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18th Georgia Regiment of Volunteer Infantry
A Regimental History
Copyright Randy Strickland, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011

Campaign Battles
Organizing the Unit
The Virginia Peninsula 1862 7 Pines, White Oak Swamp
Virginia 1862 Gaines Mill/Malvern Hill/Cold Harbor,Freeman Ford, Thoroughfare Gap, 2nd Manassas,
Maryland 1862 South Mountain and Sharpsburg (Antietam)
Virginia 1862 & 1863 Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville
Pennsylvania 1863 Gettysburg
Tennessee 1863 Chickamauga, Siege of Chatanooga, Wauhatchie, Siege of Knoxville, Campbell's Station, Bean Station
Virginia 1864 Battle of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania Courthouse, North Anna, Cold Harbor
End of the War 1864 & 1865 Siege of Petersburg and Richmond, Shenandoah,Front Royal, Cedar Creek, Saylers Creek
Unit Chronology
Genealogical Notes

Battle Flag of the 18th Georgia while with Hood's Brigade
Battle Flag of the 18th Georgia Regiment of Volunteer Infantry
while with Hood's Texas Brigade

"Among the historical regiments of Georgia proudly stands the battle-scarred Eighteenth. Though no minstrel has tuned his harp to sing the praises, though not seeking, and therefore not obtaining a newspaper reputation, this noble regiment has gained a name which will live through all future time; in the memory of those who have so closely watched its career of glory. Twenty times has its battle flag, the glorious Cross of the Confederacy, been observed with its fiery folds flashing brightly over as many gory fields. The soil of Virginia has "drank, deeply drank" the life blood of many of these noble Georgians, as half clad and freezing, with feet bare and bleeding at every step, they plunged, with the startling, piercing, enthusiastic yell of the Southern soldiery, into the midst of the fight, driving in utter rout, the well dressed Federals before them. The sufferings of our forefathers at the historic Valley Forge, can scarce compare with the sufferings of the members of this and other regiments, but amid all their privations, when hunger with its gnawing pangs attacked them, and they suffering with a hundred discomforts, at the call of their leader, they would spring to their arms, and rush into the midst of the fray, caring for nought but for victory to again perch upon their banners."_______James M. Folsom author of "Heroes and Martyrs of Georgia" - 1864
Call to Arms
As a result of a call to arms by the Georgia state legislature and Governor Brown, Colonel William Tatum Wofford, along with his second in command -- Major J. Johnson and Adjutant John Griffin, raised a confederate regiment in Cass County, Ga. on April 10, 1861. (Cass County was located just northwest of Atlanta. Today it is known as Bartow County, named after General Francis Bartow who had died at the Battle of First Manassas.)

On April 22nd, the newly formed regiment was assigned as the First Regiment, Fourth Brigade, Georgia State Volunteers and soon after posted to Camp McDonald at Big Shanty, Georgia, now known as Kennesaw, Ga. for training. The regiment consisted of ten companies, the Ackworth Infantry; Newton Rifles; Jackson County Volunteers; Davis Invincibles; Stephens Infantry; Davis Guards; Lewis Volunteers; Rowland Highlanders; Dooly Light Infantry; and the Rowland Infantry.

On July 31, 1861, a public "Grand Review" of the brigade was held in Big Shanty, Ga. Citizens of Marietta and the surrounding communities came to admire the newly trained troops, as they prepared for their departure to Richmond, Virginia. They departed on August 3, 1861 and arrived in Richmond on August 9, 1861. Here, they were mustered into the Army of the Confederate States of America and redesignated as the 18th Georgia Regiment of Volunteer Infantry.

First posted at Camp Scott, three miles outside the city of Richmond and then moved to Oregon Camp, where they drilled, trained and remained for a few weeks. In the middle of September, the 18th Regiment was assigned to guard Union prisoners-of-war, at Camp Winder in Richmond, Va. The prison was located at Liggon's Factory, where the prisoners were held in the factory warehouses.

On October 25, 1861, the 18th Georgia Regiment of Volunteer Infantry was transferred to Goldsboro, North Carolina. Here they were to be used to repel an anticipated Federal attack up the Neuse River, on the North Carolina coast. The Union attack was cancelled on November 1, 1861 due to heavy weather and the 18th Regiment was ordered to return to Richmond.

On November 18, 1861, the troops were taken by train to just outside of Fredericksburg, and then marched to Camp Fisher, which was about three miles from Dumfries, Virginia. Here, the 18th Georgia Regiment of Volunteer Infantry was made a part of the Texas Brigade, under the command of General Wigfalls.

There are many thoughts as to how this happened. The fact that the Texas Brigade was encamped very near the troops from Georgia or that Colonel Wofford had been seeking a permanent assignment for his regiment, does not matter. The assignment was made and together, the Texans and Georgian's would soon be come one of the most famous Brigades of the Army of Northern Virginia.

The Texas Brigade at that time consisted of the 1st, 4th, and 5th Texas Regiments, commanded by Brigadier General Louis T. Wigfall and was part of General William Whiting's Division.

On March 6, 1862... General Wigfall resigned and then Colonel John Bell Hood of the 4th Texas, was promoted to Brigadier General and given command of the Texas Brigade. From this time and forever, the brigade would always be referred to as "Hood's Texas Brigade".

Three days later, on March 9, 1862, General Whiting's command joined General Holmes command at Fredericksburg. This was part of a general withdrawal of Confederate troops to south of the Rappahannock River. The Texas Brigade was assigned as a "rear guard" to protect the division's withdrawl. Later, reaching Fredericksburg themselves, they made camp at a pine orchard which was to be called Camp Wigfall.

Under the command of General Hood, the Texas Brigade...along with the 18th Georgia Regiment, would be used again and again as shock troops to push the enemy out of their earthworks and into open battle. Historians would later refer to these troops "as good soldiers as the Army of Northern Virginia had."

On April 4, 1862... General Hood volunteered to take the Texas Regiment back towards Dumfries, Va., to block a troop movement by Union General Dan Sickles. After arriving near the Stafford House, no Union troops were found and the Texas Regiment returned to camp... tired and untried.

On April 10, 1862... the brigade was once again on the move, marching to Yorktown to aid the troops commanded by general John B. Magruder. 85 miles by foot and railway, the Texas Brigade finally arrived on April 19th, 1862. Here at Yorktown, they continued their training and when a withdrawl from Yorktown was ordered, the Texas Brigade was once again used as a rear guard. Finally leaving on May 4th and headed towards Williamsburg, Va.

They marched through the night, hearing the raging battle behind them at Williamsburg, stopping near Eltham's Landing along the York River. Having been brought word that the Union cavalry was trying to flank the Confederates up river, General Hood moved his Texas regiments to Eltham to block the Union movement. The 18th georgia was left behind in reserve to protect the Texas Brigade artillery.

After this little fracus, the Texas Brigade was moved to the baltimore Crossroads, just outside Richmond, Va. About five days later they marched to the Chickahominy Creek nearer the capital.



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When Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston unexpectedly withdrew his forces from the Warwick Line at the Battle of Yorktown the night of May 3, Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan was taken by surprise and was unprepared to mount an immediate pursuit. On May 4, he ordered cavalry commander Brig. Gen. George Stoneman to pursue Johnston's rearguard and sent approximately half of his Army of the Potomac along behind Stoneman, under the command of Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner. These troops fought in the inconclusive Battle of Williamsburg on May 5, after which the Confederates continued to move northwest in the direction of Richmond.

McClellan also ordered Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin's division to board transport ships on the York River in an attempt to land and cut off Johnston's retreat. It took two days just to board the men and equipment onto the ships, so Franklin was of no assistance to the Williamsburg action. But McClellan had high hopes for his turning movement, planning to send other divisions (those of Brig. Gens. Fitz John Porter, John Sedgwick, and Israel B. Richardson) by river after Franklin's. Their destination was Eltham's Landing on the south bank of the Pamunkey River across from West Point, a port on the York River, which was the terminus of the Richmond and York River Railroad. From the landing, it was about 5 miles (8.0 km) south to the small town of Barhamsville, where a key intersection on the road to New Kent Court House was being used by Johnston's army on the afternoon of May 6.

Franklin's men came ashore in light pontoon boats and a 400-foot (120 m) long floating wharf was then built from pontoons, canal boats, and lumber, so that artillery and supplies could be unloaded. The work was continued by torchlight through the night and the only enemy resistance was a few random shots fired by Confederate pickets on the bluff above the landing, ending at about 10 p.m.

Johnston ordered Maj. Gen. G. W. Smith to protect the road to Barhamsville and Smith assigned the division of Brig. Gen. William H. C. Whiting and Hampton's Legion, under Colonel Wade Hampton, to the task. On May 7, Franklin posted Brig. Gen. John Newton's brigade in the woods on either side of the landing road, supported in the rear by portions of two more brigades (Brig. Gens. Henry W. Slocum and Philip Kearny). Newton's skirmish line was pushed back as Brig. Gen. John Bell Hood's Texas Brigade advanced, with Hampton to his right. Hood was concerned about casualties from friendly fire in the thick woods, so he ordered his men to advance with unloaded rifles. Encountering a Union picket line 15 paces away, Hood wrote, "A corporal of the enemy drew down his musket upon me as I stood in front of my line." Fortunately for Hood, Private John Deal of the 4th Texas Infantry had disobeyed his orders and carried a loaded rifle; he managed to shoot the Union corporal before the latter could fire.

As a second brigade followed Hood on his left, the Union troops retreated from the woods to the plain before the landing, seeking cover from the fire of Federal gunboats. Whiting employed artillery fire against the gunboats, but his guns had insufficient range, so he disengaged around 2 p.m. Union troops moved back into the woods after the Confederates left, but made no further attempt to advance

In the last week of May 1862, there were several skirmishes at Seven Pines, Savage Station, and Chickahominy. Culminating, on May 31 to June 1, 1862, in the battle at Seven Pines, also known as Fair Oaks. Seven Pines is the name of an ntersection seven miles east of Richmond where the Williamsburg "old stage" road intersected with the Nine-mile road. About one mile from Seven Pines, where the Nine-mile road crossed the Richmond and York River Railroad, there is a station called Fair Oaks.

In order to capture the Confederate capital (Richmond, Virginia), the Union army would have to cross what General McClellan referered to as "The confounded Chickahominy" River. A few days before the battle, the majority of his army was on the north side of the river. However, Brigadier General Keyes and his Union IV Corps, had crossed the river and were isolated on the opposite side. McClellan was prevented in his efforts to reinforce his subordinate, due to the river being at flood stage.

General Johnston, Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, saw an opportunity to strike the exposed Keyes and his isolated Corps. His plan was to incorporate the brigades of his Lieutenants, Generals Longstreet, D.H. Hill and Huger.

Before this battle, the Texas Brigade (including the 18th Regiment Georgia Volunteer Infantry), was assigned to General D. H. Hill's Division. At the beginning of this battle they were stationed across the Williamsburg Road, awaiting the signal to attack. However, the plans were doomed from the start.

General Longstreet's men were delayed in transportation to the front and instead of starting the battle at dawn, action was delayed until 1:00 PM. General Huger and his brigades were never in action that day and D.H. Hill's division did the bulk of the fighting. General Hill's Division was positioned west and in front of the Federal picket-line. The federals were hunkered down in flooded rifle pits. At 1 o'clock in the afternoon, the impatient General Hill had his signal guns fired to begin the attack. His division immediately moved forward unsupported. The union line could not withstand the onslaught and some units broke and ran. Hill's Division ruled the field for the first day, however the second day of the battle would have a different ending... all that had been gained was lost.

The battle was inconclusive but costly, there were 6,100 Confederate and 5,000 Union troops killed, wounded, or missing. The Texas brigade was held in reserve and did not see much of the fighting.

Included in that number, a severely wounded General Joseph E. Johnston, Commander - Army of Northern Virginia. This event would change the entire war.... General Robert E. Lee was given command of the Army of Northern Virginia. General Gustavus Smith, who had been Johnston's second - in - command, relinguished command to General Lee and retired from Military service.

Of note, in reorganizing the Army of Northern Virginia... General Lee added Hampton's Legion to the Texas Brigade. The Texas Brigade was now comprised of the 1st, 4th, and 5th Texas; the 18th Georgia Regiment of Volunteer Infantry and Hampton's Legion.


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On June 11, 1862, the Texas Brigade left the Richmond area near Seven Pines to join Stonewall Jackson's command in the Blue Ridge Gap east of Port Republic. Shortly after this transfer to the Shenandoah Valley, back on the Peninsula, McClellan was reinforced by the 55,000 troops of Generals McDowell and Banks. Lee knew that, in order to defend Richmond he MUST attack.

General Lee had learned from the "Eyes" of his army, General J.E.B. Stuart, that Union General Fitz-John Porter and his V Corps were vulnerable near Gaines Mill. Jackson's command was ordered immediately back to Richmond to join in the Peninsula Campaign and what came to be known as the Seven Days Battle, June 25 to July 1.

On the morning of June 27, 1862, Confederate General A. P. Hill's division made a frontal attack against the Union positions at Beaver Dam Creek. General Jackson failed to engage the Union flank and once General D.H. Hill finally engaged the Union right, he was repelled by the Union troops of General Sykes. This piecemeal effort, by General Lee's commanders, resulted in no gains and General Fitz-John Porter is able to maintain his position.

As the day was drawing to a close, General Lee orders a three mile wide, massive assult. This charge started at about 5:30 PM and was led by the General John B. Hood's Texas Brigade, assulting the Union center. (The 18th Regiment Georgia Volunteer Infantry was the first unit through the gap, and suffered 146 killed or wounded, (of which our Great Great Grandfather George R. Smith was one... wounded in the knee by a mini ball) The 5th U.S. Cavalry tried to make a valiant charge and close the gap, but were repelled by General Hoods brigade and General Fitz-John Porter retreated across the Chickahominy.

That evening, General Lee wrote to President Davis, "We sleep on the field and shall renew the contest in the morning."

Together, the two armies lost 15,000 men in a single afternoon. According to an article written later by General Longstreet, the Confederates "...captured many thousand stand of arms, 52 pieces of artillery, large quantities of supplies, and General Reynolds." Lee's men continued to pursue the Union soldiers southward

From June 28th to the 30th, the 18th Regiment found itself once again engaged in skirmishes and movements around the White Oak Swamp near Fair Oaks and Seven Pines. When they arrived at the swamp, finding the bridge they were to cross destroyed and federal troops on the south bank, General Jackson deployed his artillery. They opened fire on the south bank in a terrific bombardment, the sudden furosity of which wreaked havoc on the Union forces there. A Vermont soldier wrote: "It was as if a nest of earthquakes had suddenly exploded under our feet." An artillery duel ensued, and continued through the day.

However, this action effectively delayed General Jackson's troops from coming to the support of General Magruder as he attacked General McClellan's rear guard on June 29th.

General Lee made plans to hit the Union troops on June 30th, just south of White Oak Swamp, near Glendale. But again the chance was botched by a late arrival of General Jackson and his divisions. Two thirds of the Confederate force was to hit the Union flank, while the remaining third, under General Jackson was to slash at the Union rear.

Generals Longstreet and A. P. Hill attacked the Union flanks at Frayser's Farm, capturing Union General McCall and than continuing the attack against Union General Kearney's division. General Jackson's divisions are unable to advance up the Long Bridge Road and McClellan's army is able to retreat to Malvern Hill on the Quaker Road. This was contrary to General McClellan's plans, as he wished to move on Harrison's Landing to "give the enemy a blow that would check his further pursuit."

General McClellan telegraped Washington that "I shall do my best to save the army. Send more gunboats."

He deployed his forces in a U-shaped defense on the hill with more than two dozen cannon overlooking wheat fields to the front. Malvern Hill is a 150 foot high eminence laying across the route to Harrison's Landing. General D. H. Hill was heard to say, "If General McClellan is there in strength, we had better leave him alone."

General Lee's men were forced to advance across open fields and climb steep slopes to reach the federal positions. The federal cannons rained terror on the advancing Confederates with cruel efficiency. They were further supported by fire from the gunboats Galena and Mahaska in the James River, which lobbed huge shells toward the battlefield. Still, wave after wave of Confederates moved onto the field, "...grim and silent as death itself" mused one federal.

More confusion and misinterpretation of General Lee's orders resulted in the troops of Generals Magruder, Huger, and D.H. Hill to make gallant, but suicidal, attacks into the massed fire of Fitz-John Porter's cannon. Nearly 5,500 Confederate soldiers fell on the slopes of Malvern Hill.

The next morning, as daylight moved across the field, a Union cavalry officer remarked that "A third of them were dead or dying, but enough of them were alive and moving to give the field a singular crawling effect."

General McClellan marched his army away, eight miles to Harrison's Landing to rest and refit his terribly mangled soldiers. General Lee withdrew his forces to Richmond, for the same reason.

Total losses during the "Seven Days Battle" included 15,489 Union losses killed, wounded, or missing compared to the Confederate's 19,749 killed, wounded, or missing.

At a cost of nearly 20,000 lives, Lee had defended Richmond, pushing the Union Army of the Patomac back to the James River. Later, in August, the Army of the Patomac withdrew from the Peninsula, ending the Peninsula Campaign and the Battle of Seven Days.



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After July 1st, the Texas Brigade remained encamped on Mechanicsville Road, just three miles above Richmond until mid-August, giving the wounded time to recover, as well as rest for the others. On July 26, 1862, General Whiting had to take Medical Leave and General John B. Hood was given command of the Division. Colonel William T. Wofford was then given command of the Texas Brigade.

On August 13, the Texas Brigade marched at the head of general Longstreet's column, about 50 miles northwest to Gordonsville to join General Jackson's troops. On August 21, 1862, the Texas Brigade in a series of skirmishes at Kelly's Ford and again on August 22, 1862 was involved in skirmishes that drove the Union forces back across the Rappahannock River, and resulted in the capture of General Bohlen, a union general.

Six days later, on August 28th, the opposing armies were about to engage in battle near the old battlefield of First Manassas. General Stonewall Jackson placed his troops near an unfinished railroad embankment near Warrenton Turnpike. General Longstreet and his Corps, were expected to arrive by way of the Thoroughfare Gap. The Union column of General Rufus King, marching to join General Pope, crossed the front of Stonewall Jackson's position. General Jackson, hoping to lure the enemy into a battle.... attacked.

The battle of Groveton began what today is known as Second Manassas (or Bullrun). On August 29th, Union General Pope had reinforced General King with 62,000 troops. Due to uncoordinated efforts, Pope was unable to move Stonewall Jackson from the field. Coincidentally, General Longstreet's Corps, led by General Hood's Division, entered the field and took position on the Union left flank. Positioning itself near general Jackson's right wing, General Law's Brigade was to the left of the Warrenton Turnpike. The Texas Brigade was on the right side of the turnpike, with the 18th Georgia Regiment of Volunteer Infantry was in the center of the brigade, the 1st and 4th Texas regiments to their left; the 5th Texas regiment and Hampton's Legion to the right.

General Fitz-John Porter had been ordered to advance against Stonewall Jackson's right, but upon seeing a large number of Confederates at his front, failed to move. (An act that would later result in General Porter's removal from military service.)

General Hood was given orders to make a "reconnaissance in force" to discover any weakness in the Federal lines. That evening, the Texas Brigade moved forward across Lewis Lane, only to find a Union force also moving forward. Colonel Wofford ordered the 18th Georgia Regiment to open fire on the Federal force. This they did and then charged the Unionist and routed them. They captured the flag of the 24th New York and 53 prisoners.

August 30th, at approximately 2:00 PM, General Pope made a massive assult against General Jackson's front. After waiting for the Union reserves to be committed, General Longstreet entered the fray. All five of General Longstreet's divisions rolled against the Union left flank capturing Bald Hill and moving against the new Union defensive line at Henry House Hill.

The Texas Brigade moved very quickly and forced the 10th New York back towards the 5th New York Infantry. The 5th New Yorkers fired high in their first volley so as to miss the retreating 10th. However, some 40 men of the 18th Georgia fell as a result of this volley. The Texas Brigade continued forward and pushed the Union troops towards and finally into Young's Branch.

Troops of the 18th Georgia captured the flag of the 10th New York and then turned and charged an artillery battery, capturing four cannon. Following this they continued on to Chinn Ridge and another Union battery. During this attack, the flag of the 18th Georgia was shot down three times.

As the fight on Henry House Hill raged on, General Jackson moved against the Union right. This resulted in bending the Union line into the shape of a large horseshoe. The fight on Henry House Hill delayed the Confederate onslaught long enough to allow the Union army to retreat to Centreville.

General Lee was relentless in his pursuit of Pope's army and continued to press the following day at Chantilly. The man sited by Union Army Commander General Winfield Scott as the "bravest man I ever saw", General Phil Kearney... was killed at Chantilly. He was but one of the many troops lost during those last days in August. The Union suffered 16,054 killed, wounded or missing... as the Confederates lost only 9,197 killed, wounded or missing.

Of these casualties, the 18th Georgia Regiment of Volunteer Infantry lost 19 killed and 114 wounded.



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The Army of Northern Virginia headed north into Maryland, early in September. General Lee is believed to have set his plans to take the vital Northern rail station at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Threatening his movements were a 12,000 man Union garrison at Harpers Ferry (now West Virginia), so he split his army and sent General Jackson to deal with that. The rest of the army was to concentrate in the vicinity of Hagerstown, Maryland.

On September 14, 1862, General McClellan, having learned of General Lee's plans from a lost copy of General Order No. 191, moved to force South Mountain, at Crampton's and Turner's Gaps. Generals D.H. Hill and Longstreet thwarted this move and bought the Southern army time to regroup. Losses on both sides at South Mountain were relatively light by comparison to the next few days, as the Union suffered 1,831 casualties while the Southern troops suffered 2,863 casualties.

The next day, September 15th, General Jackson... after defeating Union forces at Harpers Ferry, regrouped with General Lee's army at a small hamlet known as Sharpsburg.

By this time, Hood's troops were subsisting on green corn picked right out of the local corn fields and most of his force was barefoot. On the morning of September 17, the entire division went into reserve status to cook their first hot meal in four days. But, at sunrise, they were thrown back into the front line to assist General D.H. Hill, who was being attacked near a whitewashed Dunker Church. General Joe Hooker's I Corps was charging through the cornfield, when General Hood's Texas Brigade was thrown into the line to repel the attack. They sent the Union troops running for their lives back through the cornfields. A Union soldier that survived the fire of the Texas Brigade, remarked "it was like a scythe running through our line". The Texas Brigade was stopped only after enduring volley after volley of double-shotted cannister at a range of twenty yards. General Hood later remarked that his division was "dead on the field".

After a savage battle, D. H. Hill's troops are pushed out of what is later known as "Bloody Lane", but McClellan has sent no reinforcements to follow up with an attack against the Southern center. For three hours General Burnside tries to force Antietam Creek, but is unable to do so. This allows General Lee to reinforce his positions. Finally, around 1:00 PM, General Burnside's troops capture the Antietam Creek Bridge as Union General Rodman's column crosses the creek downstream.

As the noose tightens on General Lee's army... General A. P. Hill arrives with his troops from Harpers Ferry and literally saves the day, both rescuing General Lee's troops and ending the bloodiest battle in American history.

Total casualties at Sharpsburg; Confederates 13,609 men, Union 12,410 men. The 18th Regiment Georgia Volunteer Infantry, while charging with Hood's Texas Brigade, earned the dubious honor of having the highest proportion of casualties of any civil war unit at any major engagement. They went into battle with 176 men and lost 101 of those killed, wounded, or missing.



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Because of his action at Antietam (also known as The Battle of Sharpsburg), General Hood was given command of his own division. He maintained command of his Texas Brigade as well until November 26, 1862. Now consisting of 160 barefoot men the 18th Georgia Regiment was transferred to Cobb's Brigade, McClaw's Division, remaining in Longstreet's Corps. Cobb's brigade was composed of the 16th, 24th, and 18th Georgia Regiments, Cobb's Legion, and Phillips' Legion. The 18th Georgia Regiment remained assigned to Longstreet's Corps until the end of the war.

General Burnside reluctantly replaced McClellan on the Union side, and recommended to his superiors in Washington that the next attempt on Richmond should be from the north, through Fredricksburg. His army had been reorganizerd and transformed into three "Grand Divisions" of two corps each. He made his move towards Richmond, by shifting General Sumner towards Fredericksburg, which was countered by General Longstreet's Corps being placed opposite him. General Lee, knowing that General Burnside would move very cautiously, sent for General Stonewall Jackson's divisions. The opposing forces now numbered 122,000 troops on the Union side and 78,000 on the Confederate side.

On December 11, 1862 construction began of pontoon bridges to help in the Federal crossing. While they were placing the pontoons, William Barksdale's Mississippi Brigade, heavily barricaded in buildings on the shore, inflicted heavy damage on the engineers. When the engineers would no longer work, General Burnside ordered a brigade to float across the river on loose pontoons, and attack the Confederate positions. This plan eventually worked, but stalled Burnside's movement across the river to his great consternation. Under cover of artillery on Stafford Heights, the Union engineers continued their work, and succeeded bridging the Rappahannock River in three places. General Sumner's Right Grand Division moved across the completed pontoons on December 12th. During this crossing, General Franklin's Left Grand Division makes it across the river below the town. Once across, they marched through Fredericksburg under heavy fire taking many more losses from hidden sharpshooters.

Once the city was cleared, General Burnside took time to consult and plan with his officers. That evening, the officers lost control of their men as they looted homes and stores. They smashed mirrors, broke furniture, and dragged pianos into the street. "The soldiers seemed to delight in destroying everything," wrote one witness. Virtually every home and business saw Yankee looters who stuffed their bags and knapsacks with anything worth a dollar. Burnside's provost marshall finally arrived later, lashing at troops with his riding crop. He arrested platoons of prisoners as well as some mounted officers, plunder still hanging from their saddles.

Burnside rose early the morning of the 13th and ordered a series of 16 hopelessly piecemeal frontal assaults across open ground. As a feign, he ordered General Franklin to advance along the Old Richmond Stage Road, to turn what was believed to be General Lee's exposed right flank, at Hamilton's Crossing. However, Confederate Horse Artillery stops this advance and holds the Unions at bay for over two hours.

General Sumner begins his advance as a frontal assult against Confederate troops drawn up in an impregnable position atop high ground and behind a stone wall west of the city. McClaws' division was on Marye's Heights immediately back of the city. General Cobb's Georgia brigade, with the 18th Georgia Regiment, was in a sunken road during this battle hidden from view until the attackers were surprised. The main Federal attack was directed at Cobb's brigade. General McClaws had this to say in an article written after the war about the battle:

"My line of defense was a broken one, running from the left along the sunken road, near the foot of Marye's Hill, where General Cobb's brigade was stationed. During the 12th the defenses of this line had been extended beyond the hill by an embankment thrown up to protect the right from sharpshooters, as also to resist assaults that might be made from that direction, and then the line was retired a hundred or more yards to the foot of the hills in the rear, along which was extended Kershaw's brigade of South Carolina troops, and General Barksdale's Mississippians, from left to right, the brigade of General Semmes being held in reserve. The Washington Artillery, under Colonel Walton, were in the position on the crest of Marye's Hill over the heads of Cobb's men, and two brigades under General Ransom were held here in reserve. ...The troops could not be well seen by the enemy, and the artillery on my rear line was mostly concealed, some covered with brush. The enemy from their position could not see the sunken road near the foot of Marye's Hill, nor do I think they were aware, until it was made known to them by our fire, that there was an infantry force anywhere except on top of the hill, as Ransom's troops could be seen there, in reserve, and the men in the sunken road were visible at a short distance only."

The Sunken Road
"Soon after 11 a.m. the enemy approached the left of my line by the Telegraph Road, and, deploying to my right, came forward and planted guidons or standards, (whether to mark their advance or to aid in the alignment I do not know) and commenced firing; but the fire from our artillery, and especially the infantry fire from Cobb's brigade, so thinned their ranks that the line retreated without advancing, leaving their guidons planted. Soon another force, heavier than the first, advanced, and were driven back with great slaughter. They were met on retiring by reinforcements, and advanced again, but were again repulsed, with great loss. This continued until about 1 p.m.... The enemy, then deploying in a ravine about three hundred yards from the stone wall, advanced with fresh lines of attack at short intervals, but were always driven back with great loss. This was kept up until about 4:30 p.m., when the assaults ceased for a time; but the enemy, posting artillery on the left of the Telegraph Road, opened on our position; however they did no damage worth particularizing."
"The enemy in the meanwhile formed a strong column of lines to attack, and advancing under cover of their own artillery, and no longer impeded by ours, came forward along our whole front in the most determined manner; but by this time, as just explained, I had lines four deep throughout the whole sunken road, and beyond the right flank. The front rank, firing, stepping back, and the next in the rear took its place and, after firing was replaced by the next, and so on in rotation. In this way, the volley of fire was made nearly continuous, and the file firing very destructive. The enemy were repulsed at all points."
From the beginning of the battle through the end not a single Union soldier made it to within 100 feet of the wall on the sunken road.General Cobb bled to death from a hip wound within sight of the house where his parents had married, and was succeeded by General Kershaw. The 18th Georgia Regiment lost 58 of its 160 soldiers and, on the night of December 15th, was relieved. That same night, the Federals withdrew with staggering losses, and Kershaw's Brigade, with George Smith, reoccupied the city. Burbside's entire 6 mile long front was riddled with appalling failure. He lost 12,653 Union men, compared to Lee's total loss of only 5,309 men. Both armies went into winter quarters around Fredericksburg during the winter of '62-'63.


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29 April 1863, General Hooker (who replaced Burnside on 25 Jan 1863) moved the bulk of his force up the Rapahannock, west of Fredericksburg, in an attempt to flank Lee's army. He was astonished on May 1st when the Confederate commander suddenly moved most of his army directly against Hooker in what came to be known as the Battle of Chancellorsville.

May 1, W.T. Wofford assumed command of the Texas Brigade. General Jackson's Corps, with General McClaw's Division on the left flank, remained on the Fredericksburg front until the night of May 1st. The Union XI Corps, commanded by General O.O. Howard, was posted on Hooker's extreme right. General Stuart, having observed the unprepared Union force, reported this find, to General Lee. It was here General Lee made one of his most daring decisions, though outnumbered 70,000 to approximately 50,000, he split away General Jackson and 26,000 men to outflank the Union position.

General Jackson's forces were concealed from view and made their flanking movement across the front of General Hooker's main force. By the morning of May 2, 1863, General Jackson was ready to plow into the Union XI Corp. However, Union General Sickles, commanding Hookers center, saw the tail end of Jackson's force moving through the woods, thinking that this was a retreating Confedreate force.... he attacked. This led to very little and was over before it really began. The result was an exposed, unsupported Union right flank.

A short time later, General Jackson's forces emerged from the woods in a mile wide assult wave. General Howard's XI Corps crumbled, and in a panic, fled through the dusty roads towards Chancellorsville. The victorious Confederate forces continued their advance past the Wilderness Church and to Dowdalls Tavern. What was left of General O. O. Howard's XI Corps made a final and desperate stand here, delaying the attacking Confederates long enough so that the rest of the troops can escape. General Sickles fell back to Hazle Grove and readied his forces to repel the oncoming Confederate forces. General Hooker's forces were able to present a massed artillery barrage, from their position at Fairview Cemetery, finally halting the Confederate advance.

Around 9:00 PM, while returning with his staff from a reconnoitering mission, Geberal Jackson and the others were mistaken for advancing Union cavlary and fired upon by pickets of a North Carolina brigade. General Jackson was wounded three times.

The following morning, May 3, 1863, General Lee's army was drivng General Hooker's, back toward the Rappahannock River and away from Fredericksburg. At Fredericksburg, General Sedgwick's VI Corps had been held in place and was now mounting an attack on General Jubal Early's Confederate forces which held Mayre Heights above the town. General Early's men were able to repulse two of the Union assults. However, a third assult force was given their orders, "You will advance at a double-quick.... you will not stop until you get the order to halt. You will never get that order." One end of the Confedreate line was turned and the now enfamous Mayre Heights were taken by Union forces.

After this action, General Sedgwick placed his men in a march towards Chancellorsville to rescue his commander, General Hooker. However, the always daring General Lee, once again split his troops... leaving General Stuart and just four divisions to keep an eye on General Hooker, moved his main force to Salem Church. Here General Sedgwick was held at bay and on May 5th, General Hooker ordered a general withdrawl across the Rappahannock.

On a personal note: As he knelt to help a recruit load his rifle during the Battle of Chancellorsville on Plank Road, George Right Smith, our Great Great Grandfather, was also struck in the back by a mini-ball. He sat down and leaned back against a tree thinking he "would surely die." But, after a few minutes he found that the bullet had been spent after passing through his bed-roll leaving only a minor wound.

The Federal soldiers suffered 17,278 casualties at Chancellorsville, while the Confederates suffered 12,764. The 18th Georgia Regiment's casualties total 86; 14 killed and 72 wounded, including George Smith.

Most important to the Confederate Army was the loss of General Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson. On May 10, 1863, murmuring "Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees," Stonewall Jackson died of complications brought on by his wounds. Confederate Commanding General Robert E. Lee said, "I have lost my right arm."
Shortly thereafter, during May 1863, George R. Smith was promoted to Second Lieutenant.



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In June, 1863, General Lee launched his second invasion of the north. He advanced down the Shenandoah Valley toward Harper's Ferry, brushing aside smaller union forces near Winchester, Virginia on June 13 and 14. Marching through Maryland into Pennsylvania, the Confederates reached Chambersburg and turned east. They occupied York, east of Gettysburg near the Susquehanna River, and harassed Carlisle and Harrisburg to the north.

Learning, to his surprise, that General George Meade (who replaced General Hooker) had moved Union forces north of the Potomac River, General Lee hastened to concentrate his far-flung forces. The two hostile armies came together unexpectedly at the important crossroads town of Gettysburg.

On the morning of 01 July 1863, the Federal cavalry of General John Buford was patrolling outside the town of Gettysburg, Pa. Having observed forward elements of the Confederate army in the area, the night before, General Buford was heard to say to one of his Colonels, "They will attack you in the morning and they will come booming.. You will have to fight like the Devil until support arrives!" As he prophesied, Confederate General Harry Heth's division of A.P. Hill's Corps, opened fire on General Buford's dismounted cavalry at 8:00 A.M. Overwhelmed by sheer numbers, General Buford called on General Reynolds for his help. Reynolds soon arrived with his I Corps, including the enfamous Iron Brigade in the lead. This infantry support was able to momentarily stabelize the front, until General Reynolds was killed by the bullet of a Confederate sharpshooter.

Union General O.O. Howard brought his XI Corps on the field, just as Confederate General Dick Ewell was entering from the north with his new command, the veteran corps of Stonewall Jackson. The Union XI Corps, still mending from its beating at Chancellorsville, was overwhelmed and soon collapsed. Its troops, as well as the Union right flank fleeing through the town of Gettysburg for the higher ground, south of town. That higher ground, now known as the famous Cemetery Ridge.
Here, General Meade assembled the rest of his force that night.

Had the Confederates known of the weakened condition of their enemy, they could have easily taken Cemetery Ridge, that night. The XI Corps had lost over 4,000 troops as prisoners alone. The I Corps had 7,500 casualties and the enfamous Iron Brigade had ceased to exist as an effective force. General Lee ordered General Ewell forward, to take that hill "if possible". However, General Ewell, commanding Jackson's veterans, was not the commander his predecessor was and did nothing. The Union forces received the much needed reinforcements and anchored their line on Culp's hill. Here they strengthened their stand and made ready to receive the Confederate onslaught the next day.

On the second day of the battle, 02 July 1863, Meade's 88,000 troops were heavily shored up in a strong fish-hook shaped defensive position. Union lines ran north from the Round Tops hills, along Cemetery Ridge, turning eastward to Culp's Hill. General Lee ordered Longstreet's Corps to attack diagonally from Little Round Top northward, while General Ewell's units attacked Cemetery Hill and Culp's Hill. The Confederate attack, coming late in the afternoon, saw General Longstreet capture the positions west of Little Round Top known as Peach Orchard, Wheat Field, and Devil's Den on the Federal left. But, he failed to seize the vital Little Round Top. General Kershaw had the following to say about the actions of W.T. Wofford's men of the Texas Brigade in the thick of battle:

"...I feared the brave men around me would be surrounded by the large force of the enemy constantly increasing in numbers, and all the while gradually enveloping us. In order to avoid such a catastrophe, I ordered a retreat to the buildings at Rose's. On emerging from the wood as I followed the retreat, I saw Wofford riding in the head of his fine brigade, then coming in, his left being in the Peach Orchard, which was then clear of the enemy. His movement was such as to strike the stony hill on the left, and thus turn the flank of the troops that had driven us from that position. On his approach the enemy retreated across the wheat field, where, with the regiments of my left wing, Wofford attacked with great effect, driving the Federals upon and near to Little Round Top. I now ascertained that Barksdale had advanced upon the Peach Orchard after I had become engaged; thus he had cleared that position with the assistance of my 8th South Carolina regiment, driving all before him, and having advanced far beyond that point, until enveloped by superior forces, had fallen mortally wounded, and been left in the Federals hands. He had passed too far to my left to afford me any relief except in silencing the batteries that had so cruelly punished my left. When Barksdale passed to the left, the regiments of my left wing moved up into the wood on the left of the stony hill, and maintained that position against heavy odds until the advance of Wofford's brigade."
"When the enemy fell back from the stony hill on General Wofford's advance, the 15th South Carolina and a portion of Semmes's brigade followed that and joined Wofford in his attack upon the retreating column. I rallied the remainder of my brigade and Semmes's at Rose's, with the assistance of Colonel Sorrel of Longstreet's staff, and advanced with them to the support of Wofford, taking position at the stone wall overlooking the forest to the right of Rose's house, some two hundred yards in front. Finding that Wofford's men were coming out, I retained them at that point to check any attempt of the enemy to follow. It was near nightfall, and the operations of the day were over. That night we occupied the ground over which we had fought, with my left at the Peach Orchard, on the hill, and gathered the dead and wounded--a long list of brave and efficient officers and men. Captain Cunningham's company of the 2d Regiment was reported to have gone into action with forty men, of whom only four remained unhurt to bury their fallen comrades. My losses exceeded 600 men killed and wounded--about one-half the force engaged..."
The third day of the Battle, 03 July 1863, General Lee ordered General Longstreet's six battle hardened brigades, along with General Pickett's fresh division to lead a heroic frontal assault on the center of Cemetery Ridge with some 15,000 soldiers. Confederate cannon, nearly 150 guns, were brought to bare on the center of the Union line at Cemetery Ridge. For two hours the guns bombarded the Union position, but they were unknowingly overshooting and many of the rounds were falling harmlessly behind the enemy. The Union artillery returned fire, slowly... to conserve ammunition. After a terrible two hour artillery battle, the heroic uphill charge of thousands began. A Union soldier recalls, "an overwhelming resistless tide of an ocean of armed men sweeping upon us.... on they move, as with one soul, in perfect order... over ridge and slope, through orchard and meadow and cornfield, magnificent, grim, irresistable."

The Confederates came on, though the Union artillery was taking a heavy toll. As the attacking army came closer to the Union lines, both sides exploded with a thunderous clash of musketry. Although the flanks of the Confederate attack had folded, the spearhead, led by General Lewis Armistead, charged on. Breaking through the Union center at the stone wall near the base of the clump of trees that was their guidon, the Virginians fought hand to hand. General Armistead was mortally wounded, as was his friend Union General Hancock. The noise of the battle was said to be "strange and terrible, a sound that came from thousands of human throats... like a vast mournful roar!" Only a few hundred temporarily broke the Union lines. They were thrown back suffering nearly sixty percent casualties.

As the Confederate troops retreated from the awful battle, General Lee was heard to say, "All this has been my fault". After resting the night of 03 July and the day of 04 July 1863, General Lee began retreating his tattered army south to Virginia. General Meade, so beaten and torn was his Union army, failed to immediately follow and stayed in his defensive positions.

The Confederates suffered 28,063 dead or wounded, and the Union forces suffered 23,049 dead or wounded at Gettysburg.

The 18th Georgia Regiment, as part of General Longstreet's Corps, McClaw's division, retreated to an area near Manassas Gap, in Virginia. They fought a skirmish at Snicker's Gap, Virginia on July 23, 1863, and did not see action again until October.



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In September 1863, Longstreet's Corps left the armies of northern Virginia by rail to join the Battle of Chickamauga in northwest Georgia, near Dalton. The corps bolstered the forces of General Bragg's Army of Tennessee. He used these reinforcements in a vicious two day battle, September 19 and 20, gaining one of the few confederate victories in the southwest. But, the 18th Georgia Regiment did not participate since they only arrived on the field the day after the battle. The Union forces, under the command of General Rosencrans, fell back into Chattanooga, Tennessee. Instead of vigorously persuing Rosencrans and pressing the siege of Chattanooga, General Bragg encircled the city hoping to starve the Union commander into surrending. But, by Oct 23rd, General Grant had arrived and the river route to Bridgeport was opened, the threat of starvation ended. Longstreet wrote after the war, "Our last opportunity was lost when we failed to follow the success at Chickamauga and capture or disperse the Union army."

October 28 and 29, 1863 found the 18th Georgia Regiment engaged in battles around Wauhatchie, Tennessee.


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Bragg sent Longstreet's Corps off in a futile attempt to capture Knoxville on November 5th. The 18th Georgia Regiment found itself in a small skirmish on November 15 at Little River, Tennessee. On November 27 and 28, 1863, two brigades of cavalry from Virginia joined Longstreet and 3500 men from Bragg's Army. On the 29th, Longstreet attacked Fort Loudon, but his troops were slaughtered in the ditches around the fort. He withdrew, and on December 3rd started northward. By December 12th, his forces arrived at Rogersville, and on the 15th he attempted to capture three brigades of Federal cavalry at Beans Station. The attempt failed.

January 16 and 17, the 18th Georgia was engaged in operations around Dandridge, Tennessee, east of Knoxville.

Mar 25, 1864, George Right Smith was promoted to the grade of 1st Lieutenant. On April 11th, Longstreet received orders to return to the Army of Northern Virginia just before the violent Atlanta Campaign by the Union began. By the 5th of May he was back in the lines with the Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.



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On May 5th, General Longstreet's corps was hit by the Federals on Old Turnpike and Orange Plank Road in the Battle of the Wilderness. But, Lee reacted immediately, attacking from the west, and two days of bitter, indecisive fighting ensued. General Grant (who had replaced General Halleck as General in Chief of the Union Armies) found both of his flanks endangered, and quickly retreated from the wilderness battlefield.

He attempted to hasten southeast to the crossroads at Spotsylvania Courthouse just southwest of Fredericksburg, but found the confederates, including the 18th Georgia, had arrived first. In extremely savage action, including hand-to-hand fighting at the famous "Bloody Angle" with Longstreet's men in the left flank, May 8 to May 19, Grant was thrown back. He lost over 17,000 men compared to only 8,000 Confederate losses at the Battle of the Wilderness. And he lost another 18,000 at Spotsylvania compared to Lee's 9,000 man loss.

Again, at North Anna River, May 22 - May 26, the Pamunky River, May 26 - 28, and at the Totopotomy Creek, May 28 - 31, he found Lee too much to handle. Finally, at Cold Harbor, June 1 - 12, northeast of Richmond, Grant launched several very heavy attacks against Lee's Army, which included the 18th Georgia Regiment. All of these attacks, including a near suicidal one on June 3, were repelled with grievous losses totalling over 17,000 Union soldiers. Lee's losses, although unknown, were much lighter.

After the battles east of Richmond, Lee moved his forces into Richmond and Petersburg. June 16, 1863, the Union forces, under Grant, lay siege on Petersburg in an attempt to gain control of the vital railways to Richmond. The 18th Georgia Regiment is listed as being engaged in the assault on Petersburg, June 18, 1864. The siege only lasted until July.



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1st Lt George Right Smith was hospitalized August 1864 in Petersburg for serious diarrhea combined with high fever. However, August 7th, was in the unit once again as they were reassigned to operations against Sheridan's Campaign in the Shenandoah Valley where the 18th Georgia saw many small battles. August 16, they were engaged at Cedarville, and Guard Hill (Front Royal), Virginia. They next saw action at Bunker Hill, West Virginia September 2nd and 3rd. On September 19th, they saw action in the battles of Opequan and Winchester, Virginia. Three days later, on the 22nd, George Smith's unit saw action at the battles of Fisher's Hill and Woodstock, Virginia. And lastly, on October 19, 1864, the unit saw action in the battles of Cedar Creek, Middletown, and Belle Grove, Virginia.


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November 30th, the unit was reassigned to the Army of Northern Virginia, and moved back to Richmond where Grant's forces lay siege to the city. Conditions were intolerably poor in Richmond and disease was rampant. On December 26th, George was again hospitalized and moved to Stuart Hospital in Richmond due to continuing diarrhea, and again in January, 1865 for the same problem. By January, Tennessee and Georgia were firmly in federal hands. February 27th, George Smith was placed on medical disability furlough in Richmond for 20 days, and is shown in the records back on duty March 23, 1865.

The siege on Petersburg and Richmond continued until Lee's lines were pierced, and he was forced to evacuate both cities April 2nd and 3rd. An eighty-eight mile chase ensued down the Appomattox River to the southwest. Confederate forces were detained at Amelia Courthouse, waiting for delayed food supplies, and were badly cut up at Sayler's Creek (where the 18th Georgia Regiment was stationed) and Five Forks.

George Smith was furloughed sometime immediately before war's end due to continued illness, and returned home to Georgia. After Lee's surrender at Appomattox, April 9, 1865, Smith surrendered at Kingston, Georgia. His unit, Company H, "The Rowland Highlanders", of the 18th Georgia Regiment, assigned to the Texas Brigade of General Longstreet's Corps was represented at the surrender of Confederate Forces at Appomattox by five privates. The entire 18th Georgia Infantry Regiment surrendered with less than 60 members, the highest ranking of which was one Lieutenant.

After the war, George Smith married Elizabeth Francis Barella "Fannie" Spencer who was born in 1842. After he sold two bales of hay he left behind before the war for $2000 each he bought a farm in Pinelog Hill, Georgia. They had their first child there, Thomas, in October 1867. George's family had to obtain affidavits from people with whom he had served to prove he had not deserted, in order to qualify for his pension.

Back to Top Sources Unit Chronology Genealogical Notes


  1. Letter to James Ralph Smith, Sr. from his cousin James Arthur Smith, Jr., both grandsons of G. Smith
  2. Notes by Mildred Lee Anderson Brown, daughter of Joe Anderson and Ethel Smith, grand-daughter of George R. Smith
  3. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th Edition, c. 1988
  4. The Century War Book, reprint edition of 1978 by Arno Press, Inc., ISBN 0-405-11123-1, "A condensation of The Century War Series, published from Nov. 1884 to Nov. 1887 in The Century Magazine".
  5. Never Call Retreat, Bruce Catton, c. 1965 Doubelday and Company, Inc.
  6. Gettysburg: The Final Fury, Bruce Catton, c. 1974 Doubleday and Company, Inc.
  7. A Battlefield Atlas of the Civil War, Craig Symonds, c. 1983 Nautical and Aviation Publishing Co. of America, ISBN 0-933852-49-5
  8. Capsule History of the Eighteenth Georgia Infantry, The Harold B. Simpson Hill College Confederate Research Center and Museum, Hillsboro, Texas
  9. Roster of the Confederate Soldiers of Georgia, 1861 - 1865, Index, Brightwell, pg. 425 (also see Vol 2, pg. 678)
  10. The Battle of Fredericksburg Civil War Series, William Marvel, c. 1993 Eastern National Park and Monument Association
  11. The Battles for Richmond Civil War Series, William J. Miller, c. 1996 Eastern National Park and Monument Association
  12. The Battle of Gettysburg Civil War Series, Harry W. Pfanz, c. 1994 Eastern National Park and Monument Association
  13. Richmond Battlefields, A history and Guide to Richmond National Battlefield Park, Joseph P. Cullen, c. 1992 Division of Publications, National Park Service

Back to Top Sources Unit Chronology Genealogical Notes


Company H, of the 18th Georgia Infantry Regiment was assigned to the following units on the date shown:
13 Dec 1861 **See Note None Aquia District Northern Va.
14 Jan 1862 Wigfall's None None Northern Va.
30 Apr 1862 Hood's Texas Whiting's Reserve Northern Va.
21 May 1862 Hood's Texas Whiting's 1st None Northern Va.
23 Jul 1862 Hood's Texas D.H. Hill's None Northern Va.
20 Sep 1862 Hood's Texas Hood's Longstreet's 1st Northern Va.
26 Nov 1862 Cobb's McLaw's Longstreet's 1st Northern Va.
1 May 1863 Wofford's McLaw's Longstreet's 1st Northern Va.
31 Oct 1863 Wofford's McLaw's Longstreet's 1st Tennessee
31 Dec 1863 Wofford's McLaw's Longstreet's 1st Dept of E. Tenn.
1 May 1864 Wofford's Kershaw's Longstreet's 1st Northern Va.
31 Oct 1864 Wofford's Kershaw's 2nd Corps Valley District
30 Nov 1864 Wofford's Kershaw's Longstreet's 1st Northern Va.
1 Apr 1865 DuBose's Kershaw's Longstreet's 1st Northern Va.
**Note: Dec 13, 1861, the 18th was attached to the Aquia District, Department of Northern Va.

Back to Top Sources Unit Chronology Genealogical Notes



Father: John J. Smith, b. Nov 22, 1798; d. Sep 14, 1873
Mother: Nancy Adlaide "Nan" Spurlock, b. 1800 d. 1847
Step-Mother: Elizabeth "Eliza" Cordeman, b. Jan 8, 1828; d. Jul 29, 1906


Siblings by Nancy Spurlock 
John's First Wife
Siblings by Elizabeth Cordeman 
John's Second Wife
Seaborn "Seab" Aug 06, 1819 Martha A. Jul 03, 1847
James Monroe "Roe" Apr 08, 1821 Samuel Cougas Jan 21, 1849
Francis Marion "Franklin" Mar 18, 1823 Sara E. Dec 27, 1850
Clarinda Adlaide "Sis" Sept 07, 1825 Amanda B. Jun 14, 1853
William H. Apr 01, 1828 Hester Ann "Hessie" (twin)  Dec 29, 1855
John Newton Aug 16, 1830 Laura Jane (twin)  Dec 29, 1855
Elisha "Green" Sept 09, 1832 Joseph Ben "Bud" Jul 10, 1857
Thomas Lindsey "Tom" Nov 24, 1834 Frederick A. Jan 06, 1860
George Right May 01, 1837 Charles "Charley" Jun 16, 1862
Nancy E. July 29, 1839 Mary L. May 16, 1865
Lemuel Mar 07, 1842 Minnie Lee Aug 25, 1868

George married Elizabeth Frances Barella "Fannie" SPENCER, b. 15 Oct 1842, Gordon, GA; d. 14 Jul 1932, Gordon, GA. They were married 20 Dec 1866. He was 29 years old, and she was 24.

 George & Fannie's Children:

  1. John Thomas "Tom" Smith; b. Oct 6, 1867, d. Jun 15, 1887
  2. Lemuel Eugene "Gene" Smith; b. Jun 5, 1870, d. Aug 27, 1888
  3. Mary Henrietta "Etta" Smith; b. Sep 16, 1872, d. Sep 17, 1888
  4. Ruth Ann "Annie" Smith; b. Oct 4, 1874, d. Jun 13, 1893
  5. Robert Warren Smith; b. Jul 24, 1877, d. Nov 20, 1946
  6. James Arthur Smith; b. Feb 13, 1880, d. Nov 26, 1966
  7. Francis Ethel Smith; b. May 13, 1882, d. Sept. 18, 1981


The Calhoun Times
Calhoun, Ga., Thursday, April 30, 1903

Starr Institute.

Mr Geo. R. Smith died at his home Wednesday night at 10 o'clock after an illness of two weeks with pneumonia. It had been evident for several days that the end was near, still the announcement of his death caused a pall of gloom to overspread this section of country where he was loved and esteemed by all. He bore his sufferings with a cheerful and uncomplaining spirit. Mr. Smith was sixty-six years of age, and, until recently had enjoyed excellent health nearly all his life. He was a consistent member of the Baptist church. He is survived by a wife and three children, two boys and a girl. He was laid to rest at Bethlehem cemetery. Rev. Hudson conducted the funeral seervices. Dear friends, we know it's hard to give him up, but be of good cheer and prepare to meet him in that bright beyond where parting is no more, but all will be bliss. Is not that a comforting thought?

Obituary extracted and contributed by Linda Wilson Trentham, 7 Aug 1998, Calhoun, GA

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