has two parts . One motionless the other movable .Balls travel only a quarter of a circle , if they go to the bottom they have to climb back higher distance to the top and that was waste on energy.  Number eight come from division of the circumference in to 8 parts  and every point was a nest for a ball to hold it and to release it at about ninety degrees level then roll it self on platform 4% slope to the center.  It looks like the same physics with the law of conservation of energy is able to prove the existence of perpetual motion.

author- Jan Rutkowski    assisting in translation  Sigmund Bonde Rasmussen

Description of rising system

ball NR.4 is place in the nest.(dot line) on the wheel, and whole wheel is working as lever to rise balls 1,2,3.NR.4 is moving with the wheel until  90 "level from zenith point. The platform has a slope 2-4 % to the center of the wheel.  Ball NR. 4 is taking position where NR.1 was because 1,2,3, are already up.  The blocking pin stops them from falling down.

Physical and  mathematical proof of the system.

every ball is  1 kg.
Ball NR.4 is further from the centre of the wheel about four diameter's of  1 ball = 10cm.
ball  1,2,3, is 3 kg. and is after centre  10cm.
there is no balance because one ball is missing. That ball is on the rim of the wheel and is moving.

We can easy estimate that left side with  1 kg. is heavier as opposed to right side where there is only 3 kg. And that is because  1 kg. is about 4 times further from the centre .For balance to be restored right side must have 4 x 1kg.weights, but seeing this never happens (one weight is always on left side ) we have achieved the phenomenon known as perpetual motion .

  Thanks to physics we can proof historical genius to Orffyrius and lets hope that is not going to take another  280 years to recognise this.

Additional Information

All drawings are showing the principle of ORFFYREUS - paradox idea . His idea was slowly developed to a more efficient working model which is shown in drawings Perpetual Motion Part 2  -A- and -B-.
    A brief explanation to the Perpetual Motion Part 2.
The seesaw (equilibrium) is loaded on the left side with 4 balls (4kg) and on the right side is an equivalent counter balance of 4 balls (4kg) and they are in perfect balance.     
Counter balance is in the shape of sliced mushroom (upside-down) that has the ability to swing independently on a seesaw arm ,simply standing on it.       
The counter balance extended leg becomes an arm to overbalance the whole mushroom body . Inside the leg is a gap (slot) to accommodate a crank pin that is moving with turning wheel. Note that the wheel is held by axle on only one side of the wheel, the opposite side stays clean of any obstacles , allowing the counter balance arm to swing freely.
    Crank pin is adjustably attached to the wheel and when wheel is turning goes up , down , left and right and at this same time counter balance swing on seesaw arm.
Drawing perpetual motion part 2-A- on the right arm of the seesaw nr.4 represents 4 balls in one counter balance body that is standing on the seesaw arm . When the counter balance swings " left " its body weight represents 2 kg , opposite seesaw side goes down . When swing " right " it becomes 6kg and the opposite seesaw arm goes up. In that arrangement the seesaw is able to go up and down . When it is up it releases top ball on to the wheel (nest) that must turn in order to be overbalanced by the ball. The ball is released at the bottom of the wheel and is collected when seesaw arm goes down .
The balls in the tube at the seesaw left arm are stopped from falling down by blocking pin .
Beware of slippery surface under the counter balance . The counter balance must
not change its position .

1 Square = 1 Distance Unit.
Each ball = Mass of 1 kg.
Radius of the wheel = 5 squares.
Mass of counterbalance = 15 kg.


1kg  x 5 units from axle = 5 kg (acting power).
5 kg of acting power has to move a mass of 15 kg (counterbalance); therefore 5 kg on the crank pin located 4 squares above the seesaw axle is equal to a mass of 20 kg and this can move a mass of 15 kg (counterbalance).


System is in balance = 5 ball on each end of the seesaw.
To lift up 5 balls located 5 Squares from the centre we have to use a force >25kg.
When the counterbalance is shifted 2 squares to one site it will be = to 30 kg of mass which will lift up the balls located on the one end of the seesaw (total mass of the particular balls is = to a mass of 25 kg).
On this site the top ball will be released to the wheel and simultaneously on the other site one ball will be placed to the empty space on the bottom of the column which was created by releasing the top ball to the wheel.  This is continuous motion.