GILDED AGE POLITICS
Cleveland’s 1887 annual address: Cleveland focused his entire annual address message to Congress on the tariff issue. He argued that lower tariffs would not only cut the federal surplus but also reduce prices and slow the development of trusts. His tariff message upset many corporate boardrooms who thought that lowering the tariff would hurt their prosperity.
Presidential Succession Act of 1886: This act determined that if both the President of the United States and the Vice President both died or if they were both disqualified, there would be a line of succession. The line started with first the president pro tempore, secretary of state, secretary of treasury, secretary of defense, and continued.
Election of 1888, candidates, issues: Because Blaine decided not to run, the Republicans turned to Benjamin Harrison. Republican focused on the tariff issue. The Republicans falsely portrayed the Democrats as advocates of "free trade," which many felt would have horrible consequences. Harrison won in the electoral college by defeating Grover Cleveland.
Benjamin Harrison, Billion dollar congress, Czar Reed: Harrison quickly rewarded his supporters. He appointed a past GAR commander as commissioner of pension. In 1890, Harrison signed the pension bill that Cleveland had earlier vetoed. The Republican Congress of 1890 became known as the Billion-dollar Congress.
McKinley Tariff: His administration enacted a higher tariff in 1897 and committed the country to the gold standard in 1900. It generally promoted business confidence. Probably in part because of these policies, the economy recovered from a severe depression, and the Republicans became identified with economic prosperity.
Election of 1892: The Republicans re-nominated Harrison, while the Democrats turned to Grover Cleveland who was a Conservative. The Populists nominated James B Weaver who did not did better than expected. Voters generally reacted against the high McKinley Tariff. Cleveland’s conservative economic policies brought him support, and he won the
Gold Standard Act, 1900: This act officially put the United States on the gold standard. It was passed by William McKinley’s administration during a time when both the House of Representatives and the Senate were dominated by Republicans. Subsequent to this act, the U.S. went on and off the gold standard several times and abandoned it in 1971.
Laissez-faire: It meant non-governmental interference in business. The doctrine favors capitalist self-interest, competition, and natural consumer preferences as forces leading to optimal prosperity and freedom. It began in the late 18th century as a strong liberal reaction to trade taxation and nationalist governmental control known as mercantilism.
Andrew Carnegie: Carnegie decided to build his own steel mill in 1870. His philosophy was simple: "watch the costs and the profit will take care of themselves." At the age of 33, when he had an annual income of $50,000, he said, "beyond this never earn, make no effort to increase fortune, but spend the surplus each year for benevolent purposes."
· UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD, CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD: The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 had authorized the construction of the transcontinental railroad. The Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads were joined together to form the first transcontinental railroad in May 1869 when railroad executives drove a golden spike into the ground at Promontory Point, Utah in order to connect the two. It allowed Americans to travel from coast to coast in a week; it had previously taken several months to do so.
"Robber Barrons": Known as the great captains of industy and as robber barons who lined their pockets, these captains, or villains, of industry made their money by manipulating the stock markets and company policies. Some of these Robber Barrons were Jay Gould, Hill, and John D. Rockefeller.
John D. Rockefeller: He is famous for his Standard Oil Company. He had a desire for cost cutting and efficiency. Rockefeller helped form the South Improvement Company in early 1872, which was an association of the largest oil refiners in Cleveland, and he arranged with the railroads to obtain substantial rebates on shipments by members of the association.
Standard Oil Company: The Standard Oil Company was organized in 1870 by Rockefeller, his brother William, and several associates. In 1882 Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil Trust. This, the first corporate trust, was declared an illegal monopoly and ordered dissolved by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1892.
Horizontal integration: Within three years, the Standard Oil Trust had consolidated crude oil by buying throughout its member firms. It had slashed the number of refineries in half. Rockefeller integrated the petroleum industry horizontally by merging the competing oil companies into one giant system.
Vertical integration: The Standard Oil Trust had consolidated crude-oil buying throughout it members firms and slashed the number of refineries in half. Rockefeller integrated the petroleum industry vertically by controlling every function from production to local retailing. He controlled all aspects of manufacturing from mining to selling.
James G. Hill, Great Northern Railroad: He reorganized and expanded the railroad industry in the 1870s and 1880s. He was exemplified as a robber baron who manipulated stock markets and company policies. He and three other partners bought the St. Paul and Pacific Railroad.
Cornelius Vanderbilt: An American industrialist and philanthropist, he became associated with the New York and Harlem Railroad in 1867, and became president in 1886. At the same time he began to act as head of the Vanderbilt family. He founded the Vanderbilt University.
Jay Gould and Jim Fiske: They attempted to corner the gold market in 1869 with the help of Grant’s brother-in-law. When gold prices tumbled, Gould and Fiske salvaged their own fortunes. Unfortunately, investors were ruined. Grant’s reputation was tarnished and could not be restored.
Fourteenth Amendment’s "due process clause": The fourteenth amendment declared in its first clause that all person born or naturalized in the United States were recognized as citizens of the nation and as citizens of their states and that no state could abridge their rights without due process of law or deny them equal protection of the law.
· INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT, INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION: The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 was passed to provide that a commission be established to oversee fair and just railway rates, prohibit rebates, end discriminatory practices, and require annual reports and financial statements. The act established a new agncy, the Interstate Commerce Commission, which allowed the government to investigate and oversee railroad activities.
SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT, 1890: Fearing that the trusts would stamp out all competition, Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890, which outlawed trusts and other restraints of trade. Violators were fined up to five thousand dollars and one year in prison. The Sherman Antitrust act failed to define either trust or restraint of trade clearly. As a result, between 1890 and 1904, the government prosecuted only eighteen antitrust suits, and it was instead used to hinder the efforts of labor unions who acted "in restraint of trade."
Pan Americanism, James Blaine: In 1881 Secretary of State James G. Blaine advocated the creation of an International Bureau of American Republics to promote a customs union of trade and political stability for the Western Hemisphere. The assassination of Garfield kept Blaine from his organization until 1889.
Tariff autonomy to Japan: During the Meiji period following the collapse of the shogunate, Japan transformed, from its traditionally isolationist feudal society into a world power, taking on imperialistic quailites. Emperor Meiji took it upon himself to enact tariffs, and thus, Japan controlled its own tariffs.
Hawaiian Revolution: Hawaii’s wholesale sugar prices plummeted as a result of the elimination of the duty-free status enjoyed by Hawaiian sugar. Facing ruin, the planters deposed Queen Liliuokalani in Jan 1893, proclaimed the independent Republic of Hawaii, and requested U.S. annexation. Hawaii was claimed as an American territory in 1898.
GROWTH OF LABOR
KNIGHTS OF LABOR, URIAH STEPHENS, TERRENCE POWDERLY: The Knights of labor dreamed of a national labor movement. This organization was founded in Philadelphia in 1869, and was led by Uriah Stephens, who was also the head of the Garment Cutters of Philadelphia. They welcomed all wage earners, and demanded equal pay for women, an end to child and convict labor, and cooperative employer-employee ownership. In their organization, they excluded bankers, lawyers, professional gambler, and liquor dealers.
· AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR (AFL): Confronted by big business, Samuel Gompers and Adolph Strasser put together a combination of national crafts unions to represent the material interests of labor in the matter of wages, hours, and safety precautions. They demanded bargaining in labor contracts with large corporations such as railroads, mining, and manufacturing. They did not intend to have a violent revolution nor political radicalism.
Samuel Gompers: An American labor leader, he, as president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), stressed cooperation between management and labor instead of strike actions, as a means of obtaining labor demands. He led the AFL for forty years, until his death in 1924.
Collective bargaining: The major function of unions is collective bargaining, a process by which unions and employers negotiate terms of employment. The terms are set forth in a written agreement that the union and the employer promise to enforce. The AFL demanded collective bargaining in labor contracts with large corporations.
Blacklist, Yellow Dog Contracts: With the formation of labor unions, workers began to strike to obtain better conditions. However, employers blacklisted employees that went on strike, which which made getting another job later much harder. They also made employees sign yellow dog contracts, which forced the employee to agree not to strike or join a union.
· haymarket square riot: Strikers and police had a confrontation while a strike was in progress on May 4, 1886, at the McCormick reaper works in Chicago. Several protesters were shot by police the day before, and a protest against police violence was called. The police were attempting to break up the meeting when a bomb was thrown by a protester. A violent gun battle ensuedin which seven police were killed. Many police and civilians were injured as well.
Homestead Strike: Called in 1892 by the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers, it was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. On July 6, company guards and Pinkertons opened fire on the strikers after four months of striking, killing and wounding many strikers. The state militia dispersed the strikers.
Pullman Strike: The American Railway Union and Eugene V. Debs led a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. President Grover Cleveland interfered and stopped the strike by saying that they had interfered with the right of the government to maintain the uninterrupted transport of mail. Debs was arrested and the strike was broken up.
Eugene V. Debs: As the president and the organizer of the American Railway Union, he helped bring about the shut down of western railroads with the 1894 Pullman Strike. He was arrested for these actions. He also helped organize the Social Democrat party in 1897, after meeting socialist Victor Berger. He was the party’s presidential candidate five times: in 1900, 1904, 1908, and 1912. He later became a lecturer and organizer for the Socialist movement.
Boss Tweed: He was an important figure in New York’s political machine, the Tammany Society. He held New York City and state political posts where he increased his power. Forming the Tweed Ring, which bought votes, he controlled New York politics, and encouraged judicial corruption.
· TAMMANY HALL: Founded by anti-federalist William Mooney, it is the name for the New York Democratic party machine, also known as the Tammany Society, whose supposed goal was to preserve democratic institutions. However, Tammany Hall gained a great reputation for its corrupt practices, and was opposed by reform groups. It began to gain power with the rise of Boss Tweed in 1868. Its leader, Alfred E. Smith, ran for president of the United States.
Tenements: Built by a landlord, tenements were small housing units that were extremely overcrowded, poorly built, and that contained filth. There was a lack of fresh air and light in these housing units, and in addition, they were inhabited mainly by new immigrants. The worst tenements became known as slums.
Anthony Comstock: Comstock was a reformer, who helped organize the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice in 1873, of which he became secretary. He was also influential in the passage by Congress of the 1873 law concerned with obscenity in the U.S. mails. It became known as the Comstock Law.
Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives: Riis was a social reformer and writer who wrote one of the most influential, popular, and early social documentaries in American history. He wanted to reform tenement housing and schools. In addition, he was influential in bringing about parks and playgrounds in overcrowded neighborhoods.
MELTING POT TO SALAD BOWL
Jane Addams, Hull House: She was a social worker and a Nobel laureate. With the help of Ellen Star, she created the Hull House in 1889 in Chicago, which was the first settlement house in the U.S. It was a welfare agency for needy families, and it also served to combat juvenile delinquency and to assist the recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. In addition, in 1912, Addams played a large role in the formation of the National Progressive Party and the Women’s Peace Party.
· SOCIAL GOSPEL: It was a Protestant liberal movement led by Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch that applied Christian principles to the numerous social problems that affected the late 19th century United States as a result of industrialization. The movement preached and taught religion and human dignity to the working class in order to correct the effects of capitalism. In 1908 the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America adopted a social creed that called for many improvements in society.
Washington Gladden: He was a Congregationalist minister who became known for his pragmatic social theology. He linked theological liberalism with strong social concern. He worked with Walter Rauschenbusch as a leader of the Social Gospel movement. In addition, he wrote 38 books, which include Working People and their Employers.
Anti-Saloon League: During and after the American Civil War, the laws regulating many aspects of saloons were either reduced or eliminated. As a result, many people united in this league in the fight against saloons. By 1916 they enacted anti-saloon laws in 23 states and in 1917 they passed the 18th amendment beginning prohibition.
Salvation Army: Founded by Methodist William Booth, it is a religious and charitable organization dedicated to spreading the Christian faith and giving assistance to those in need of both spiritual and material aid. It was founded in 1865 in England as the Christian Mission, whose goal was to give aid to the London slums.
YMCA: British Sir George Williams founded this organization in response to unsanitary social conditions in large cities at the end of the Industrial Revolution, and to stop the young workers from gambling and engaging in other disreputable. In the U.S., it began constructing gyms, libraries, and summer camps.
· SOCIAL DARWINISM: It is a theory developed in the late 19th century by which individuals and societies believed that people, like all other organisms compete for survival and success in life. It was believed that human progress depended highly on competition. Those who were best fit for survival would become rich and powerful, and the less fit in society would be poor and the lower classes. Many felt that this theory was expounded by Charles Darwin, but in reality, they misinterpreted his words.
FLOWERING OF AMERICAN CULTURE
Charles Darwin: Darwin was a British Scientist who created the theory of modern evolution. In his theory, the development of organisms came through a process called natural selection, which is often called "survival of the fittest." His theories were presented in his novel The Origin of Species.
Johns Hopkins University: Financed by John Hopkins, it is an institution of higher learning in Baltimore, Maryland. It was founded in 1876. It is world renowned for its medical school and its applied physics laboratory. Former President Woodrow Wilson received his Ph.D. in political science here.
Morrill Land Act, 1862: Introduced to Congress by Republican Justin Morrill, the act introduced a bill to establish state colleges of agriculture and to bring higher education within the reach of the common people. Proceeds from the sale of public lands were given to states to fund the establishment of these universities of agriculture and mechanics. They were called land grant colleges and were located in the Midwest and West. Many universities such as Michigan, Iowa State, and Purdue profited from its provisions.
Mark Twain: Twain was a writer named Samuel Langhorne Clemens, who used Mark Twain as his pseudonym. He is characterized by his humor and sharp social satire. His many famous novels include The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn, Tom Sawyer, and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court.
· "gilded age": Given its name by the novel by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley, it is a time period which criticized the lobbyists, swindlers, politicians who took bribes, and those who got rich in the postwar boom. The period was characterized by industrial production, westward expansion, immigration, and urban growth, as well as strikes, depressions, despair and bitterness, buoyancy and free-spending. The span of this era ranges from the end of the Civil War, 1869, to the turn of the century.
· HORATIO ALGER’S BOOKS FOR YOUTH: Alger was a writer of juvenile fiction. His novels held a theme of rags to riches, where poor youth would win fame and money by having virtues of honesty, diligence, and perseverance. Among his collection are Luck and Pluck, Tattered Tom, and his most famous Ragged Dick. By emphasizing merit rather than focusing on social status as the way to determine success, his more than 100 novels had a major impact on the youth of that time.
Joseph Pulitzer: Joseph Pulitzer was a large newspaper publisher. In the newspaper circulation wars of the 1890s, publisher Joseph Pulitzer was one of the leading combatants. His chief opponent was William Randolph Hearst. The two used every tactic, including sensational yellow journalism, to encourage people to buy their papers.
EMERGENCE OF WOMEN
Susan B. Anthony: For more than half a century Susan B. Anthony fought for women's suffrage. She traveled from county to county in New York and other states making speeches and organizing clubs for women's rights. She pleaded her cause with every president from Abraham Lincoln to Theodore Roosevelt.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton: A pioneer in the modern quest for women's rights, Stanton helped to organize a political movement that demanded voting rights for women. She was a prominent leader in the campaign for what became the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution which guaranteed female suffrage.
Carrie Chapman Catt: When Susan B. Anthony retired in 1900 from the NAWSA, she chose Carrie Chapman Catt to take her place. Though Catt was forced to resign in 1904 due to her husbands illness, she remained active in NAWSA and in 1915 became its president. After this, Catt continued to play a large role in the fight for Women's rights.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union: The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was founded in 1874. Partly through their efforts, six states adopted Prohibition by 1890. It became the nation’s first mass organization of women. Its activities included welfare work, prison reform, labor arbitration and public health.
Carry A. Nation: A vehement foe of alcoholic beverages, Carry A. Nation would appear at a saloon, berate the customers, and proceed to damage as much of the place as she could with her hatchet. She was the scourge of tavern owners and drinkers alike in Kansas, as well as in many other states.
Homestead Act, 1862: This act cut up Western public lands into many small holdings for the free farmers. It was originally started by Andrew Johnson as the first homestead bill but met strong opposition by Southern Representatives and therefore could not be passed until the secession of the Southern States during the Civil War.
Barbed wire, Joseph Glidden: Barbed wire was invented and patented by Joseph Glidden in 1874 and had a major impact on the cattle industry of the Western U.S. Accustomed to allowing their cattle to roam the open range, many farmers objected to barbed wire. Others used it to fence in land or cattle that did not belong to them.
Plains Indians: Great Plains tribes began attacking wagon trains carrying settlers during the 1850s. They had been angered by settlers who drove away the buffalo herds they depended on for food, clothing, and shelter. When war would break out, the Indians would either be defeated and transported, or a treaty would be made in which they lost part of their lands.
Battle of Little Big Horn: The Sioux refused to sell the land to the government in 1875, and refused to leave the area to inhabit reservations. When the Sioux refused, the army under Lieut. Col. Custer, was sent to enforce the order.In this battle the main body of Indians, under Sioux leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, wiped out General Custer's men in 1876.
Ghost Dance Movement: As the Sioux population dwindled as a result of the federal government policies, they turned to the Ghost Dance to restore their original dominance on the Plains. Wearing the Ghost Shirts, they engaged in ritual dances that they believed would protect them from harm. The ritual allowed them to reaffirm their culture amidst the chaos.
Battle of Wounded Knee: Convinced that Sitting Bull was going to lead an uprising, the United States Army massacred more than 200 Indians at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on Dec. 29, 1890. After the incident, the Ghost Dance movement which had been recently revived by Indians rapidly died out. This event ended the conquest of the American Indian.
· DAWES SEVERALTY ACT, 1887: It was proposed by Henry L. Dawes, and was passed in 1887. It was designed to reform what well-meaning but ignorant whites perceived to be the weaknesses of Indian life-- the lack of private property, the absence of a Christian based religion, the nomadic traditions of the Indians, and the general instability in their way of life -- by turning Indians into farmers. The main point of the law was to emphasize treating Indians as individuals as opposed to members in a tribe, or severalty.
Comstock Lode: One of the richest silver mines in the United States was discovered in 1859 at the Comstock Lode in Nevada. This discovery contributed to the speed by which Virginia City, Nevada was built. An influx of settlers came to Nevada, and Nevada granted statehood in 1864.
GRANGER MOVEMENT: During the decade of the 1870s, U.S. farmers were beset with problems of high costs, debts, and small profits. the farmers made their grievances known through the Granger Movement. Membership peaked in the mid-1870s. There was little the farmers could do concerning prices. Only in 1877 did the Supreme Court rule that states could regulate businesses of a public nature. To counteract unjust business practices, the farmers were urged to start cooperatives such as grain elevators, creameries, and stores.
Granger Laws: The Grangers in various states lobbied state legislatures in 1874 to pass maximum rate laws for freight shipment. The railroads appealed to the Supreme Court to declare the "Granger laws" unconstitutional. Instead, the Court ruled against the railroad’s objections in Munn v. Illinois.
Farmers’ Alliance: This alliance was a political organization created to help fight railroad abuses and to lower interest rates. It called for government regulation of the economy in order to redress their greivanes. It was founded in New York in 1873, and consisted of the Northwest Farmers' Alliance in the north and the National Farmers' Alliance and Independent Union in the south. They failed to unite, however, and in 1892 gave way to the Populist party.
· POPULIST PARTY PLATFORM, OMAHA PLATFORM, 1892: The Populist party, or people's party, was a party that represented the "common man." It was created towards the end of the nineteenth century. Some of their goals included creating postal savings banks, enacting immigration restriction, setting a graduated income tax and limiting the presidency to a single six-year term. The Populist platform represented views of farmers in the West. The Omaha platform of 1892 nominated James Weaver of Iowa for president.
Free silver: This was a chiefly unsuccessful campaign in the late 19th-century U.S. for the unlimited coinage of silver. Major supporters of this movement were owners of silver mines, farmers, and debtors, for whom silver production would be economically favorable. William Jennings Bryan led the democratic party to support free silver during the 1890s.
16 to 1: During the Panic of 1873 the world market ratio of silver to gold fell below the ratio of 16:1 for the first time in world history. This coincided with the opening of rich silver mines in the Western united States and also with post-Civil War deflation. It resulted in the movement in favor of free silver and bimetallism of the populists
Coxey's Army, 1894: This was actually a band of unemployed people who marched to Washington DC during the depression of 1894 under the leadership of Jacob S. Coxey, a quarry operator. They urged the enactment of laws which would provide money without interest for public improvements, which would create work for the unemployed.
WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN: Despite the fact that he was defeated three times for the presidency of the United States, William Jennings Bryan, the principal figure of the Populist party, molded public opinion as few leaders have done. A surprise to the public, he polled many votes during the 1896 election, which may have been a direct result of his "Cross of Gold Speech." For many years he was the leader of the Democratic party, and it was his influence that won the Democratic presidential nomination for Wilson in 1912.
"Cross of Gold Speech": William Jennings Bryan won the national Democratic convention's nomination for the presidency in 1896 through a vigorous appeal for free coinage of silver known as the "Cross of Gold" speech. Turning to those who wanted only gold as the monetary standard, he exclaimed: "You shall not crucify mankind upon this cross of gold." As a Populist, he did not support the gold standard since it would deflate the currency, which would make it more difficult for citizens to repay debts.
· ELECTION OF 1896, CANDIDATES, ISSUES: The presidential candidates were the Republican William McKinley from Pennsylvania, and the Democrat William J. Bryan. The Populists also supported Bryan for the presidency, but chose Tom Watson for the vice presidency. The Republicans believed in the gold standard, while the Democrats believed in bimetallism and the unlimited coinage of silver. McKinley won the election. The Populism collapsed after 1896, but Progressivism emerged in its wake.
Marcus Hanna: He was an industrialist who became convinced that the welfare of industry, and therefore the nation, was bound by the fortunes of the Republican party. To further his goals he waged the most expensive political campaign the nation had ever seen to get William McKinley elected president in 1896. He also served in the Senate.
James G. Blaine, Pan-Americanism: As Secretary of State, Blaine fostered closer U.S.-Latin American relations and brought about the first Pan-American Congress in order to forge commercial, social, economic, military, and political cooperation among the 21 republics of North, Central, and South America.
Venezuelan boundary dispute: Venezuela had a dispute over its boundary with the British Colony of Guiana. In 1895, while the British refused to resolve the issue, United States Secretary of State Richard Olney sent a message to London declaring that the US would be "practically sovereign on this content."
"Yellow journalism": Two rival newspapers in New York City, William Randolph Hearst’s Journal, and Joseph Pulitzer’s World, sensationalized editorializing on the issues to increase circulation. One of Hearst’s gimmicks was "The Yellow Kid," which gave the name of Yellow Journalism to this tactic.
•Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890) helped create and develop the expansionist movement. Mahan, former head of the Navy War College at Newport, Rhode Island wanted to expand United States Navy to build an isthmusian canal, and to establish strategic colonies as cooling stations, and to protect US political and economic interests.
Maine explodes: When an explosion rocked the Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898, killing 266 American crewmen, irritation turned to outrage. A review of the evidence later concluded that a ship-board ammunition explosion caused the blast. Still, a navy inquiry blamed the blast on a "Spanish mine."
•Teller Amendment: The U.S. had been motivated o war in part by the desire to aid the Cubans in their attempt to liberate themselves from the colonial rule of Spain. To this end the Teller Ammendment was added to the Declaration of War. It speciffically prohibited the annexation of Cuba, as a cause of the war.
· SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR: The Spanish-American War lasted just three months with only a few days of actual combat. Action started on May 1, 1898, when George Dewey’s fleet steamed into Manila Bay in the Philippines and seized or destroyed all ten Spanish ships anchored there. The war ended after Spanish Admiral Pascual Cervera attempted to break through American forces losing 474 men. The Filipinos celebrated their freedom from four hundred years of Spanish rule on July 4,1898.
Assistant Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt: Theodore Roosevelt was appointed as Assistant Secretary of the Navy by President William McKinley in 1897. Roosevelt was an impatient disciple in the Spanish-American War, acting largely on his own. In 1898, Roosevelt resigned to become second in command of the Rough Riders.
Commodore Dewey, Manila Bay: The first action of the Spanish-American War came in 1898 when Commodore George Dewey’s fleet steamed into Manila Bay in the Philippines. This fleet destroyed and captured all ten Spanish ships that were assigned in Manila Bay. One American and 381 Spanish men died in the attempt.
Cleveland and Hawaii: In 1887 the United States gained the right to establish a naval port in Pearl Harbor. President Grover Cleveland was troubled with the crisis in Hawaii since Hawaiians claimed to want annexation. However, once their queen was overthrown, Hawaiians were uncertain if they wanted annexation at all.
Queen Liluokalani: Liluokalani was the Queen of Hawaii who did not like Americans since they built their port in Pearl Harbor. Queen Liluokalani was overthrown when Hawaii’s sugar prices dropped 40% and planters wanted the independent Republic of Hawaii.
Annexation of Hawaii: In 1890 under the McKinley Tariff, domestic sugar growers ended the duty-free status of Hawaiian sugar. After Hawaii’s sugar prices dropped 40% and Queen Liluokalani was overthrown, the Hawaiians decided to request United States annexation.
Rough Riders, San Juan Hill: The battle of San Juan Hill was fought
on July 1, 1898 during the American advance on Santiago during the
Spanish-American War. A division including the Rough Riders, under the command
of General Kent, captured the hill, placing the American army on high ground
Treaty of Paris, 1898: The Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American War and developed an American empire overseas. In the treaty, Spain agreed to abandon Cuba and exchange Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines to America for $20 million. The treaty gave the United States a new imperialistic reputation.
American Anti-Imperialist League: The critics of imperialism were many and influential. Forming the Anti-Imperialist League, they believed that every country captured by the U.S. had the same rights under the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence.
Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico: By the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain recognized Cuba’s independence and ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific Island of Guam to the United States in exchange for $20 million. As 1899 dawned Americans possessed an island empire from the Caribbean to the Pacific.
Insular Cases: The decisions regarding whether the Constitution applies to Puerto Rico and the Philippines are known as the Insular Cases. They ruled that the residents are inhabitants but not citizens of the United States. Because of this ruling, these countries were not honored by the Constitution and were treated as colonies.
· Platt Amendment: Senator Orville Platt, at the request of the War department, made a revised bill to remove some of the restrictions stated in the Teller Amendment. The Platt Amendment stated that the United States would withdraw from Cuba if they did not sign a treaty with any other foreign power. It also gave the United States the right to interfere with Cuba if they believed that it was not a fit enough country to take care of itself. Also, they established the right to hold a naval base in Cuba.
· Aguinaldo, Philippine insurrection: In 1896 Emilio Aguinaldo started a Filipino movement for independence to get out of Spain’s control. When Spain surrendered, Aguinaldo drew up a constitution and proclaimed the Philippines’s independence. When the Treaty of Paris gave the United States power over the Philippines, Aguinaldo became angry and tried to fight. He soon realized that he would lose and gave up.
Secretary of State John Hay, Open Door Notes: John Hay’s Open Door Notes was a policy that explained the importance of American commercial influence on foreign policies. The Open Door Notes stated that the pre-thought "informal empire" was correct as opposed to overseas colonies being favored by imperial power.
Boxer Rebellion: The Boxers, a secret group of Chinese men known as I Ho Ch’uan, opposed Christianity in their country. Numbering 140,000, the Boxers killed thousands of foreigners as well as Chinese suspected of being Christian. British, American, Russian, Japanese and French soldiers were sent to China to end the "Boxer Rebellion."
ROOSEVELT AND PROGRESSIVISM
Election of 1900: candidates and issues: William McKinley, the Republican candidate, beat William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic candidate, for President. The Republican campaign theme of prosperity, summed up in the slogan "A Full Dinner Pail," easily won him a second term. McKinley had 284 electoral votes where as Bryan had 115.
· Roosevelt’s Big Stick diplomacy: One of Roosevelt’s most famous statements was "speak softly and carry a big stick." An example of his meaning in this statement was when Canada wanted the Alaskan land that America owned. They were fighting over the boundaries because of gold found in the area. Roosevelt simply stated that if the boundaries would change, there would be serious consequences. Because of his problem solving method, Roosevelt was known to use "Big Stick" diplomacy.
Panama Revolution: Financed by Philippe Bunau-Varilla, chief agent of the New Panama Canal Company, the Panama Revolution was a planned revolt by Panamanians against Colombian occupation of the Isthmus of Panama. The United States did not encourage the revolution, but it did make clear that it would not allow it to fail.
· The Panama Canal: When a French company supposed to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama went bankrupt, it offered to sell its assets to the United States. The Hay-Herrán agreement, which would have granted the US a ninety-nine-year lease on a strip of land for canal construction, was rejected by the Colombian senate. Determined to have a canal, Roosevelt found a collaborator in Philippe Bunau-Varilla, who organized a "revolution." After Panama was recognized, the canal building commenced.
Virgin Islands purchased: Denmark, in 1917, sold to the United States its West Indian territories for $25 million, including the Virgin Islands. These islands, located at the perimeters of the Caribbean, were of great military importance during the Second World War. They mainly served to protect the US mainland as well as the Panama Canal.
Venezuela Crisis, 1902: In 1902 the country's debts became so large that European creditor nations blockaded Venezuela; the United States intervened to obtain arbitration of the dispute. Castro's departure for Europe in 1908 opened the way for his deputy, Juan Vicente Gomez, to seize power.
· Roosevelt Corollary: In 1904, Roosevelt created the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. This doctrine justified U.S. intervention in the affairs of Latin American nations if their weakness or wrongdoing warranted such action. An example of this interference was the American intervention in Haiti when it was not wanted. The document was primarily a pass for the US to interfere with other countries’ business when it was not wanted nor needed.
U.S. intervention in Haiti: In 1915, President Woodrow Wilson sent the United States Marines into Haiti. The purpose was to calm the anarchy that the US claimed existed in the country. In 1916, Congress ratified a treaty that would allow the US ten years of control over Haiti to maintain order and give political and economic assistance.
Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth: The Russo-Japanese war (1904-05) was the first conflict in which an Asian power defeated a European country. Fighting began when the Japanese attacked the Russian fleet at Port Arthur after Russia, which had occupied Manchuria during the Boxer Uprising in China, refused to withdraw its troops.
· Gentleman’s Agreement: In the 1890’s, workers feared their jobs would be taken by the Japanese immigrants and they wanted a law preventing any more immigrants to move to the United States. In 1907 Japan proposed the Gentlemen’s Agreement which promised that they would halt the unrestricted immigration if President Roosevelt promised to discourage any laws being made that would restrict Japanese immigration to the US.
Great White Fleet: This was a naval fleet that went on a voyage around the world. After 15 months, when the fleet returned, President Roosevelt met all the crew members personally. The two objects of this voyage were being friendly with the nation’s allies but also to show other nations the naval power of the United States.
Lodge Corollary: When a Japanese syndicate moved to purchase a large tract of land in Mexico’s Lower California, Senator Lodge introduced a resolution to block the Japanese investment. The Corollary went further to exclude non-European powers from the Western Hemisphere under the Monroe Doctrine.
Root-Takahira Agreement: In 1908, Japan and the United States signed the Root-Takahira Agreement. Through this document the two nations promised not to seek territorial gain in the Pacific. These two nations also promised to honor an open door policy in China.
Jones Act, 1916 (Philippines): In 1916, Congress passed the Jones Act which provided for a government for the Philippines and committed the United States to granting Filipino independence. The government created was based on the Constitutional model. In 1934, a bill was finally passed to actually grant the Filipinos their independence.
Jones Act, 1917 (Puerto Rico): The Jones Act of 1917 was passed by the United States to regulate trade in Puerto Rico. It established the Sea Land service to prevent carriers and shippers from using unfair pricing practices. Its establishment encouraged parallel pricing for all carriers.
Pancho Villa, General Pershing: During the political turmoil of Mexico in 1916, bandit Pancho Villa murdered 16 Americans, then burned down Columbus in New Mexico. With the U.S. outraged, General John J. Pershing was sent with 12,000 troops to catch Villa with no avail. Massive US response angered some Mexicans and led to hostilities.
Wright Brothers, Kitty Hawk: Wilbur and Orville Wright created the modern field of aeronautics. After over 200 calculations and tests at Kitty Hawk they built the first practical airplane, marking the beginning of the individual progressive spirit. They were highly honored internationally and a monument to them was built at Kitty Hawk.
"Muckrakers": Those American writers who early in the 20th century wrote both fiction and nonfiction to expose corruption in business and politics were called the muckrakers. Muckraker was a term first used by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906. They were given this name because of their tendency to "spread the muck around."
Square Deal: Roosevelt, on a speaking tour against the Northern Securities Company, called for a "square deal." This progressive concept denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trustbusting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.
Forest Reserve Act, 1891: The Forest Reserve Act, strongly supported by Roosevelt and Pinchot, created a system of national forests, consisting of approximately 200 million acres, which were protected from the short-sighted greed Roosevelt saw in many large companies. Through this act Roosevelt also enlarged Pinchot’s forest staff from 123 to 1,500 people.
Hepburn Act, 1906: The Hepburn Act, in conjunction with the Elkins Act, granted the Interstate Commerce Commission enough power to regulate the economy. It allowed the ICC to set freight rates and, in an attempt to reduce the corruption in the railroad industry, to require a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies.
Mann-Elkins Act, 1910: The Mann-Elkins Act further extended the regulatory ability of the ICC. It allowed them to regulate cable and wireless companies dealing with telephone and telegraph lines. The ICC was also given greater rate-setting power as well as the ability to begin court proceedings against companies disputing the new rates.
· "trustbuster": Teddy Roosevelt, deeply conservative at heart, did not want to destroy the big corporations that he saw necessary to American life. He did, however, believe that they must be held to strict moral standards. He earned the "trustbuster" name when he filed suit against the Northern Securities Company, followed by 43 other cases. He left many of the larger companies serving the public good alone, but he broke up many other large, monopolistic companies in the interests of American welfare and economy.
Northern Securities Co. case: This was the first company Roosevelt filed suit against in his trustbusting stage. It was a large holding company formed by railroad and banking interests. In 1902 Roosevelt "trustbusted" them by claiming they violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in holding money against the public good. The company was dissolved.
W.E.B. DuBois: For more than 50 years W.E.B. DuBois, a black editor, historian, and sociologist, was a leader of the civil rights movement in the United States. He helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and was its outstanding spokesman in the first decades of its existence.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): The NAACP was an organization founded in 1909 by blacks and whites under such leaders as W.E.B. DuBois to safeguard civil, legal, economic, human, and political rights of black Americans. It lobbied for legislation, sponsored educational programs, and engaged in protest actions.
Pure Food and Drug Act: The Pure Food and Drug Act, enacted through the efforts of Harvey Wiley and Sinclair in 1906, gave consumers protection from dangerous and impure foods. All products must be clearly labeled and must explain a product which cannot be seen or judged by a consumer. This act solved problems concerning fraudulently labeled items.
Panic of 1907: Roosevelt’s constant trustbusting of large corporations caused questionable bank speculations, a conservative gold standard, and strict credit policies, eventually leading to the Panic of 1907. This panic brought the need for banking reform to the forefront of political activity, finally culminating in the Federal Reserve Act.
Election of 1908: candidates, issues: The Republican platform consisted of Taft and Sherman. They ran for continued anti-trust enforcement, conservation, and increased international trade. William Jennings Bryan ran for the Democratic Party on a similar anti-trust platform. The Socialist Party was represented by Eugene Debs. Taft easily won.
· Robert M. La Follette: La Follette, initially a Republican in Congress, broke from this party in 1924 when he realized big business was dangerously out of control. The populace agreed with this opinion by electing him governor as an independent. He took the reform movement, previously only found at the municipal level, to new heights, the state. The new state level of regulation had some inherit problems, but as the progressive movement entered the national government, these problems were solved.
· Municipal Reform: The beginning of the Progressive Era is marked by a great increase in municipal reform. Nearly all elements of the urban population participated in these reform efforts. The middle class began the movement and was the core of urban beautification. Businessmen pushed for citywide elections and for the city-manager system of government. In reforms concerning the commoners, even the political bosses assisted. This municipal level reform soon moved to the state level.
William Howard Taft: As president, Taft focused primarily on a continuation of trust-busting and reuniting the old conservatives and young progressives of the Republican Party. Taft also strongly supported a national budgetary system. He was unable to reunite the two parties and, as a result, the Democratic party swept the 1912 elections.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff, 1909: This tariff was initially intended to lower several other tariffs, but after numerous compromises in the Senate it became a protective measure. Many Progressive reformers considered this a sign that the companies and various special interests were preventing consumer prices from reaching reasonable levels.
· "dollar diplomacy": In an effort to avoid Roosevelt’s "big stick" economic policy, President Taft sought to avoid military confrontation by using money to increase foreign interest in the US. He planned to donate large sums of money to generate economic, social, and political stability in Latin America rather than sending the military to force stability. His efforts were largely a failure as most of the money never reached the actual people of Latin America. Most of the money was stolen by corrupt government officials.
Taft-Roosevelt split: In 1912 the Democrats finally regained control of the presidency due to the Taft-Roosevelt split. Taft’s inability to associate with the progressive elements of his party convinced Roosevelt to return. Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party and thus siphoned enough votes to cause the Republicans to lose the election.
Bull Moose Party: This party, formally known as the Progressive Party, was created by Theodore Roosevelt after his split with Taft. It was created in his anger of Taft being nominated in the Republican Party. They advocated primary elections, woman suffrage, and prohibition of child labor. They outpolled the Republicans but lost to the Democrats.
· Woodrow Wilson, New Freedom: The Democratic Party, to which Wilson belonged, had a past history of 45 ballots without a nomination. To overcome this stumbling block the Democrats united with the Progressives, running under a compromise platform. Wilson’s "New Freedom" campaign was concerned with progressive programs similar to both parties. He did not, however, support trustbusting in the same way that Roosevelt did. To him, all big business was morally evil and should be broken up.
· Theodore Roosevelt, New Nationalism: In the election of 1912 Roosevelt was nominated under a platform nicknamed "The New Nationalism." This platform followed the previous trustbusting and regulation trend as well as alleviating many common progressive concerns such as child labor, woman’s suffrage, and minimum wages. A Federal Trade Commission was also planned to regulate the economy. This platform was essentially identical with many of the progressive reforms later passed under Wilson.
· Election of 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, Debs - issues: The election of 1912 was very interesting for most Americans since there were 4 active political parties. Roosevelt tried to run with the Republican Party, but Taft was chosen. He left and created the Progressive Party. Wilson ran with the Democratic Party. Debs continued to run on the Socialist platform. All of the platforms dealt primarily with economic reform, indicating the change that Americans wanted. Debs even received 900,000 votes.
Eugene V. Debs, Socialist Party: Eugene V. Debs was an American Socialist leader and five time presidential candidate. In 1897 he created the Social Democratic Party of America. He received nearly one million votes for president while he was imprisoned in jail. His Socialist party was quite popular until it splintered apart along internal divisions.
Nickelodeons: Nickelodeons, movies costing a nickel each, became extremely popular in the Progressive Era due to the freedom they offered children from parents. Immigrant children could easily imagine away their restrictive home conditions. Noticing the lack of moral oversight, many progressives moved to create censorship boards for these films.
Margaret Sanger: Sanger was a leader among birth-control advocates. She attacked the Comstock Law, a law which prevented the distribution of birth control. In 1916 she opened the first American birth-control facility. She was convicted for this "public nuisance," won an appeal, and eventually gained the right for birth-control.
Sixteenth Amendment: The Sixteenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, is an obvious indicator to the Progressive era in which it was passed. It authorized the income tax thereby allowing the Underwood-Simmons Tariff of 1913 to lower many tariffs. This amendment invalidated an earlier Supreme Court decision calling the income tax was unconstitutional.
Seventeenth Amendment: The Seventeenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, moved the election of senators from the state legislatures to the general populace. It followed the ideas already laid down by the Australian secret ballot and the direct primary. This law was intended to create a more democratic, fair society in the eyes of progressives.
Eighteenth Amendment: The Eighteenth Amendment, ratified in 1919, prohibited the non-medical sale of alcohol. This amendment resulted from intense efforts among various women’s movements, proving to the nation that women could effect political changes. This amendment is the midpoint of a growing drive towards women’s rights.
Nineteenth Amendment: The Nineteenth Amendment, granting women the vote in 1920, is a logical progression from the prohibition movement. As women felt their power in politics increasing, they began to demand the ability to vote from their male peers. In the spirit of progressivism they were granted the vote in 1920.
Charles Evans Hughes: Charles Evans Hughes was an American jurist and statesmen. As governor of New York he eliminated much of the corruption in government, passing many progressive reform measures. He served as the chief justice of the Supreme Court in the depression years of the 1930s and supported many aspects of Roosevelt’s liberal New Deal.
Federal Reserve Act: The Federal Reserve Act was a compromise designed to stabilize the currency in the US. It split the US into 12 regions with one Federal bank in each region. Commercial banks bought stock from this bank. The discount rate at which the federal bank lent the money determined the interest rate.
Income tax: The income tax, originally declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, was later ratified as the Sixteenth Amendment. This new power was first used in the Tariff Act of 1913 which set the tax of corporate income at 1%. It also levied a 1% tax on all rich families. Income tax has been greatly increased as tariffs have been lowered.
· Clayton Antitrust Act: The Clayton Act was designed to clarify the Sherman Antitrust Act in terms of new economic issues that had arisen. Practices such as local price-cutting and price discrimination were made illegal. The right of unions to strike, boycott, and picket was also confirmed. This act would have been labor’s Magna Carta had it been followed, but unfavorable court interpretations rendered many of its pro-labor sections powerless without further legislation.
Workmen’s Compensation Act: The Workmen’s Compensation Act heightened the rights of employees to bring legal action against their employers for injuries. Prior to this act, the employee had to prove they were not at fault and that it was not a normal risk. This act created scales of compensation for any injury, regardless to the party responsible.
WORLD WAR I
Triple Entente: Allies: Beginning in the early 1900’s, Britain, France and Russia had signed treaties with each other. After Austria declared war on Serbia, Germany declared war on the allies (Russia and France), in turn drawing Great Britain into the war. This system of alliances had escalated what was once a localized incident.
Triple Alliance: Central Powers: The Triple Alliance consisted of Germany, Austria- Hungary, as well as Italy. Germany, with its blank check provision to Austria- Hungary, had in encouraged the war declaration on Serbia. Afterwards, Germany declared war on Russia and France, Serbia’s allies by treaties.
British blockade: In an attempt to win the war of attrition that was World War I, Great Britain utilized its sizable navy to blockade all trade going in and out of Germany. Germany responded with its U-boats, eventually going on the offensive in 1917 by itself blockading Britain at the cost of American involvement.
Lusitania, Arabic pledge, Sussex pledge: In 1915, the British Lusitania was sunk bringing protests from Wilson. The Arabic was sunk in the same year and Germans followed with the Arabic pledge promising to stop attacks on passenger vessels. In 1916, Germans sunk the Sussex and made the Sussex pledge to promise a stoppage of attacks.
election of 1916: Hughes, Wilson, issues: Wilson ran for reelection for the Democrats on the call that he had kept the United States out of the war. Charles Evans Hughes was the Republican candidate who attacked the inefficiency of the Democratic Party. Wilson won the election, so was able to continue his idealistic policies.
unrestricted submarine warfare: On January 31, 1917, Germany announced it would resume unrestricted submarine warfare, a repudiation of the Sussex pledge, and sink all ships without warning whatsoever. This action was backed by the German belief that this would lead it to victory before the Americans could become involved in the war.
· Zimmerman Note: Also known as the Zimmerman Telegram, the Zimmerman note was a message intercepted by British intelligence from Germany to Mexico in 1917 proposing that in the event of a German war with the United states, Mexico should attack the US. It would be a Mexican opportunity to retake the Mexican Cession. This was one of a few events which led to widespread public support for the Allies and eventual United States involvement in the World War.
Russian Revolutions, 1917, March and Bolshevik: In March 1917 a revolution overthrew Russia’s tsarist regime. The second Revolution, commonly called the October Revolution, was an armed coup organized by the Bolshevik party. These revolutions were caused by and led to Russia pulling out of World War I.
war declared, April 1917: On March 2, 1917, President Wilson called a special Congressional session for April 2, in which he proposed the declaration of war against Germany. The declaration was passed by the Senate by a vote of 82 to 6 and in the House by a vote of 373 to 50 before it was then signed by Wilson.
Wilson’s "Peace without victory": In 1916 President Wilson called for a "peace without victory." His words were a call to the European nations to stop the conflict based on a balance of power and to form a peace in which nations together would keep the peace. Wilson foresaw the vengeful atmosphere that would follow a prolonged war.
"Make the world safe for democracy": "Make the world safe for democracy" was Wilson’s famous line justifying United States involvement in the World War. It was based on the belief that from this international power struggle, a democratic revolution could arise. In other words, a new democratic world order led by the United States would follow.
· Creel Committee: The Committee on Public Information, formed in 1917, was headed by journalist George Creel. At the beginning of the first World War, Americans sided with neutrality. The CPI was a propaganda committee that built support for the war effort in Europe among Americans. It depicted Germans and other enemies on bad terms, and served to censor the press. Anything German was frowned upon. The Creel Committee, or CPI, was successful in raising widespread American support for the war effort.
War Industries Board: Created in July 1917, the War Industries Board controlled raw materials, production, prices, and labor relations. It also encouraged production by allocating raw materials, standardizing manufactured products, instituting strict production and purchasing controls, and paying high prices to businesses.
Herbert Hoover, Food Administration: The Food Administration was created in 1917 as part of the war effort, and a response to the poor harvests of 1916 and 1917. Headed by Herbert Hoover, it set prices for agricultural goods high to encourage the production of agricultural products. It encouraged conservation with such days as "meatless Tuesdays."
Espionage Act, 1917; Sedition Act, 1918: The Espionage Act of 1917 enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements, inciting rebellion, or obstructing recruitment or the draft. Also papers which opposed the government could be banned from the U.S. postal service. The Sedition Act of 1918 made illegal any criticism of the government. It was poorly applied and used to trample civil liberties during the war hysteria as in the example of the imprisonment of Eugene Debs.
Eugene V. Debs imprisoned: Eugene Debs was questionably imprisoned and was given a 10 year prison term for giving a speech at a Socialist’s convention. The speech criticized American policy, involvement in the war and for warning of the dangers of war and militarism. His imprisonment was an example of the reactionism and hysteria of the period.
POST WORLD WAR I
aims of Allies and US at peace conference: The main goal of Wilson and the American delegation was to secure an international peacekeeping organization; a peace based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points. The aims of the other allies were not as liberal as that of the US. The enormous reparations settled on was representative of this atmosphere.
· Fourteen Points: The Fourteen Points were Wilson’s proposals and beliefs for a post-war world order. They dealt with the things that led to the first World War. For example, the first points called for open treaties, freedom of the seas, arms reduction and free trade. The other points dealt with self determination and finally a general association of nations, the League of Nations. During the conference of Versailles, Wilson pushed the Fourteen points and was partly successful.
· Versailles Conference and Treaty: The Big Four dominated the conference in 1919 that determined the postwar world order. Wilson promoted his Fourteen Points while other Allies sought vengeance. The treaty found Germany liable for the war and established new nations based on self determination. It also made German colonies mandates under the League of Nations and included the controversial article X that kept the US out of the League. These provisions set the stage for World War II.
Big Four: Wilson, George, Clemenceau, Orlando: The Big Four were the dominating four at the Versailles conference after World War I. President Woodrow Wilson represented the United States, Lloyd George for Britain, Clemenceau for France, and Vittorio Orlando represented Italy. Each had a different prerogative and differing interests.
· League of Nations: The organization promoted by Wilson in his Fourteen Points was the League of Nations. The US never joined because of controversy over Article X of the League Covenant that took away the United States’s freedom of determination in world affairs. Implemented at the Versailles conference, it existed from 1920 to 1946, meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, until it was taken over by the United Nations. After WWI, it divided German colonies into mandates of various League members.
· collective security: Collective security was the dogma behind Article X of the League of Nations covenant of the Versailles Treaty. It stated that every nation would serve to protect the territorial integrity and existing governments of all other League nations. Hence, it was felt that this would ensure peace in the postwar world order. The belief manifested inself in the international world court that was established and later in the establishment of the United Nations after the demise of the League.
Red Scare, Palmer raids: In 1919, there was a string of bombings. Among the victims was Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. In November 1919, Palmer led raids and arrested around 700 suspected communists and anarchists. Some were deported under the Alien Act. The Red Scare in the United States followed Communist revolutions in Russia.
strikes: 1919, coal, steel, police: Post-war strikes occurred because of an increase in prices. The most famous strike was in a Seattle shipyard. The government responded with troops to break up the strike. Chicago police struck and were all fired. The United Mine Workers of America under John L. Lewis struck as well, fueling the Red Scare.
inflation during the First World War: As Americans were sent to Europe to fight in World War I, a labor shortage was created. With the shortage came higher wages which led to more purchases and in turn, inflation. The rise in prices was regulated by the WIB which set prices.
election of 1920: candidates, issues: Senator Warren G. Harding was the Republican dark horse with running mate Calvin Coolidge. They advocated a "return to normalcy" from the war environment. James Cox, and Franklin D. Roosevelt were the Democratic nominees. They ran on a platform endorsing the League with reservations.
THE ROARING TWENTIES
Sheppard-Towner Act: Lobbying for child-labor laws as well as worker protection for women and support for education by the Women’s Joint Congressional Committee resulted in the Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921. This act provided $1.2 million for prenatal and baby-care centers in rural areas.
Esch-Cummins Transportation Act: Also known as the Transportation Act of 1920, this act allowed the government to take over the railroads from Dec 26, 1917 until Mar 1, 1920. They were forced to carry heavy traffic while ignoring maintenance. The result was the Act of Feb 28, 1920 and attempted to insure the operation of the railroads.
•Immigration Acts 1921, 1924, quota system: In 1921 Congress limited annual immigration to about 350,000 people annually. In 1924, they limited the number to 164,000 people annually. This also restricted immigration to 2% of the total number of people who lived in the U.S. from their respective country since 1890 and completely rejected the immigration of Asians. The intent of these provisions was to reduce the immigration of foreign people in the United States.
KKK revival: A KKK was an organization founded in Pulaski, Tennessee in 1866. Nathan Bedford Forrest served as the first Grand Wizard for this organization. They aimed to destroy radical political power and establish white supremacy in the U.S. They were formally disbanded in 1869, but then it was revived in 1915, led by William J. Simmons.
Harding, Warren G.: Although Harding lacked the qualifications for presidency, his ordinary, friendly manner and advocacy of a return to "normalcy" resulted in a landslide vicotry in the election of 1920. Unfortunately, his administration was full of scandals and on Aug 2, 1923, Harding died in San Francisco of a heart attack.
Coolidge, Calvin: Harding’s death brought vice president Coolidge to the presidency, where his silences became legendary. As president, he held an antipathy to progressivism, believed the government had no obligation in protecting citizens against natural disasters, and warned of "the tyranny of bureaucratic regulation and control."
•Prohibition: Prohibition was first an issue before World War I. Progressives saw it as a way to deal with the social problems associated with alcoholism. Congress submitted the 18th amendment prohibiting the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic liquors in 1917. However, closet manufacturing of alcoholic beverages and a rise in criminal activities within the cities due to illegal importation of alcohol led to its repeal with the 21st amendment in 1933.
Volstead Act, Al Capone: The Volstead Act of 1919 established the Prohibition Bureau within the Treasury Department, but it lacked financial stability and was ineffective. Capone was a mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits; his illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties.
Sacco and Vanzetti Case: On Apr 15, 1920 two robbers killed a clerk and stole money from a shoe factory in South Briantree, Massachusetts. Nicola Sacco and Bartholomeo Vanzetti were arrested and both were charged with the robbery and the murder. The jury found them both guilty. Both men died in the electric chair on Aug 23, 1927.
•Fundamentalists, Billy Sunday, Aimee Semple McPherson: During the twenties, Protestants who insisted on the divinity of the Bible, were angered by the theory of evolution. Fundamentalist legislatures even introduced bills to prohibit the teaching of evolution in schools. An evangelist, Billy Sunday’s most famous quote reads, "If you turn hell upside down you will find ‘Made in Germany’ stamped on the bottom." Evangelist McPherson used drama and theatrical talent in her sermons, winning many followers.
Scopes Trial, Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan: In 1925, the Tennessee legislature outlawed the teaching of evolution in public schools. The American Civil Liberties Union volunteered to defend any teacher willing to challenge this law. William Jennings Bryan agreed to assist prosecution. Darrow was the head of ACLU’s lawyers.
•Prosperity: This is a term that refers to the economic stability and opportunity experienced during the 1920s. The inventions of new consumer goods and home electrical products contributed to this prosperity. The economy during this time was stimulated by the new and booming electrical industry. A growth oriented business climate of the time was expansionist regarding American capitalism. This boom also was started with the invention of the affordable automobile.
Women’s Christian Temperance Movement: Formed in 1874, the Women’s Christian Temperance movement grew in momentum during the progressive era. This occurred because the war with Germany fermented wider support for the movement. By 1917 it successfully established prohibition in 19 states.
•Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes: Hughes was an American writer known for the use of jazz and black folk rhythms in his poetry. He used musical rhythms and the traditions of African American culture in his poetry. In the 1920s he was a prominent figure during the Harlem Renaissance and was the Poet Laureate of Harlem. The Harlem Renaissance refers to the black cultural development during the 1920s. However, the movement depended on the patronage of white people.
Valentino, Rudolph, Chaplin, Charlie: Valentino was an actor who was idolized by female fans of the 1920s. His first silent film was The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921) but his peak was with The Sheik (1921). Charlie Chaplin was a silent film actor who appeared in 1914 with the Keystone Film Company.
Ford, Henry, the Model T, Sloan, Alfred P.: In 1893, Ford completed the construction of his first automobile and in 1903 he founded the Ford Motor Company. In 1908 he started production of the Model-T. In 1913 Ford began using standardized interchangeable parts and assembly-lines in his plants.
Ruth, Babe: Babe Ruth was the most popular player in the history of baseball. He held the record of home run hits in a season of 60 for many years.
Lindbergh, Charles, Spirit of St. Louis: Lindbergh was an American aviator, engineer , and Pulitzer Prize winner. On May 20, 1927, he was the first person to make a nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic. Flying in his single engine plane, Spirit of St. Louis, he flew from New York City to Paris.
The Jazz Singer: The Jazz Singer was a movie, made in 1927, that started a demand for dancers who could fulfill the expectations of the 1920s. Fred Astaire was involved with the choreography in the movie along with other famous dancers such as Berkeley, Balanchine, and De Mille.
the Jazz Age: The Jazz Age is the general label of what the twenties represented. Such a title reflects the revolution in music during the time, when jazz music became popular and in style. This name also refers to the general prosperity and liberation of the people during the time; those were the "good times."
•"the Lost Generation": This term refers to a group of American writers who lived primarily in Paris during the 1920s and 1930s. Bitter about their World War I experiences and disillusioned with different aspects of American society, these writers were seen to be ex-patriots. The writers include: Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and William Carlos Williams. They never formed a formal literary movement, but individually they were all influential writers.
Eliot, T.S., The Waste Land: Eliot won the Nobel Prize for literature for his poem The Waste Land. This poem that is one of the most widely discussed literary works. Written in 1922, The Waste Land expresses Eliot’s conception of the contrast between modern society and societies of the past.
Fitzgerald, F. Scott, The Great Gatsby: Fitzgerald wrote this book in five months and completed it in 1925. The plot was a sensitive and satiric story of the pursuit of success and the collapse of the American dream. Being one of the writers of the Lost Generation, Fitzgerald was bitter because of the effects of the war.
Hemingway, Ernest, A Farewell to Arms: In Hemingway’s novels, he usually depicted the lives of two types of people: men and women deprived of faith in their values by World War I, and men of simple character and primitive emotions. This was Hemingway’s second most important novel next to The Sun Also Rises (1926).
New woman: During the 1920s changes in postwar behavior had a liberating effect on women. Women of the twenties were noticed more for their sex appeal and presented as thus in the advertising industry. The burden of domestic chores were alleviated with new technology, while women themselves turned to a more liberated attitude.
Flappers: Called a flapper because they would leave their boot flaps open, the flapper was the stereotype of a woman in the 1920s. Independent and representing the rebellious youth of the age, the flapper was usually characterized by her "bobbed" hair, dangling cigarette, heavy make-up, and her ever shortening skirt length.
FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 1920’s
Five Power Treaty, Four Power Treaty, Nine Power Treaty: The 4 Power treaty (US, GB, Fr., and Japan) discussed respect towards Pacific nations. The 5 power treaty (US, GB, Fr., USSR, and Italy) halted battleship construction for 10 years and developed the ideal tonnage ratio. The 9 Power Treaty restated the Open Door Policy.
Dawes Plan, Young Plan: The Dawes Plan, Aug 1924, regarded reparations payments and consisted of an annual allotment of 2.5 billion gold pieces to the US from Germany. The Young Plan signed on Jun 7, 1929 was for the final installment of the reparation payments and reduced the amount due by Germany significantly.
Kellogg-Briand Treaty: This treaty of 1928 denounced war between countries when it was used for the purpose of handling relations between countries. Signed by Frank Kellogg of the US and Aristicie Briand from France on Aug 27, 1928, it sought to bring about a change in the way countries dealt with foreign policy.
HOOVER AND THE DEPRESSION
The Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922: This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. The goal of this tariff was to push foreign competition out of the way of American markets and after an isolationist principle was introduced, the U.S. would become self sufficient.
Federal Reserve Board: The Federal Reserve Board tried to establish an easy credit policy. To accomplish this they increased the rate on federal reserve notes to decrease speculation; it also warned member banks not to loan money for the purpose of buying stocks. Their message went unheard, and the stock market crash of 1929 resulted.
Black Tuesday: Black Tuesday refers to Oct 29, 1929 when the great stock market crash occurred. The crash was caused by a number of ailments: the decline of agriculture, the unregulated trade within the process of buying stocks, and the panic which led to bank foreclosures all over the United States.
•Causes of the Great Depression: The Great Depression was not solely caused by the stock market crash in Oct of 1929. On the contrary there were many other factors involved. The inflation in agriculture, the uncontrolled policies of the stock market, the overproduction of goods by industries, the loss of enthusiasm directed at the consumer products that were being produced and a loss of mirth in the economy created a no buying situation.
Federal Home Loan Act: Under the presidential term of Hoover in 1931 the Federal Home Loan Act was created. Within the act a five man Home Loan Board was created and the creation of banks to handle home mortgages provided money to homeowners that needed loans.
Hoover Dam: Originally called Boulder Dam, it stands 726 feet high and 1244 feet wide. Located on the Colorado River in Arizona, Hoover Dam provides flood control, electricity, and irrigation for farms. As part of the New Deal it was constructed between 1931 to 1935 and began operations in 1936.
the Hawley-Smoot Tariff, 1930: Like the Fordney-McCumber Tariff, the Hawley-Smoot Tariff also rose protective tariffs on the United States. It pushed rates on imported goods to the highest point they’ve ever been. The isolationist principle also reflect the isolationist move the US was moving towards in the 1920s..
•Bonus Army: The Bonus Army was a group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given economic relief from the government due to their involvement in the war. However, in 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government to a latter date thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters, and because they were veterans and heroes of this country, Hoover’s popularity plummeted because of it.
"Hooverville": "Hooverville" was a name given to any shanty town that manifested itself during the period when Herbert Hoover was president. The name was termed due to the cold, unfriendly disposition that Hoover took on the policy of helping out the poor. Hoover believed that giving economic aid to the poor would stifle the economy.
Election of 1932: candidates, issues: The Republican candidate was Hoover and the Democratic one was Franklin D. Roosevelt. The issue was ending the Great Depression. Hoover’s platform was to increase the government’s role in the economy; Roosevelt’s message was "Pay attention to the forgotten man at the bottom of the economy period." Roosevelt won.
THE NEW DEAL
Age of the Radio: Radio reached its climax in the 1930s when millions of Americans listened to network news commentators, musical programs, and comedy shows. Also, the president and business companies utilized this resource to attract people, sell products, or to promote a political issue.
Fireside Chats: During the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s first term in office Roosevelt held informal radio conversations every so often that were dubbed "fireside chats." The topic discussed was the economy that had been plagued by the depression, and the means that were going to be taken in order to revive it.
Roosevelt, Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt is portrayed as a U.S. humanitarian and displayed her politics and social issues as a wife of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. She mostly fought for women and minority groups. Many of her books include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and This Is My Story and On My Own.
Brain Trust: The term brain trust refers to the individual people outside the Franklin Roosevelt appointed presidential cabinet that helped in the decision making process of the president. The men most known are: Raymond Moley, Rexford Tugwell, and Adolph A. Berle. Moley was conservative while Tugwell and Berle were interested in reform.
•Keynesian economics: Keynes looked at the economy in a wider sense: macroeconomics. He theorized that the relationship between supply and demand was critical: when the demand doesn’t meet expectations there is unemployment and depression while if demand surpasses production inflation occurs. The solution is to have the government spend while maintaining low taxes and when there is demand that a tight budget should be created.
New Deal: In light of the Great Depression, FDR proposed a series of relief and emergency measures known collectively as the New Deal. Through these measures, FDR intended to revive the lost prosperity of the economy by reforming other institutions and programs, by relieving the plight of the people, and thus recover the nation’s wealth.
Hundred Days: Measures taken during Roosevelt’s first days in office, from Mar 9 to Jun 16, enabled FDR to pass acts critical to stabilizing the economy. The Hundred Days symbolized the beginning stages of the New Deal because the measures taken focused on relief, recovery and reform: key phrases from the New Deal itself.
•Relief, Recovery, and Reform: These three areas, relief, recovery, and reform, are the categories into which the New Deal was split. The Relief category was defined by the acts implemented in the area of aid to the unemployment. The Recovery category put forth measures that would help aid in the speedy recovery of areas hit hardest by the depression (i.e. agriculture and industry). Reform was a category in which the government tried to recreate areas that seemed faulty (i.e. banking system).
"Bank Holiday": Franklin Roosevelt in 1932 called for a "bank holiday" which permitted banks that were hurt from the depression to close down for a few days in order to regain stability. Further help to relieve the problem of the foreclosing of banks was the Emergency Banking Act which was passed during the holiday to help open more banks.
Emergency Banking Relief Act, 1933: Implemented during the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s first term the Emergency Banking Relief Act allowed the reopening of healthy banks. The act provided healthy banks with a Treasury Department license and handled the affairs of the failed banks.
Glass-Steagall Act, 1933: In February of 1933 the Glass-Steagal Act was signed. The act itself made 750 million dollars that had once been kept in the governments gold reserves now able to be used in the creation of loans to private businesses and other major corporations.
•National Industrial Recovery Administration (NRA): Promoting recovery, the National Industrial recovery Administration was designed to administer the codes of "fair competition" brought forth by the NIRA. Such codes established production limits, set wages and working conditions, and disallowed price cutting and unfair competitive practices. The main focus of the NRA was to break wage cuts and strikes, both which stifled the economy.
•Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), second AAA 1938: The first AAA was rendered unconstitutional years after the Act of 1938. It tried to help mend the ailing problems that had plagued agriculture since the ending of the First World War. In order to stop the problem of "dust bowls" created by the overuse of soil, the government, under the AAA, granted subsidies to farms who did not continually use the same plot of soil. The government also tried to restrict the production of certain commodities.
•Civilian Conservation Corps
(CCC): Created under Franklin Roosevelt, the CCC aimed at men particularly
in the age group from 18-25. This program created jobs that would try to
conserve the nation’s natural resources. The CCC would take these men out of
the workforce and place them on jobs that would reforest certain areas, teach
fire prevention and soil conservation, and help to stop soil erosion. Between
3 million men were put to work under the CCC; each man would work for one year.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA): One of the most powerful social workers, Harry Hopkins, administered this program directed at local causes. Franklin D. Roosevelt created the FERA in May 1933 and as a part of the New Deal, this measure allocated $500 million to relieve cities and states.
Civil Works Administration (CWA): In Nov 1933 relief administrator Harry Hopkins convinced Franklin D. Roosevelt to create the CWA. The CWA provided temporary public works that allocated a billion dollars for short-term projects for the jobless during the winter but was demolished when the spring arrived.
Public Works Administration (PWA): Harold Ickes: Headed by Harold Ickes, the Secretary of Interior, who was cautious and suspicious, the PWA was a governmental agency which spent $4 billion on 34,000 public works project which constructed dams, bridges, and public buildings.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA): Senator Norris: Pushed for by Senator George Norris, the TVA was a governmental agency which ruled several federal programs of building dams, the construction of hydroelectric dams, and controlling floods. Created in 1933, the TVA was eventually curtailed in 1980 when nuclear plants were introduced
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): The SEC, established in 1934, protected investors, listened to complaints, issued licenses and penalized fraud. The SEC required the registration of all companies and securities and required disclosure of company information and registration of all company securities exchanged.
•Works Progress Administration (WPA), Hopkins, Harry, Federal Arts Project: Directed by Harry Hopkins in 1935, the eight year program employed 8 million people and provided $11 billion dollars to the economy in which 650,000 miles of roads, 124,000 bridges, and 125,000 schools, hospitals, arts, and post offices were built. The Federal Arts Project created positions for artists by making positions for art teachers and decorated posts for offices and courthouses with murals.
Social Security Act: Created by the U.S. Congress on August 14,1935, this act supported old-age advantages by utilizing a pay roll tax on employers and employees. This originated from the Townsend clubs which pushed for a $200 pension. Soon the program was expanded to include dependents, the disabled, and adjusted with the inflation.
Twentieth Amendment: Also known as the Lame-Duck Amendment the Twentieth Amendment in 1933 called for the ending of the "lame-duck" sessions of Congress from Dec of the even numbered years until the following Mar. The amendment also set the date of the President’s inauguration back to Jan 20.
Twenty-First Amendment: Ratified within the span of 10 months, the Twenty-First Amendment on Dec 5, 1933 repealed the eighteenth amendment which dealt with the passing of prohibition. The amendment also permitted states to levy a tax on alcoholic substances.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), Lewis, John L.: John L. Lewis of the United Mine Workers and Sidney Hillman of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers established the CIO in the November of 1935. This 2 million-member group welcomed all autoworkers, steelworkers, and electrical workers.
Townsend, Dr. Francis: Townsend developed the Townsend Plan in 1933 which embraced 5 million supporters. It called for a pension for citizens over 60 years of age to receive $200 provided by the federal government. Although Congress rejected it, Townsend’s ideals were an early foundation of the Social Security Act.
Schechter v. United States: This case took place in May 1935 when a New York company was charged with a violation of an NRA poultry code; these charges resulted in the Supreme Court declaring the NRA unconstitutional by stating that the NRA was regulating interstate commerce a violation of federal regulation.
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes: Hughes guided the Supreme Court in the attack against President Roosevelt in his plan to "pack" the Supreme Court in 1937. Also, he upheld the Wagner Act in which workers had the right of collective bargaining in the National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel.
Election of 1936: candidates, issues: The candidates included Franklin D. Roosevelt from the Democratic Party, Alfred M. Landon from the Republican party, and William Lemke from the Union Party. The principal issue was how to exploit the New Deal’s popularity. In the end, FDR won in a landslide victory.
•Second New Deal: Created by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and expressed in his State of the Union Address in January 1935, the Second New Deal focused on and enlarged the federal program to incorporate the jobless, to help the unemployed receive jobs, to give assistance to the rural poor, organized labor, and social welfare. Roosevelt wanted to levy heavier taxes on the rich, create harder regulations on businesses, and to incorporate social-welfare benefits.
•Dust Bowl, Okies, John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath: "Okies" were poor farmers who moved west to California and Arizona during the 1930s or moved to the crowded cities. This occurred because after two generations of a melange of drought and poor farming techniques these areas, also known as "dust bowls," once fertile land, became waste areas and unusable. The Grapes of Wrath written by Steinbeck in 1939 illustrates the plight of a dust bowl family.
Tydings-McDuffie Act, 1934, Philippines: The act eliminated certain objectionable provisions of a previous act known as the Hawes-Cutting Act, which provided for the independence of the Philippine Islands after 12 years; It also provided for trade relations with the U.S. effective 10 years after the inauguration of an authorized government.
•neutrality legislation: A series of Neutrality Acts were passed in 1935, 1936, and 1937, these laws placed an embargo on exports of war materials to belligerents. It also warned U.S. citizens not to travel on belligerent vessels, prohibited loans to belligerent nations, and instituted the cash and carry policy which meant that nations that were seeking to trade with the U.S. had to purchase the goods they wanted as well as provide their own vessels in which they could be shipped out to their country.
Mussolini: Mussolini founded the Fasci de Combitimmento after being kicked out of the Socialist party in 1919. He came into power in the 1920s, and by 1926, Mussolini had transformed Italy into a single-party totalitarian regime. He also pursued an aggressive policy which won him support in every sector of the population.
Japan Attacks China, Chiang Kai-shek: Japan was taken over by a militaristic government that had expansionist dreams. In 1931, Japan attacked the Chinese province of Manchuria and installed a puppet government. In 1937, Japan declared war against China; China’s leader, Chiang Kai-shek, was powerless to stop it.
Hitler, Nazism: Adolf Hitler’s Nazi party came into power in 1933 and clamped a dictatorship on Germany. His racist views targeted all non-white Christians who expressed anti-German ideas. He pursued a militaristic and expansionist foreign policy, evident in his plan to raise a half million man army and expand German borders to Russia.
Kristallnacht: Meaning "The Night of Broken Glass," this rampage was carried out by Nazis all over Germany and Austria to destroy Jewish homes and structures. Thousands of homes were vandalized and synagogues were burned to the ground. Jewish businesses and schools were wrecked and looted. Nothing was spared.
•Munich Conference, appeasement, Neville Chamberlain: This conference was held in 1938 between England and Germany. Chamberlain, representing England, gave in to Hitler’s demands on territory that Germany had lost after the end of WWI. Chamberlain was very much blamed for the oncoming of WWII due to his actions toward Hitler. Many people in Britain were very disappointed in Chamberlain and how easily he had appeased to the demands of Hitler. He was replaced soon after by Winston Churchill.
nonaggression pact between Germany and USSR: Stalin, who advocated a popular front against fascism, signed a pact with Nazi Germany on August 24, 1939 agreeing not to make war on each other and divided up Poland between the two nations: the USSR and Germany. This was a severe blow to the Popular Front.
WORLD WAR II
Invasion of Poland, Blitzkrieg: When Poland refused to restore the German city of Danzig lost after WWI, Hitler’s troops attacked Poland on Sept.1, 1939. April 1940, Hitler unleashed his Blitzkrieg, or "lightening war," and quickly occupied many western European nations.
Axis Powers: Group of countries opposed to the Allied powers. Originated in the Rome-Berlin Axis with the 1936 Hitler-Mussolini Accord and their alliance in 1939. In Sept. 1940, it was extended when Japan was incorporated into the Axis by the signing of the Tripartite pact. The Axis powers were Japan, Italy and Germany.
fall of France: Hitler’s launched his blitzkrieg on France in 1938. The British were already being driven back when Hitler attacked Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. England evacuated 338,000 men from the English channel. Mussolini attacked from the South at the same time, and on Jun. 22 France capitulated.
America First Committee: When FDR expressed a desire for American intervention in WWII, he was faced with stiff resistance by the America First Committee in 1940. The committee was compromised of many pro-isolationist who thought that the allied powers could do nothing to stop the war.
election of 1940: candidates, issues: Roosevelt was nominated by the Democrats for a third term, and the Republicans nominated Wendell L. Willkie. The major issues were WWII and military spending. Roosevelt endorsed the nation’s 1st peacetime draft and advocated a military spending increase.
•"Lend Lease," March 1941: Program set up to loan the Allied nations arms and other materials to wage war against the Axis powers. The Lend-lease bill was approved by Congress in 1941, which originally authorized $7 billion. Thirty-five other nations besides Great Britain, USSR, France, and China received loans from the lend lease. By August 1945, the amount totaled $48 billion, of which the United States received $6 billion in repayment by these nations.
Atlantic Charter, August 1941: FDR met Churchill to discuss joint military strategy. Their public statement expressed their ideas of a postwar world, and frowned upon aggression, affirmed national self-determination, and endorsed the principles of collective security and disarmament.
•Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941: On the morning of December 7, scores of Japanese dive-bombers and torpedo planes flew across Oahu to bomb the ships that were anchored in Peal Harbor, and to strafe the planes parked side by side at nearby air bases. In less that 3 hours, over 300 aircraft were destroyed or damaged, and 8 battleships, 3 light cruisers, and 3 destroyers were sunk or crippled. Worst loss of U.S. arms in history.
Eisenhower, General; MacArthur, General: Eisenhower led the D-Day invasion with great success, and was highly respected by his peers in the armed forces. General MacArthur was credited for the great successes that the Americans had in the Pacific wars. He was the strategist behind the Pacific Wars.
Operation Torch: Undertaken in November 1942, it employed an allied army of more than 100,000 troops. Led by General Eisenhower, the troops landed in Morocco and Algeria and pressed eastward to entrap the German forces being pushed by British forces in Libya. Surrounded, the Germans surrendered in May 1943.
Invasion of Sicily: Stalin pleaded for a second front in Russia, but Churchill objected and Roosevelt agreed for a plan to invade Sicily in the summer on 1943. In roughly a month, allied forces seized control of Sicily. Italian military leaders surrendered to the allied forces on September 8 1943.
Battle of Midway: In 1942, the Japanese were determined to wipe out any remaining ships of the decimated American fleet when they sailed toward Midway. But, Japanese codes were decoded and Admiral Nimitz knew the exact plans and location of the Japanese ships. In a clever move, he ordered dive-bombers to destroy the ships.
Genocide, "Final solution": Hitler persecuted Jews in Germany and sought to rid Germany of them. During WWII, he set up many concentration camps, where Jews were methodically executed by means of poisonous gas or other forms. By the end, 6 million perished.
G.I. Bill of Rights, 1944: Congress enacted the bill to provide living allowances, tuition fees, supplies, medical treatment, and loans for homes and businesses. It was accepted June, 1944 and helped to stimulate economic growth and the accumulation of wartime profits, new factories and equipment.
D-Day, June 6, 1944: In the first 24 hours, 150,000 allied troops landed on the beach of Normandy. An additional million waded ashore in the following weeks, and allies reached inland in July, arriving in Paris by August. By summer’s end British secured Belgium and the Americans recovered France and Luxembourg.
Churchill, Winston: British Prime Minister during WWII, member of the Big Three. The Big Three was compromised of Stalin, FDR and him and were the major parties involved in allied conferences. When Germany first began attacking Britain, he asked for assistance from the U.S. in the form of equipment and arms.
Casablanca Conference, 1943: In the middle of the North African campaign, Roosevelt and Churchill met at Casablanca and resolved to attack Italy before invading France. They also vowed to pursue the war until the unconditional surrender of the Axis power, and tried to reduce Soviet mistrust of the west.
Cairo Conference, 1943: FDR met with Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek, the head of the Chinese government. FDR promised Chiang that Manchuria and Taiwan would be returned to China and that Korea would be free with the hope that Chiang would fight until Japan surrendered unconditionally.
Teheran Conference, 1943: FDR met with Stalin and Churchill and set the date for the invasion of France for May or June 1944, to coincide with the Russian offensive from the east. They agreed to divide Germany into occupation zones, to impose reparations on the Reich, and Stalin promised to fight Japan after Hitler’s defeat.
"unconditional surrender": Term used by the allied powers to describe what kind of surrender they wanted from Japan-one without negotiations. After the A-bomb fell on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Japan surrendered, but with the explosion of the A-bomb, the Cold War Era had just begun.
Battle of the Bulge: As the allies prepared for an attack on Germany after penetrating up to Germany’s border, Hitler threw the last of his reserves to fight against the allied troops in December of 1944. On Dec. 25, the allies stopped the last German counter-attack and within a month, drove the Nazis back to Rhine.
V-E day: As Russia pushed the Germans back into Germany and reached the suburbs of Berlin, the new German government surrendered unconditionally on May 8, 1943, Americans celebrated this Victory in Europe day with ticker tape parades and dancing in the streets. Afterward, U.S. turned its full attention to the War in the Pacific
Manhattan Project: Because Nazi scientists were seeking to use atomic physics in a harmful manner, in 1941 FDR launched a secret program to produce an A-bomb before the Germans. In 1943 and 1944, the Manhattan Engineering district worked to stockpile U-235 and in 1945 attempted to use it in a bomb.
•Atomic bomb: The atomic bomb was successfully built in 1944 and was employed in bombing the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The bomb unleashed terrible fury on the two cities, killing hundreds of thousands of people through the incinerating heat and radiation poisoning. There was also debate on whether such a potent and powerful weapon should have been unleashed before proper tests were conducted on the long-term effects.
Hiroshima, Nagasaki: The 1st A-bomb was dropped on Hiroshima by the U.S. in 1945 after Japan refused unconditional surrender. Some 80,000 people died immediately and 1000s more died of radiation poisoning in later years. The next day a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki killing, which obliterated the city.
•Japanese Relocation: Japanese-born Americans and immigrants from Japan were sent to concentration camps in the early 1940’s because of a fear that they would leak out information about the U.S. to Japan. Most of these people were suspected of being spies for the Japanese, though there was no solid evidence to support such accusations. The captured Japanese were released in 1942, and FDR apologized to them.
War Production Board: In 1942, FDR announced a plan for massive war production. In order to get the necessary amount of raw materials, FDR established the War Production Board. It allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civil goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers.
War Labor Board: Established in 1942, the War Labor Board was instituted to mediate disputes between management and labor, and sought to prevent strikes and out of control wage increases. The War Labor Board acted as the mediator to prevent massive strikes and wage increases that occurred with the demand for workers.
War Refugee Board (WRB): FDR established the War Refugee Board in 1943 to help rescue and assist the many people who were condemned to death camps. It relocated many refugees in need, although it was late in inception. Although it saved 200,000 Jews and 20,000 non-Jews, 1 million still died.
War Manpower Commission (WMC): FDR established the War Manpower Commission in 1942 to help supervise the mobilization of males and females in the military, and the war industry, and also to study how profit can be gained through the production of weapons and supplies.
Office of Censorship, Office of War Information: Roosevelt wanted public opinion to be positive during the war, and in 1941, he established the Office of Censorship. It examined all written documents, including works of publishers and broadcasters, as well as all letters going overseas, in order to maintain the positive public opinion in America.
African-Americans in World War II: Many civil rights groups used the need of the government for the cooperation of all its citizens in the war effort to push a new militancy in redressing discrimination. Blacks moved into service in all areas of the military, although most in segregated units until 1948. A large migration of blacks from the South to Northern industrial areas made civil rights a national rather than regional concern and broadened the political effects of black votes.
•Women in World War II: Women served in significant numbers during World War II, both as civilian support personnel and in the uniformed services in the Woman’s Army Corps (WAC) and Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service in the Navy (WAVES). Women pilots ferried planes from station to station, freeing men for combat pilot positions. Women moved into the civilian workforce, including heavy industry, replacing those men who had entered the military.
THE COLD WAR
•YALTA CONFERENCE: Conference of Russia, Great Britain and US in Feb.1945 with leaders FDR, Stalin and Churchill in Crimea. The result was statement of Soviet intent on entering the Pacific War two to three months after the end of the European war, Churchill and FDR promise for Soviet concessions in Manchurian and return of lost territories. Stalin recognized Chiang as China's ruler, agreed to drop demands for reparations from Germany, approved plans for a UN Conference and promised free elections in Poland.
•POTSDAM CONFERENCE: Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Potsdam Germany from July 16-Aug. 2 to decide on postwar arrangements begun at Yalta. A Council of Foreign Ministers was established to draft treaties concerning conquered European nations, and to make provisions for the trials of war criminals. The Soviet Union agreed to drop demands for reparations and Germany was decentralized into British, Russian, French and US zones.
partitioning of Korea, Vietnam, Germany: As decided by the Potsdam by the Council of Foreign minister, Germany, Vietnam and Korea were divided into zones to be held by US, France, Britain and the Soviet Union and then reorganized through self-determination.
Stalin: Ruler of Russia from 1929-1953. In 1935 Stalin endorsed a "Popular Front" to oppose fascism. Stalin also had considerable influence in the Yalta agreement as well as being a leader of one of the world's superpowers. After WWII, the primary focus of Amer. was to curb Stalin's and communist influence.
superpowers: The world powers after WWII created a new balance of power. These superpowers consisting of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain began proceedings such as the Yalta and Potsdam. Conferences represented the superpowers and their importance in postwar reconstruction.
socialism, communism: Two forms of governing, socialism and communism became fearful subjects after WWII as fears of war led to hatred against socialist and communist American troops. Fear and hatred against communism and Socialism continued throughout the Cold War.
Nuremberg trials: Thirteen trials held accusing leaders of Nazi Germany of crimes against international law from 1945-1949. Accusations included murder, enslavement, looting and atrocities against soldiers and citizens of occupied countries.
CONTAINMENT, Kennan, George F.: An advocate for tough foreign policy against the Soviets, Kennan was the American charge d'affaires in Moscow through WWII. He was also the anonymous Mr. X who wrote "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" in the magazine Foreign Affairs advising a policy of restricting Soviet expansion to protect western institutions. The theory of containment was accepted by the U.S. government and seen through the domino theory and US actions in Vietnam and Korea.
•TRUMAN DOCTRINE: From Truman’s address to Congress on March 12, 1947, the president announced that the United States would assist free people resisting "armed minorities or...outside pressure." Meant as a offer for aid against communism the Truman Doctrine established the United States as a global policeman, a title proved by US actions in the UN, Vietnam, Korea and Egypt. The Truman Doctrine became a major portion of Cold War ideology, a feeling of personal responsibility for the containment of communism.
•MARSHALL PLAN: Truman's secretary of state George C. Marshall proposed massive economic aid to Greece and Turkey on Feb. 27, 1947 after the British told the US they could not afford to continue assistance to the governments of Greece and Turkey against Soviet pressure for access to the Mediterranean. The Marshall Plan was expanded to mass economic aid to the nations of Europe for recovery from WWII. Aid was rejected by communist nations. The Marshall Plan also hope to minimize suffering to be exploited by communist nations.
•BERLIN BLOCKADE: On March 20, 1948 the Soviet withdrew representation from the Allied Control Council and refused to allow US, British, and France to gain access to Berlin. June 24, the Western Powers began Berlin Airlift to supply residents of Berlin. After 321 days in 1949 Russia agreed to end blockade if the Council of Foreign Ministers would agree to discuss Berlin. The airlift provided food and supplies to the blockaded people and intensified antagonism against Stalin.
•NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO): Following the Vanderberg Resolutions on April 4, on October 1948, Denmark, Italy, Norway, and Portland joined the Canadian-US negotiations for mutual defense and mutual aid. The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington on April 4, 1949 creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The organization considered an attack against one member of the alliance, an attack on all.
Warsaw Pact: Treaty unifying communist nations of Europe signed May 1955 by: Russia, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia. East Germany. Hungary, Poland, and Romania after the signing of the NATO treaty in 1949. Communist China dedicated support but did not sign the treaty.
•NSC-68: In the 1950's President Truman called for a top secret investigation from the CIA to review national defense policy. The NSA-68 called for a massive military buildup and increase in defense spending through raising of taxes in fear of Soviet aggressive intentions and military strength. The NSC-68 became of major importance throughout the Cold War as it spoke of the need to remain a step ahead of the Soviet Union to protect its own security.
fall of China, Tse-tung, Mao, "lost China": Mao Tse-tung, head of the Chinese Communists demanded US halt military aid and for US forces to leave China in January 1945. In 1949, the communists controlled major cities and to avoid a full scale war with China, and the U.S. complied with Communist demands.
•KOREAN WAR, limited war: After Japan's defeat in 1945, Korea was divided at the 38th parallel between Soviet troops to the north and the People's Democratic Republic and US troops to the south. June 24, 1950 North Korean troops attacked the Republic of Korea, provoking war. US gained UN approval to stop the considered communist domino. The "limited" war was to hold the 38th parallel without beginning WWIII. A cease fire was installed on July 26, 1953.
Truman-MacArthur controversy: During WWII, MacArthur was general in the Pacific Wars. At the beginning of the Korean War, he became the United Nations Commander in Korea. He was recalled from duty after expressing unpopular opinions about the US policy in Korea.
postwar inflation: Two years after the war, consumer prices rose only 8% while the total cost of living rose 28% between 1940-1945. The National War Labor Board tried to contain restriction by limiting wage increases and Congress gave the president the power in 1942 to freeze wages to help combat inflation.
baby boom: The number of babies being born between 1950-1963 rose substantially and the mortality rate dramatically dropped allowing for a 19% increase in the population. This generation was able to fuel the economy and widen the realm of education.
Employment Act of 1946: Truman promised economic growth and established the Council of Economic Advisors to assist the president in maximizing employment, production, and purchasing power. Wary of federal deficit spending and increased presidential powers, Congress cut the goal of full employment.
Taft-Hartley Act: Congress modified the Wagner Act in 1947 to outlaw the practices of delaying a strike, closed shop, and permitting the president to call an eighty-day cooling period. Because it proved detrimental to certain unions, Truman vetoed the measure, although Congress overrode it.
1948 election; candidates, issues: Truman ran against Dewey, a republican devoted to National unity and Strom Thurmond, who represented the Dixiecrats. representing states rights. Truman wins with 24 million votes and the platform of the some of the New Deal and bipartisan foreign policy.
Dixiecrats, J. Strom Thurmond: They helped Truman win by showing how the communists in the Wallace campaign forced liberals back into the mainstream Democratic Party. Strom Thurmond was able to collect 1.2 million votes and ran under the Democratic party symbol.
•FAIR DEAL: Truman proposed a social and economic program during his State of the Union message in 1949. It enlarged the New Deal by adding housing, conservation, economic security, health insurance, federal aid to education, agricultural subsidies, increased the minimum wage, expanded social securities, flood control, slum clearance, expanded public power, reclamation, soil conservation, building of low income housing units.
Twenty-second Amendment: adopted in 1951, this bill proclaims that "No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice." It resulted from the agitation following FDR’s running for and being elected to a third or fourth term of office of president.
National Securities Act of 1947, 1949: The CIA was enacted to pursue and conduct espionage and analyze information and facts concerning the actions of foreign countries. It also became involved in undercover operations to destroy operations made to be hostile toward the U.S.
•HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE (HUAC) : FDR established this organization to serve as a platform to the denunciation of the New Deal and communism growth in the U.S. Used to investigate and expose communist influence in America and blurred the line between dissent and disloyalty. It also brought about hysteria and caused blacklisting to occur so that people considered to be "communists" never found work.
•MCCARTHYISM, McCarthy, Senator Joseph: He started the hysteria that occurred after the second Red Scare and accused U.S. citizens of being communists. These accusations appealed to Midwestern Americans who found that anti-communism was to fight against liberals and internationalists. It took over the U.S. as a means of fighting communism without realizing that the U.S. was in danger of losing what it was fighting for, Freedom and the Constitution.
McCarthy, Senator Joseph: Republicans support and political power was given to senator McCarthy to instill fear within the Democratic Party. He was supported by the GOP party and many resented that he accused many people of being Communists without having proof of their disloyalty. By accusing many of communism, McCarthyism arose.
Hiss, Alger: Identified as a member of the communist party by and initially denied claims. Proof was given that Hiss was involved in espionage in the 1930s with the transmitting of information to the Soviet Union through microfilm. Indicted for perjury and sentenced to five years in prison, 1950
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg:. In March of 1951, based primarily on the testimony of their alleged accomplices, Henry Greengrass and Harry Gold, the Rosenbergs were found guilty of conspiring to commit espionage. Their electrocution in 1953 represented the anti-Communist fever that gripped the U.S.
EISENHOWER and THE 1950s
1952 election: candidates, issues: Truman would not seek reelection. The Democrats drafted Adlai Stevenson, who was unsuccessful. The Republicans decided to back the war hero Dwight D. Eisenhower who chose Nixon as his running mate. The GOP controlled both houses.
•IKE AND MODERN REPUBLICANISM: He provided Americans with the stability they craved, and labeled his credo "Modern Republicanism." In general, he was conservative on monetary issues and liberal "when it came to human beings." During his term as president, he backed the most extensive public-works program in U.S. history: the Interstate Highway Act and also extended social security benefits and raised the minimum wage.
"fiscal management": Large scale labor organizations and social welfare were used to deal with powerful pressure groups. It rejected an extreme step to the right side of politics and a return to the pre-New Deal policies. Also, it abandoned the goal of a balanced budget in favor of increased spending to restore prosperity.
AFL-CIO merger: In 1955, this brought 85% of all union members into a single administrative unit, which promised aggressive unionism under the leadership of AFL’s George Meany as president and CIO’s Walter Reuther as vice-president. However, the movement was unable to achieve its old level of success.
Alaska, Hawaii: Congress approved Alaska as the forty-ninth state of the Union in June and Eisenhower signed the Alaska statehood bill on July 7, 1958 . Congress approved of giving Hawaii statehood in March of 1959 and it was admitted to the Union on August 21, 1959.
Bricker Amendment: On January 7, 1954, Senator John W. Bricker proposed a constitutional amendment to limit the executive power of the president. His proposal called for a limit on the power of the president to negotiate treaties and executive agreements. Rejected February 26, 1954.
Khrushchev, 1955 Geneva Summit: The meeting of "Four Powers," US, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union. Also present was Khrushchev, the 1st Secretary of the Communist Party. Decided to reunify Germany, and on disarmament, and how to improve relations between east and west.
Nasser Suez Canal crisis: Dec 17, 1955, the U.S. offered Egypt a loan to build the Aswan High Dam, withdrawing its offer after Egypt accepted Soviet Union aid and Pres. Nasser nationalized the Suez canal to use tolls to build the dam. On Oct 31, Israel invaded Egypt with French and British aircraft.
•PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE: A term applied to the actions of the US under Eisenhower and USSR under Khrushchev for maintaining peace and reducing the possibility of war between the two nations. The implementation of the phrase is seen in the Geneva Summit where the "spirit of Geneva" was one of peace and collaboration to create a secure and peaceful world. March 1959 the USSR and the U.S agreed to suspend atomic testing.
Eisenhower Doctrine: January 5, 1957, Eisenhower made a speech to the joint House of Congress to limit communist expansion. Authorized March 7, the Eisenhower Doctrine allowed the president to extend economic and military aid to certain nations as well as use of $200 million mutual security funds.
•SPUTNIK: The Soviet Union launched this first satellite into orbit on October 4, 1957. Humiliated at being upstaged by the Russians, the U.S. reshaped the educational system in efforts to produce the large numbers of scientists and engineers that Russia had. In addition, to better make scientific advancements, NASA was created in 1958. Created by Congress, it brought a national aeronautics agency to administer nonmilitary space research and exploration.
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
• ROBINSON, JACKIE: He was the first African-American baseball player to play professionally in 1947. He was able to break the color barrier and seemed to successfully overcome the racism so prevalent in his sport. Robinson was also was able to contribute to the winning of the pennant and Rookie of the Year in his first year of playing.
Detroit race riots, 1966: Erupted because of constant conflict between black citizens and white cops, resulting in the bloodiest riot in this half-century. Forty-three were found dead, thousands were wounded, and over $50 million in property was destroyed.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE): The Congress of Racial Equality was formed in 1942 to help combat discrimination through nonviolent, direct action. Led by James Farmer, it organized Freedom Rides that rode throughout the south to try to force desegregation of public facilities.
"separate but equal": Enacted because of the inferiority complex given to blacks, it set forth an attempt to liberalize without losing control. The Supreme Court said that it had no place in schools, so it ordered the desegregation of schools, navy yards and veteran hospitals.
•BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA: The Supreme Court reversed Plessy v. Ferguson in 1954 by ruling in favor of the desegregation of schools. The court held that "separate but equal" violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and was unconstitutional. Refusing to force the white south to accept the ruling, defiance toward the law sprang up. Many southerners saw it as "an abuse of judiciary power."
Marshall, Thurgood: 1st African American justice of the Supreme Court, famous for his fight against discrimination, the death penalty, and his support of civil liberties and free speech. Previously a lawyer with such key victories as in Brown v. Board of Education, founder of the NAACP Legal Defense.
•MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT, Rosa Parks: In December of 1955, Parks refused to get up from her seat on the bus to give it to a white man, and was therefore arrested. This led to massive bus boycotts in Montgomery, Alabama. Because of her actions she is known as the "mother" of civil rights. Resistance to desegregation of buses was finally overcome by the Supreme Court ruling that it was unconstitutional to segregate public transportation in November, 1956.
King Jr., Rev. Martin Luther: An African-American leader who was the voice of his people. His philosophy emphasized need for direct action by getting every African-American involved in the pursuit of equality and to build a community of brotherhood in his "I have a dream" speech. On April 4,1968 he was assassinated.
"I have a dream" speech: King gave this speech during the historic civil rights March on Washington on August 28, 1963. The speech was said to be inspiring and reaffirmed the need for civil rights legislation and nonviolent protesting. The speech reiterated the American ideals of democracy and equality.
•LITTLE ROCK, ARK. CRISIS: Governor Orval E. Faubus sent the National Guard to bar nine black students from entering Central High School in Arkansas in 1957. Eisenhower then enforced a new court order that forced the men to withdraw, and a mob of whites reacted by preventing the students from entering the school. Then The National Guard was sent to protect the students from the violence for the rest of the school year. The school was then shut down in 1958-59.
Malcolm X: Malcolm X was an influential black leader who called for unity between blacks to combat oppressive forces in the United States. He was a part of the Nation of Islam, but broke with them to form a black nationalist group, the Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU). He advocated Black Power.
•BLACK POWER: Black power was a slogan created by Malcolm X and widely used by Stokely Carmichael, leader of the Congress of Racial Equality. The slogan called for all blacks to organize together and overthrow the oppressive forces of racism in America. Black power became the basis for black militancy in the civil rights movement. The slogan was used by a number of new civil rights activist groups such as the Black Panthers.
Twenty-fourth Amendment: The 24th Amendment, adopted in 1964, gave voting rights to every American citizen, regardless of their race or religion. It also prohibited the use of the poll tax or any tax that denied the vote. The amendment gave Congress the power to enforce it with legislation.
Black Panthers: The Black Panthers was a black rights political organization created in Oakland, California in 1966 by Bobby G. Seale and Huey P. Newton. It was originally a small community action group for defense against racism but later it began to urge black armament and direct confrontation with the police.
Civil Rights Act,1957: Eisenhower passed this bill to establish a permanent commission on civil rights with investigative powers but it did not guarantee a ballot for blacks. It was the first civil-rights bill to be enacted after Reconstruction which was supported by most non-southern whites.
Civil Rights Act, 1960: Eisenhower passed this bill to appease strong southern resistance and only slightly strengthened the first measures provisions. Neither act was able to empower federal officials to register the right to vote for African-Americans and was not effective.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference: In protest to Jim Crow, King organized the SCLC in 1957. It was made up of a group of ministers that supported the Montgomery bus boycott. This organization coordinated future protests and preached the need for civil rights activists.
literacy tests, poll tax: Literacy tests were given to blacks with the idea that they would be denied the right to vote since most could not read. The poll tax prevented African-Americans from voting by requiring all voters to pay a tax, which blacks could not afford. In 1966, the poll tax was outlawed in all elections.
•CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, public accommodations section of the act: Passed under the Johnson administration, this act outlawed segregation in public areas and granted the federal government power to fight black disfranchisement. The act also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to prevent discrimination in the work place. This act was the strongest civil rights legislation since Reconstruction and invalidated the Southern Caste System.
•VOTING RIGHTS ACT, 1965: The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed as a Great Society program under the Johnson administration. It prohibited the use of literacy tests as a part of the voter registration process which were initially used as a method to control immigration to the United States during the 1920s. The act enabled federal examiners to register anyone who qualified in the South, giving the power of the vote to underrepresented minorities.
Civil Rights Act, 1968: The Civil Rights Act of 1968 barred discrimination in housing sales or rentals. This act was a part of a series of new legislation that encouraged desegregation of blacks in America. The act was a key piece of legislation which ensured blacks more equal rights.
Kennedy, John F.: Elected in 1960; on November 22, 1963, when he was hardly past his first thousand days in office, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was killed by an assassin's bullets as his motorcade wound through Dallas, Texas. Kennedy was the youngest man elected President; he was the youngest to die. Vice president Lyndon B. Johnson succeeded him.
election of 1960: candidates, "missile gap": The election of 1960 was a race between Kennedy, who promised a new and better future for the nation, and the "middle way" Republican candidate, Richard M. Nixon. The issues included which path of action to take against Russia to ensure an advantage of arms, thus closing the missile gap.
•"Impeach Earl Warren": The ultra-reactionary John Birch Society created the phrase, "impeach Earl Warren" in 1954 as a result of Chief Justice Earl Warren’s rulings which affirmed the rights of alleged communists and the desegregation of schools and public areas. Warren was branded a communist sympathizer by his enemies. As a result, he lost the respect and admiration of the American public, his political friends in congress, and the government.
Miranda Decision, Escobedo decision: The Miranda Decision referred to the 1966 case of Miranda v. Arizona which required police to read a suspect their constitutional right which included remaining silent and having legal council present during police questioning. The Escobedo decision labeled the Warren Court as an intrusive presence.
Gideon v. Wainwright: The Warren Court ruled in the case of Gideon v. Wainwright that the state was required to provide attorneys for defendants in felony cases at the public’s expense. This ruling was a part of the effort to reform the criminal justice system and enable poor people legal council.
Berlin Wall: The Berlin Wall was a concrete wire wall which divided East and West Germany after World War II. It was erected by the government of East Germany in order to prevent a brain drain, in which the skilled artisans of the population immigrated to West Germany. The wall was dismantled in August of 1989.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963: The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963 was negotiated by Harriman Averell, a diplomat to the Soviet Union after World War II. The treaty was the first treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union that called for a ban on atmospheric testing of nuclear devices.
Castro Revolution: Fidel Castro led a nationalist uprising against the former despotic Cuban government. He initially asked for U.S. assistance, but American businesses feared the nationalization of their industries. When the U.S. refused to help, he turned to Soviet communism.
"flexible response": JFK’s policy of "flexible response" called for the preparation of more conventional weapons versus atomic weapons. Kennedy felt that U.S, needed both a strong military program and atomic weapons to combat the forces of communism. He reasoned conventional weapons were essential, for atomic weapons were never used.
•Bay of Pigs: On Apr. 17, 1961, a group of Cuban exiles invaded the Bay of Pigs, in an attempt to overthrow the Communist government and capture Fidel Castro. The Cuban soldiers were secretly trained by the CIA and supplied by the U.S. government. The Cuban exiles were captured and traded back to the U.S. for food. Their return embarrassed the United States and the nation acquired a reputation as a belligerent imperial country.
•Cuban missile crisis: The Cuban Missile Crisis was a major confrontation between the U.S and Russia in 1962 following the discovery of nuclear missile sites in Cuba. Kennedy placed a blockade on the island and Russia agreed to remove the missiles rather than provoke a nuclear war. It was the most imminent threat of nuclear annihilation and thereafter, a hot line was established between the White House and the Kremlin to prevent accidental missile launches. The U.S. removed nuclear weapons from Turkey.
Flower children: Flower children referred to the counterculture of the 1960s. This social category consisted mainly of student protestors who envisioned a life of freedom and harmony. They led pilgrimages to San Francisco and New York, but the counterculture rise was stemmed as the idealism turned into thievery, rape, and drugs.
Reich, Charles, The Greening of America: In his critical novel of the New Deal, Reich expressed his desire for courts to expand individual rights to protect nonconformists from social standards in 1971. He stated that it was impossible to mix individual interests in large general tax bills.
Oswald, Lee Harvey, Warren Commission: On Nov. 22, 1963 in Texas, John F. Kennedy was shot and killed by Lee Havery Oswald. As a result, the Warren Commission was created to investigate the controversial issues concerning a possible conspiracy. Oswald was later killed by Jack Ruby on his way to a court hearing.
•Election of 1964: LBJ, Goldwater: In the election of 1964 Lyndon Johnson, the elected Democratic party majority leader, defeated Barry Goldwater, the elected Republican majority leader. Main issues of the election of 1964 included serious debates over the continuation of Johnson’s Great Society plan, future civil rights legislation and the status of the war in Vietnam. Lyndon Johnson attempted to continue his Great Society program after the election with small social legislation.
War on Poverty: The term, War on Poverty, referred to Lyndon Johnson’s statement describing his goal to create a better America. It was used to describe Johnson’s Great Society package that created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Economic Opportunity Office, which began the first funding for education.
Medicare: A program of national health insurance created by the Social Security Amendments of 1965, this program gave health insurance for persons who were over the age of 65 or seriously disabled. Although some states refused to administer the insurance the Kerr-Mills Act of 1960 provided federal support for state medical programs.
Department of Housing and Urban Development: Created in 1966 to give aid to needy families located in poor inner city areas, the Department of Housing and Urban Development passed bills allocating funds to housing development projects under the leadership of Robert Weaver.
Kennedy, Robert: Kennedy was the attorney general of the U.S. in 1968 and senator from New York. He stressed that voting was the key to racial equality and pushed for the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Kennedy gained the Democratic presidential nomination in 1968, but was assassinated in California during a campaign.
Election of the 1968: Lyndon Johnson did not run for reelection in 1968 due to his dissatisfaction with the Vietnam War and public discontent. Richard Nixon captured the presidency for the Republican party after he defeated George C. Wallace, the American Independent and Hubert H. Humphrey, the Democratic candidate
Wallace, Governor: George Wallace was an American politician and three-time governor of Alabama. He first came to national attention as an outspoken segregationist. Wallace ran for the presidency in 1968 and 1972 and was shot and killed during a 1972 election campaign stop in Maryland.
•MOON RACE, Armstrong, Neil: Frightened out of complacency by the Soviet launching of Sputnik, a satellite, Kennedy promised the American people to put a man on the moon before the end of the decade. Pouring vast amounts of money into the space program, Kennedy was determined not to allow Russia to win. On July 21, 1969, Neil Armstrong walked on the moon’s surface. Americans put fears of Soviet technological superiority to rest for the United States had been the first to launch a human out into space.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA): By 1972 Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the Constitution. This amendment stated that "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on the basis of sex."
Gulf of Tonkin: The Gulf of Tonkin is the northwestern arm of the South China Sea. China and the island of Hainan border it on the west by Vietnam. It is the site for the famous battle that led to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which committed the U.S. in Vietnam.
•Ho Chi Minh: Ho was the Vietnamese Communist leader and the principal force behind the Vietnamese struggle against French colonial rule. Hoping for U.S. assistance in Vietnam’s struggle for independence, Ho later turned to the Soviet Union when the U.S. aided the French. He was a nationalist at heart and wanted Vietnamese independence far more than a communist government. He led the Vietminh, a group of guerrillas. In 1954, they defeated the French garrison at the battle of Dien Bien Phu.
•GENEVA CONFERENCE, 1954: After the fall of the French garrison at Dien Bien Phu, an international conference was called in Geneva in 1954 to discuss the status of the war in Vietnam. The delegates of the conference decided that Vietnam should be divided into North and South at the seventeenth parallel until national elections took place in 1954. The elections were never held. The conference also created an area known as the demilitarized zone.
•VIET CONG, National Liberation Front: The Viet Cong was the name given to the Vietnamese communist army; the National Liberation Front was a part of this group. In support of Ho Chi Minh, the group pushed to overthrow the South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem. The National Liberation Front was partly responsible for the fall of Dinh Bien Phu and organization of the Têt Offensive. The National Liberation Front consisted mainly of guerilla fighters.
•GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION, 1964: After North Vietnamese gun boats assaulted American ships that were organizing air strikes and military moves, Johnson and his advisers drafted the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that committed the United States in Vietnam. It was passed by Congress and gave Johnson a "blank check," granting him full authority against North Vietnamese forces. This led to the increased U.S. involvement in Vietnam.
•Têt Offensive: The NLF and the North Vietnamese arm mounted a massive offensive against the South Vietnamese and American armies on January 31, 1968, which was also the first day of the Vietnamese New Year known as Têt. The nationalists successfully penetrated Saigon and took the United States embassy. After being told that the enemy was virtually defeated, the offensive showed that the nationalists were still capable of fighting and that the government had lied. Popularity for the war vastly declined.
Bombing of Laos and Cambodia: As Nixon began to withdraw American forces in Vietnam in 1972, he sent Henry Kissinger to negotiate with the communists’ foreign minister, Le Duc Tho. In order to force a compromise, the president ordered massive bombings of Cambodia and Laos, the locations of communist supply lines.
Kent State and Jackson State incidents: In 1972, the invasion of Cambodia spread the war throughout Indochina which sparked massive American protests on college campuses. The Kent and Jackson State universities were sites of protest in which student protesters were killed.
Daniel Ellsberg, Pentagon Papers: Daniel Ellsberg was a analyst for the Department of Defense, who in 1971 released to the press the Pentagon Papers, an account of American involvement in Vietnam created by the department during the Johnson administration. The papers revealed government lies to Congress and the American people.
•Vietnamization: Popular discontent forced Nixon to pull out of the Vietnam war, but he could not allow the United States to lose face. Leaving Vietnam without honor would endanger U.S. global dominance and give a considerable advantage the Soviet Union. Vietnamization, the process of replacing the American armed forces with South Vietnamese troops trained by American advisors, allowed the U.S. to save its reputation and satisfy an American public weary with a futile struggle.
SALT I Agreement: At a meeting in Vladivostok, Siberia, in 1974, the SALT I agreement allowed Ford and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev to make enormous progress towards the new arms-control treaty. This agreement was to limit each side to 2,400 nuclear missiles which would reduce the rate of war to a mere fraction.
Détente: The evacuation of American troops from Vietnam helped Nixon and Kissinger reduce Chinese-American tensions and achieve détente with the communist superpowers. This dramatic development marked a significant change in American foreign policy by developing a cordial attitude towards the communists.
China visit, 1972; recognition of China: On February 22, 1972, the President’s plane landed in China. Part of his policy of détente, Nixon took advantage of the Sino-Soviet split to pit the former allies against each other by recognizing China. The China visit sealed the new Chinese-American friendship, leaving Russia more isolated.
War Powers Act, 1973: As an act passed by Congress, the president was given unprecedented authority. Thousands of special wartime agencies suddenly regulated almost every of American life. After the war, 15 million men had been trained and equipped with armed forces ready for battle.
NIXON AND THE WATERGATE SCANDAL
Nixon, "New Federalism," The Imperial Presidency: Nixon’s "New Federalism" promised to bring back law and order to the United States by promoting conservatism and executive authority. The term Imperial Presidency referred to Nixon’s efforts to acquire absolute control over his Presidency.
Agnew, Spiro T., his resignation: Vice President Agnew was charged with income-tax evasion and accepting bribes. He pleaded no contest which was "the full equivalent to a plea of guilty," according to the trial judge. Dishonored and distrusted, Agnew left the government service with a three-year suspended sentence.
Twenty-fifth Amendment: Ratified in 1967, this amendment detailed the procedure by which the vice president was to take over the presidency if the current president could not uphold his status in office. It also limited the power given to the vice president from the incapacitated president.
Twenty-sixth Amendment: This amendment guaranteed the rights of those who were 18 years of age or older to vote as citizens of the United States. It gave the power to Congress to enforce and protect by appropriate legislation. The amendment allowed the politicians to listen to the voices of younger people as voters.
Committee for the Reelection of the President (CREEP): Nixon created CREEP to ensure every vote for the election of 1972. Appointing attorney general John Mitchell as the head, CREEP financed many "dirty tricks" to spread dissension within Democratic ranks and paid for a special internal espionage unit to spy on the opposition.
election of 1972: Nixon’s reelection was assured. He relied on his diplomatic successes with China and Russia and his strategy towards the winding down of the war in Vietnam to attract moderate voters. He expected his southern strategy and law-and-order posture to attract the conservative Democrats.
Watergate: The scandal exposed the connection between the White House and the accused Watergate burglars who had raided the Democrats’ headquarters during the 1972 campaign. The election federal judge, Sirica, refused to accept the claim of those on trial that they had behaved on their own terms.
Watergate Tapes: Another Presidential rumor shocked the committee and the nation by revealing that Nixon had put in a secret taping system in the White House that recorded all the conversations between his enemies in the Oval Office. Both the Ervin committee and prosecutor Cox insisted to hear the tapes, but Nixon refused.
THE MIDDLE EAST
Arab oil embargo: Furious at American intervention in the Middle Eastern conflicts, the Arab nations began to downsize the exportation of petroleum products to western nations. Consequently, the western world which relied heavily on petroleum was forced to seek other resources of fuel and energy.
•ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES (OPEC): In the 1970s, Middle Eastern petroleum exporting countries formed a monopoly and agreed to raise the price of oil. As a result, the economy in the western world fell into inflation and unemployment; a nation-wide recession resulted which forced Jimmy Carter to seek new economic programs at the end of his term in office. However, he could only do little to dispel the effects of the rising prices of oil.
Palestinian Liberation Front, (PLO), Yasser Arafat: In June 1982, there was great violence in the Middle East when Israel invaded Lebanon to extinguish the Palestinian Liberation Front from its headquarters. The chaos and confusion escalated in Lebanon which was already plagued by its own Civil War.
Ford, Gerald, Nixon Pardon: On Aug. 9, 1974, Ford became the first vice president to inherit leadership of the nation after the president resigned. To put the nation forward, General Ford granted pardon for ex-President Nixon. As a result, many people were angry that the government could easily forgive corruption and dishonesty.
•"STAGFLATION": As a combination of business stagnation and inflation, "stagflation" severely worsened the American economy. When the government borrowed money to offset the drastic loss of tax revenue, interest rates still increased. The federal government could not repay the loan, and it was forced to find other methods to collect revenue. There was no simple solution to "stagflation;" to lower interest rates to prevent stagnation would worsen the ongoing inflation.
SALT II: In June 1979, Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev agreed and signed the SALT II treaty. Carter presented it to the Senate and they ratified it. Due to the invasion of Afghanistan by Russia, the Cold War thaw slowed. The U.S.-Soviet relationship grew sour, and the U.S. boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.
Election of 1976: Jimmy Carter was elected President of the United States in 1976. Climaxing a remarkable rise to national fame, Carter had been governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975 and was little known elsewhere at the beginning of 1976. Carter defeated Gerald Ford in the 1976 election.
Carter, Jimmy, Amnesty: Elected to the Presidency in 1976, Carter was an advocate of human rights. He granted amnesty to countries who followed his foreign policy. They excluded nations which violated Carter’s humane standards through cruel business practices.
Panama Canal Treaty: The Carter administration put together bargains on a number of treaties to transfer the Panama Canal and the Canal Zone to the Panamanians by 1999. This treaty was met with staunch opposition by Republicans who felt that they "stole it fair and square."
Camp David Accords: Camp David was a place where the Egyptian leader Anwar el-Sadat and the Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin came together with Jimmy Carter. They discussed certain negotiations and tried to hammer out a framework for a peace treaty for the Middle East. It represented peace and harmony in the modern world.
Department of Energy: Carter created the Department of Energy and created an energy bill including taxation on oil and gasoline, tax credits for those who found methods on saving money and alternative-energy resources. It went well and the bill for energy consumption came down in 1978.
•ELECTION OF 1980: The election of 1980 included candidates such as Republican Ronald Reagan, Democratic nominee Jimmy Carter, and John B. Anderson as the Independent candidate. The biggest issue at the time was American foreign policy, and Ronald Reagan had a greater hand in that issue. Ronald Reagan became the President of the United States in 1980 with the promise of ameliorating the American economy against the forces of "stagflation."
Economy Recovery Tax Act, 1981: Following his promise of bettering the U.S. economy, Reagan proposed a 30% tax cut allowing the money supply to circulate. He liberalized business taxes and decreased capital gains, gifts, inheritance taxes to encourage investments in a plunging economy.
•REAGANOMICS: Also known as voodoo economics, George Bush named this new economic strategy Reaganomics in the 1980 primary campaign. President Reagan believed that the government should leave the economy alone. He hoped that it would run by itself. It was a return to the laissez faire theory of Adam Smith, yet Reagan expanded his theory by advocating supply-side economics as a method to solve the economic hardships.
Supply side economics: In contrast to Adam Smith’s belief in supply-and-demand, Reagan assumed that if the economy provided the products and services, the public would purchase them. Consequently, Reagan lowered income taxes to stimulate the economy by expanding the money supply.
EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, OHSA: It was created in 1969 by President Nixon to enforce government standards for water and the air quality for work safety. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was also created to enforce the hygiene.
Election of 1984: Former Vice President Walter Mondale got the Democratic nomination over Jesse Jackson, backed by minority groups, and Gary Hart, who appealed to the young. Reagan’s campaign revolved around the optimistic slogan "It’s Morning in America" and he rode the tide of prosperity to a decisive victory.
•"MORAL MAJORITY": The Moral Majority was Jerry Falwell’s pro-Reagan followers who embraced the new evangelical revival of the late seventies. The Moral Majority was politically active in targeting such issues as abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and school prayer. They was strongly conservative, anticommunist, and influential. The Moral Majority was started in 1979 as a secular political group, and were finished as a political force by the late 1980s.
The "Teflon Presidency": Ronald Reagan’s popularity never seemed to change much despite the scandals and failures of his presidency. He was called the Teflon president by some because nothing would stick to him. Even with all the criticism, Reagan remained very popular and charismatic.
COOLING OF THE COLD WAR
Afghanistan, 1979-1989: The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in an effort to acquire more land for Russia’s use. In Moscow’s attempt to take over Afghanistan, Russia wanted to setup some sort of pro-Soviet Afghan regime. Not only did Russia try to take over Afghanistan, but they wanted them to change religiously.
Olympic boycott, 1980: When Carter and Brezhnev could not agree on the rules and regulations of the SALT II agreement, the United States picked up an anti-Soviet relationship towards everything that had to do with Russia, which unfortunately included the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.
NICARAGUA—Somoza Family, Sandinistas, Contras, Ortega: First, Carter backed the Sandinista revolutionaries in overthrowing dictator Anastasio Somoza in 1979, who was replaced by Daniel Ortega. Reagan later reversed the policy thinking that the Sandinistas were procommunist. The CIA organized an army of "contras" to oppose the Sandinistas. Fear of another Vietnam-like war prompted Congress in 1982 to halt aid to the contras. Reagan secretly began sending illegal aid to the contras, but was never held accountable.
SDI (STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE), "Star Wars": SDI was a proposed system of space based lasers and other high-tech defenses against nuclear attack, popularly dubbed "Star Wars." It was proposed by Reagan in 1983 in an effort to ward off the perceived threat of a Soviet strike as U.S.-Soviet relations worsened. Many argued it would escalate the conflict. The system carried a huge price tag, and was fiercely debated until the end of the Reagan administration. The system was never used.
Iranian crisis, the Shah, Ayatollah Khomeini: The Iranian crisis started when a Beirut newspaper reported that in 1985 the United States shipped 508 antitank missiles to the government of Iran. This exposure of U.S. intervention led to the American hostage situation held in Lebanon by pro-Iranian radical groups.
Iran-Iraq War: The war began in 1980 over territorial disputes. Fighting spread throughout the gulf region and the U.S. was dragged into the conflict several times, either being attacked or attacking hostile targets. The war ended in 1988, as Iraq began preparing to invade Kuwait. The area remained a volatile region.
•IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR, (or Irangate): Caught selling arms to the anti-American government of Iran, Reagan admitted it and stated his aim had been to encourage "moderate elements" in Tehran and gain the release of American hostages. Key players included Oliver North, who sent millions of dollars from these sales to contras in Nicaragua when Congress had forbidden such aid, and John Poindexter, who hid the affair from the president. Criminal charges were filed against only North.
•GORBACHEV, glasnost, perestroika: Mikhail Gorbachev welded influence in transforming the Soviet Union into a less rigidly communist regime. His program of economic and political reform was called perestroika or restructuring. Gorbachev’s call for more openness in government was given the name glasnost. Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union continued to improve which furthered the thaw in the Cold War.
INF Treaty, 1987 (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty): The treaty was a 1987 agreement between Reagan and Gorbachev which banned INF’s but did little to end the nuclear threat as 95% of the world’s nuclear arsenal remained. It is an example of the warming Soviet-American relations and renewed the arms control process.
•END OF THE COLD WAR, Commonwealth of Independent States, 1991: After the failed coup in August of 1991, the 15 Russian states declared independence. Fearful of centralized power but mindful of the economic pitfalls of independence, 12 of the states formed the Commonwealth of Independent States and severed all ties to the old Soviet regime. The Commonwealth was a loose economic union, though it is still considered a single country.
Jackson, Rev. Jesse, Rainbow Coalition: Jackson, once an associate of King, tried to build a "rainbow coalition" of blacks, Hispanics, displaced workers, and other political outsiders to try to gain nomination and election in 1984. Jackson ran several times for the presidency, but was not moderate enough to gain popular approval.
Election of 1988--candidates, issues: Bush got the Republican nomination while Michael Dukakis won the Democratic nomination over Jesse Jackson. Bush chose Quayle as his running mate for his good looks. Taxes, crime, and personal appearance were the main issues in 1988. Bush won fairly decisively on a negative campaign.
• BUSH, GEORGE: Bush was Vice President under Reagan, and was president from 1989 to 1993. As president, Bush was successful in areas of foreign relations. He eased relations with Russia, resisted the Russian military’s attempted coup in 1991, and fought Saddam Hussein in the Persian gulf. He was not as successful in domestic affairs as the economy dwindled and the deficit rose; the effects of the era of Reaganomics. Bush was defeated by Bill Clinton and Al Gore in the 1992 election.
holes in the "Iron Curtain": Due to Gorbachev’s more liberalized policies, Moscow began losing direct control over Eastern Europe. The USSR reduced its military force in its eastern satellites and allowed more freedom of expression. Non-Communist political movements soon developed in Poland, Hungary, East Germany, and Czechoslovakia.
Berlin Wall falls, Germany reunited: The dismantling of the Berlin Wall began in 1989. Germany, having been divided into East and West Germany since World War II, unified in October 1990. The wall which separated the two countries fell, and citizens were once again permitted to travel between East and West Germany.
Hussein, Saddam, Iraq invades Kuwait: On August 2, 1990, Iraqi president Hussein ordered the invasion of Kuwait after oil negotiations between the two broke down. Iraq had complained that Kuwait was exceeding its oil production quota and flooding the world market, driving prices down. This was the direct cause of the Persian Gulf War.
Desert Shield, Gen. Collin Powell: In August 1990, President Bush ordered a buildup of troops into Saudi Arabia called Desert Shield. It was led by General Collin Powell, who became so popular as to later contemplate a 1996 presidential run. Desert Shield became Desert Storm on January 17 with the beginning of the allied air assault.
•GULF WAR, Operation Desert Storm, Gen. Schwarzkopf: Beginning with a bombing raid on January 17, 1991, Desert Storm was directed by Gen. Schwarzkopf. The air raid utilized the most advanced missile technology such as smart bombs and cruise missiles to weaken the Iraqi defenses. Iraqi forces, though more numerous than the Allied force, were far behind technologically. The short ground war began on February 24 and ended two days later. An estimated 110,000 Iraqi soldiers died with about 300 U.S. deaths.
1991 Civil Rights Act: The act allowed women, people with handicaps, and religious minorities to collect punitive damages for intentional on-the-job discrimination. Previously, only racial minorities could claim damages. It widened the definition of discrimination and forced businesses to respect citizens rights of equality.
increased Asian, Hispanic immigration: 45% of immigrants since 1960 have been from the Western Hemisphere, and 30% have come from Asia, signaling a new pattern of immigration. The issue of illegal immigration became a hot topic politically, especially in the south west and west. Many bills were passed in an attempt to limit immigration.
CLINTON THE 42nd PRESIDENT
"gridlock," Congress vs. the President: Because a Democratic President and a Republican Congress were elected in 1992, both had the power to obstruct the other. This "gridlock" occurred midway through Clinton’s term. Unable to resolve a dispute, many government projects and parks were closed down for several weeks.
•ELECTION OF 1992—candidates, issues, Ross Perot: The election of 1992 was primarily between the Democrat Bill Clinton and the Republican incumbent George Bush. Ross Perot, of the Independent party, did well in early polls, dropped out of the running, then returned near November with much less support. The major issues were the state of the economy, which had taken a turn for the worse at the end of the Bush administration, the state of medical insurance, and Bush’s record of foreign diplomacy.
bombing of World Trade Center: In 1993, a bomb in a parking structure of the World Trade Center Building in New York killed six and injured nearly 1000 people. Officials later arrested militant Muslim extremists who condemned American actions towards Israel and the U.S. involvement in the Persian Gulf War.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): After a fierce political struggle, NAFTA was approved by Congress in 1993. It eliminated trade barriers between Canada, the U.S., and Mexico, making the flow of commerce more efficient. The NAFTA victory for free trade set the stage for the GATT treaty.
PLO-Israel Peace Treaty (1993), Arafat, Rabin: A historic treaty was signed between Yasir Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin which would allow Palestinian self-rule in parts of Israel, protect Israelis in Palestinian areas, and a recognition of Israel and the PLO as legitimate entities. Radical Israelis and Palestinians denounced the treaty and violence ensued.
Somalia: A massive famine caused by warring factions of the government prompted George Bush to send troops (along with the UN) to protect relief efforts in December 1992. The effort succeeded in ending the famine, but not the violence. Soon, the U.S. was sustaining casualties, and by 1994 the U.S. left leaving the UN in charge.
intervention in Haiti: The term referred to Operation Restore Democracy. Supported by the Clinton administration, the plan was designed to restore President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power. The mission was successful, but Aristide did little towards turning Haiti into a democracy. Clinton later withdrew his support.
Oklahoma City bombing, 1995: On April 19, 1995 a 2½ ton bomb exploded in front of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. The blast destroyed the front section of the building, killing 68; of whom 19 were children. Officials Terry Nicoles and Timothy McVeigh were right wing militant extremists angry at the government.
budget showdown between Congress and the President: Negotiations between President Clinton and Congress regarding balancing the budget wrapped up in May 1997. Republicans had originally wanted a constitutional amendment specifying a balanced budget, but Clinton resisted. The agreed upon plan is a moderate compromise.