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Amphibious Assault Aattack Transport - APA class ==========================================================================

Attack Transport (APA) is a United States Navy ship classification.

With the entry of the United States into World War II, it was quickly realized that amphibious combat operations on hostile shores would be required, and that specialized ships would be needed for the purpose. The so-called "attack transport" ship type (hull classification symbol APA) was developed to meet this need. Attack transports were converted from standard transport vessels by being upgraded with extra firepower, and outfitted with a number of smaller integral landing craft (such as LCVPs and LCMs) with which amphibious assaults could be conducted.

Amphibious/Attack Transports were designed to sail to the site of amphibious operations carrying assault troops and support equipment. APA/LPAs had the capacity to hold a full battalion of troops. The APA disembarked troops with the ships own landing craft. The APA would then stand off the beachhead ready to evacuate troops, casualties, and prisoners of war. In order to carry out its primary mission APAs had to provide all facilities for the embarked troops including, berthing, messing , medical and dental care, and recreational facilities.

Attack transports were equipped to carry landing craft and troops with which to carry out amphibious assaults. Because a troop transport carries less weight than a cargo ship, it was required that they be ballasted to compensate for the increased top weight from landing craft and landing craft davits with concrete in the bottom of the cargo holds in order to improve the ship's comfort, safety and performance.

Attack transports required a minimum cruising speed of 14 knots to keep up with fast invasion convoys, and they had more extensive communications equipment and anti-aircraft armament than ordinary transports. Most were converted from modern merchant ships.

A typical APA carried about 1500 troops and 15-33 LCVPs and 2-4 LCMs with which to land them. It took about a dozen APAs to land a division.

The first attack transports began to enter service in 1942 and were built ad hoc from a host of different types. In the early 1940s, as the United States Navy expanded in response to the threat of involvement in World War II, a number of civilian passenger ships and some freighters were acquired, converted to transports and given hull numbers in the AP series. Some of these were outfitted with heavy boat davits and other arrangements to enable them to handle landing craft for amphibious assault operations.

As World War II went on, dozens of new construction merchant ships of the United States Maritime Commission's S4, C2, C3 and VC2 ("Victory") types were converted to attack transports.

The first class of attack transports to be built in substantial numbers was the Bayfield class which began to enter service in 1943.

Bayfield class vessels were based on the large Type C3 passenger and cargo ship standard set by the US Maritime Commission. Originating in 1938, The C3 standard was designed to produce modern, good quality cargo and passenger ships to replace the ageing US merchant fleet, and which could also be readily converted into naval auxiliary vessels in the event of war. After the war broke out however, the need for shipping became so great that the US was forced to come up with designs that could be more quickly manufactured. Thus the C3-based Bayfield class and its predecessors were eventually outnumbered by the Haskell class which was based on the simpler Victory ship design.

Bayfield class vessels were based upon the C3-S-A2 design standard. The basic design had to undergo a number of changes in order to meet the attack transport specification.

In order to accommodate the troops, two cargo holds amidships had to be converted into accommodation facilities. This was achieved by dividing each hold into three decks, and then building a number of passageways along each deck. Along both walls of each passageway, bunk-beds tiered five high were installed, and since space was still at a premium, each bunk was only thirty inches wide.

The troops were provided with their own galley and mess hall separate from that of the ship's crew, but they had no dining hall and used their own mess gear to eat. A sick bay and dental clinic were also provided. The troop commander had his own private cabin and office, which was fitted with a loudspeaker system from which he could directly address the men under his command. In order to keep the soldiers entertained during their long, crowded voyages, music and other entertainment could be piped to the troop compartments.

Since attack transports would be conducting operations off hostile shores, they had a greater requirement for armament than ordinary transports, particularly in regards to antiaircraft defence. The Bayfield class vessels were well outfitted in this regard. Each vessel was fitted with a pair of 5"/38 calibre dual purpose guns, one fore and one aft. The ships were also fitted with between two and four twin 40mm antiaircraft mounts (early examples came with two quad 1.1" gun mounts instead), plus two single 40 mm mounts and eighteen 20mm mounts as standard.

As the war progressed, the 20 mm cannon were found to be less effective than the 40 mm, and the later Gilliam and Haskell classes dispensed with some of these mounts. The later classes also had only one 5-inch (130 mm) gun instead of two.

A total of 34 Bayfield class vessels were produced between 1942 and 1944 - making the Bayfield class the second most numerous attack transport class behind the Haskell class. Bayfield class vessels served in both the Atlantic and Pacific theatres of war. Some went on to see service in the Korean and Vietnam wars.

Haskell-class attack transports (APA) were amphibious assault ships of the United States Navy created in 1944. They were designed to transport 1,500 troops and their combat equipment, and land them on hostile shores with the ships' integral landing craft.

The Haskell-class design, Maritime Commission standard type VC2-S-AP5, is a subtype of the World War II Victory ship design. 117 Haskell-class ships were launched in 1944 and 1945.

The Haskells were very active in the World War II Pacific Theater of Operations, landing Marines and Army troops and transporting casualties at Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Ships of the class were among the first Allied ships to enter Tokyo Bay at the end of World War II, landing the first occupation troops at Yokosuka. After the end of World War II, most participated in Operation Magic Carpet, the massive sealift of US personnel back to the United States. A few of the Haskell class were reactivated for the Korean War, with some staying in service into the Vietnam War.

The VC2-S-AP5 design was intended for the transport and assault landing of over 1,500 troops and their heavy combat equipment. During Operation Magic Carpet, up to 1,900 personnel per ship were carried homeward.

The Haskells carried 25 landing craft to deliver the troops and equipment right onto the beach. The 23 main boats were the 36 feet (11 m) long, LCVP. The LCVP was designed to carry 36 equipped troops. The other 2 landing craft were the 50 foot (15 m) long LCM (3), capable of carrying 60 troops or 30 tons (27 t) of cargo, or the 56 foot (17m) LCM (6).[2] They also carried one gig.

The Haskell-class ships were armed with one 5"/38 caliber gun, twelve Bofors 40 mm guns (one quad mount, four dual mounts), and ten Oerlikon 20 mm guns.

Most of the Haskell-class ships were mothballed in 1946, with only a few remaining in service. Many of the Haskell-class were scrapped in 1973-75.

By the end of the 1950s, it was becoming clear that boats would soon be superseded by amphibious tractors (LVTs) and helicopters for landing combat assault troops. These could not be supported by attack transports in the numbers required, and new categories of amphibious ships began to replace APAs throughout the 1960s. By 1969, when the surviving attack transports were redesignated LPA (retaining their previous numbers), only a few remained in commissioned service. The last of these were decommissioned in 1980 and sold abroad, leaving only a few thoroughly obsolete World War II era hulls still laid up in the Maritime Administration's reserve fleet. The APA/LPA designation may, therefore, now be safely considered extinct.

Below is a brief overview of the APA ships found in the NavyField Game shiptree menu ...

Please keep in mind that the Navy Field game is an interpretation and/or a simulation of World War II naval combat. It contains MANY abstractions and some speculative ships and weapons. The visual designs of the ships, guns, and planes are very detailed. However, characteristics of some of the units in the game are sometimes historically inaccurate.


USS Randall (APA-224) was a Haskell-class attack transport of the United States Navy. She was named after Randall County, Texas and was commissioned on 12 December 1944, under the command of Captain Harold Stevens.

After training, the ship left for Pearl Harbor on 9 February 1945. She then sailed to the Volcano Islands. She arrived at Iwo Jima on 5 March, unloaded Army personnel and supplies, and uploaded Marines on their way to Guam. The ship returned to Pearl Harbor on 20 April. She next carried petroleum products to Kwajalein and took on Navy and Marine personnel for return to the USA. Arriving in San Francisco on 18 June, she proceeded to Ulithi, picked up Army units, and then continued to Okinawa, returning on 12 August.

Comedian Soupy Sales served on Randall during the war and entertained his shipmates with zany vignettes featuring White Fang, the meanest dog that ever lived.

When World War II ended, she transported Army and Marine personnel from various points in the Pacific to the US mainland. From 1952 until her decommissioning, the ship sailed from Hampton Roads and Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek often berthing at NOB Pier 2. Between 1952 and 1955, she made numerous trips to the Caribbean for training purposes and a six month training cruise to the Mediterranean. She had a total of three Captains - Nicholas Frank, Henry Sturr and Christopher Brackstone, all Naval Academy graduates. In 1954 she received the "E" award for her class.

In 1956 USS Randall was used in the filming of Away All Boats, mainly around St. Thomas in the US Virgin Islands and Vieques Island, Puerto Rico.


HMS Pitt is one of those NavyField ships where we should keep in mind that the characteristics of some of the units in the game are sometimes historically inaccurate. In this case, the Pitt was actually an American APA that served in the Pacific rather than in the Atlantic under the RN.

USS Pitt (APA-223/LPA-223) was a Haskell-class attack transport of the U.S. Navy active during World War II, including the Battle of Okinawa.

After shakedown off the California coast, Pitt departed 10 February 1945 via Pearl Harbor and Eniwetok, for Ulithi Atoll, Caroline Islands, to join 600 other ships preparing for the invasion of Okinawa.

She unloaded half of her ammunition cargo there, and the rest at Leyte. After loading Army troops from damaged attack transport Samuel Chase (APA-26), she steamed for Kerama Retto where her troops cleaned out Zamami Shima, a key island in the small group off the southwest coast of Okinawa.

She then became "receiving ship" for the Kerama Retto Naval Base, caring for several hundred survivors of Japanese suicide attacks, and shooting down one suicide plane on 6 April. Pitt steamed to Saipan, Tulagi, Noumea, and Guam before returning with passengers to San Francisco, California, for the celebrations of the Japanese surrender.

On 19 August, Pitt sailed via Ulithi to Mindanao and Leyte, where she loaded troops to occupy Aomori, northern Honshū, Japan, on 25 September. Pitt then began a series of Operation Magic Carpet assignments, returning fighting men to the States from such Pacific Ocean locations as Saipan and Tinian, Manila, and Nagoya, Japan.

She decommissioned and was transferred to the Maritime Commission on 9 April 1947 and was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 23 April 1947.

Placed in the National Defense Reserve Fleet, she was berthed at Suisun Bay in 1970. On 14 August 1968, the designation “attack transport,” APA, was changed to “amphibious transport,” LPA, and APA-223 became LPA-223. Pitt was disposed of by MARAD exchange on 1 February 1980.

Pitt received one battle star for World War II service.


Shinshu Maru was a ship of the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II. She was the world's first landing craft carrier ship to be designed as such, and a pioneer of modern-day amphibious assault ships.

Laid down in secrecy at Harima Shipbuilding for the Imperial Army as the world’s first purpose-built landing ship. The original design includes an aircraft hangar and the ship is designed carry 26 small seaplanes, but two catapults are removed before the ship is completed, and she never carries any seaplanes operationally. Landing craft can be launched from a floodable well deck or two at a time from stern doors, or be lifted out of the forward hatch with a crane. Vehicles also can be discharged directly onto a pier and she is able to transport and unload aircraft.

Completed in 1935, she was built in great secrecy, and generally sailed under a false name (Ryujo Maru or Fuso Maru.) The original design included an aircraft hangar but the accompanying catapults were never installed. Landing craft could be launched from stern doors or lifted out of the forward hatch with a crane. The Navy took over the ship from the Army during construction and designated it a landing craft depot ship.

Shinshu Maru was a significant advance in amphibious warfare, having incorporated numerous innovative features, and as such she was shrouded in a veil of secrecy throughout her existence. She could carry 29 Daihatsu-class landing crafts, 25 Shohatsu-class landing crafts and 4 armoured gunboats, to be launched from a floodable well deck.

The ship was originally equipped with two catapults and was designed to carry 26 small seaplanes. However, the catapults were removed before the ship was completed, and she never carried any seaplanes operationally.

These concepts pioneered by Shinshu Maru persist to the current day, in the U.S. Navy's LHA and LHD amphibious assault ships.

The Shinshu Maru was a unique ship. Shinshu Maru was the first landing craft carrier ship in the world. The ship, ready in 1935, was the first ship in the world that was especially arranged for the transport of landing vessels and troops to a landing area. She loaded Daihatsu landing craft in her hull, and launched them quickly from a gate at her stern. Daihatsu craft were also launched from gates at the side. The Shinshu Maru could carry a total of 2,200 troops, who would use landing craft to assault a beach. For this the ship had arrangements for 29 Daihatsu and 25 Shohatsu landing craft, which could be supported by four AB-Tei support vessels. Shinshu Maru was designed to load airplanes as well as landing craft and it was equipped with two catapults. The airplanes taking off the ship were planned to land on a captured airfield. However, the catapults were removed after the ship was finished and it never loaded any airplanes during its service. The reason of this is not clear, but probably because it freed more space for landing craft. One expected that landings nevertheless would be supported by planes as from aircraft carriers or seaplane tenders.

The Shinshu Maru, which was also designated as Ryujo Maru, was used for the landing operations in China and the landing on Malaya and Java of the Pacific War. During several operations the ship was used for fuelling and barge support. The second name Ryujo Maru can cause confusion with the aircraft carrier Ryujo. Curiously, the ship was sunk by the Japanese in 1942, in the battle of Sunda Strait [28 February - 1 March 1942], by torpedoes from the Fubuki torpedo-boat destroyer or the Mogami cruiser (or Mikuma). The special vessel Ryujo (Shinshu) Maru (8,160) tons sank in shallow water. Japanese losses were much heavier than "officially" admitted to by the IJN. The general conclusion is that because these ships were conducting landing operations and close into shore, many of the ships damaged and/or beached were salvaged -- and thus a true accounting may never be known. The IJN fired 87 torpedoes at the USS Houston and HMAS Perth. At most, 10 found their marks, so that left 77 torpedoes in the water (plus 4 fired from the Perth). During most of the battle, the Perth and Houston were between the landing force, and the covering force, so some (many?) of the torpedoes had an opportunity to wreak havoc in the landing area.

The Japanese never admitted to losing the Ryujo Maru, which was General Imamura's flagship, as detailed in the Nippon Times (an English language newspaper published in Japan during the war). The ship was (according to Imamura's account) sunk by torpedoes from the Houston (which wasn't possible). It is unlikely they came from Perth, so that leaves IJN long lances as the likely tools. Raised after this battle, Shinshu Maru was sunk a second time by airplanes and an American submarine in early 1945.

On 02 January 1945 American submarine USS Aspro (Lt.Cdr. W.A. Stevenson) torpedoed and damaged the Japanese landing ship Shinshu Maru (8170 BRT) south of Formosa Strait in position 22.42N, 119.14E. The damaged Shinshu Maru was then sunk the next day by aircraft from the US Task Force 38. After the battle by one account the ship was raised a second time by the Japanese and transited to Japan. She was afterwards never used for its original role. After the Second World War the ship was used as one of the first ships of the Japanese commercial fleet.

Shinshu means "God's Land" in Chinese and Japanese, so sometimes the IJA called her "GL" or "GL Maru".

Since the Shinshu Maru succeeded in the landing operations, the IJA built new landing craft carriers from 1939 on. There were three models, Ko, Otsu and Hei. The Imperial Japanese Army's letter sequence used for equipment modifications is Ko, Otsu, Hei, Tei, Bo, Ki, Ko, Shin, Jin and Ki [the first and seventh are different characters in writing]. They have no real alphabetic or numerical significance and are more akin to North, South, East, West in concept. Only the first four were commonly used. Model Ko was the almost same size of Shinshu Maru and loads 15 to 25 landing carfts. Five ships of Model Ko were built, of the Mayasan Maru, Kibitsu Maru and Takatsu Maru classes. The Otsu, an icebreaker, was about a half size of Model Ko. One Model Otsu was built in 1944. The Hei had a flying deck and also loaded landing craft like Model Ko. Four ships of Model Hei were built in several classes.

In 1937, during the battle of Shanghai-Hangzhou, IJA installed a fake chimney on Shinshu Maru, which was removed from battleship Hyuga during its refit (later removed from Shinshu Maru in 1943).


KMS ATLANTIS is one of those NavyField ships where we should keep in mind that the characteristics of some of the units in the game are sometimes historically inaccurate. In this case, the Atlantis was actually a German Commerce Radier rather than an Assault Troop Ship.

The German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis (HSK 2), known to the Kriegsmarine as Schiff 16 and to the Royal Navy as Raider-C, was a converted German Hilfskreuzer (auxiliary cruiser, or merchant or commerce raider) of the Kriegsmarine, which, during World War II, travelled more than 161,000 km (100,000 mi) in 602 days, and sank or captured 22 ships totaling 144,384 t (142,104 long tons). Atlantis was sunk on 21 November 1941.

She was commanded by Kapitän zur See Bernhard Rogge, who received the Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.

Commerce raiders do not seek to engage warships, but rather to attack enemy merchant shipping; the measures of success are tonnage destroyed (or captured), and time spent at large. Atlantis was second only to Pinguin in tonnage destroyed, and had the longest raiding career of any German commerce raider in either world war.

She had a significant effect on the war in the Far East due to capture of highly significant secret documents from SS Automedon.

A version of the story of the Atlantis is told in the film, Under Ten Flags with Van Heflin appearing as Captain Rogge.

Formerly a freighter named Goldenfels, she was built by Bremer Vulkan in 1937, and was owned and operated by the Hansa Line, Bremen. In late 1939, she was requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine and converted to a warship by DeSchiMAG, Bremen, and was commissioned as the commerce raider Atlantis in November 1939.

Atlantis was 155 m (509 ft) long and displaced 17,600 t (17,300 long tons). She had a single funnel amidships. She had a crew of 349 (21 officers and 328 enlisted sailors) and a Scottish terrier, "Ferry", as a mascot. The cruiser carried a dummy funnel, variable-height masts, and was well supplied with paint, canvas, and materials for further altering her appearance, including costumes for the crew, and flags. Atlantis was capable of being modified to twenty-six different silhouettes.

The ship carried one or two Heinkel He-114C seaplanes, four waterline torpedo tubes, and a 92-mine compartment. The ship was also equipped with six 150 mm (5.9 in) guns, one 75 mm (3.0 in) gun on the bow, two twin-37 mm anti-aircraft guns and four 20 mm automatic cannons; all of these were hidden, mostly behind pivotable false deck or side structures. A phony crane and deckhouse on the aft section hid two of the 150 mm (5.9 in) guns; the other four guns were concealed via flaps in the side that were lowered when action was needed.

Atlantis had two 6-cylinder diesel engines, which powered a single propeller. Top speed was 17.5 knots (32.4 km/h; 20.1 mph) and a range of 60,000 miles (97,000 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph).

In 1939, she became the command of Kapitän Bernhard Rogge. Commissioned in mid-December, she was the first of nine or ten merchant ships armed by the Third Reich for the purposes of seeking out and engaging enemy cargo vessels. Atlantis was delayed by ice until 31 March 1940, when the former battleship Hessen was sent to act as an icebreaker clearing the way for Atlantis, Orion, and Widder.

Atlantis headed past the North Sea minefields, between Norway and Britain, across the Arctic Circle, and after passing between Iceland and Greenland, headed south. By this time, Atlantis was pretending to be a Soviet vessel named Krim by flying the Soviet naval ensign, displaying a hammer and sickle on the bridge, and having Russian and English warnings on the stern, "Keep clear of propellers". The Soviet Union was still neutral at the time.

After crossing the equator, on 24–25 April, she "became" the Japanese vessel Kasii Maru. The ship now displayed a large K upon a red-topped funnel, identification of the Kokusai Line. She also had rising sun symbols on the gun flaps and Japanese characters (copied from a magazine) on the aft hull.

On 2 May, she met the British passenger liner SS City of Exeter. Rogge, unwilling to cause non-combatant casualties, declined to attack. Once the ships had parted, Exeter's Master radioed his suspicions about the "Japanese" ship to the Royal Navy.

On 3 May, Atlantis met a British freighter, The Scientist, which was carrying ore and jute. The Germans raised their battle ensign and displayed signal pennants stating, "Stop or I fire! Don't use your radio!" The 75 mm (3.0 in) gun fired a warning shot. The British immediately began transmitting their alarm signal, "QQQQ...QQQQ...Unidentified merchantman has ordered me to stop," and the Germans began transmitting so as to jam the signals.

The Scientist turned to flee, and on the second salvo from Atlantis, flames exploded from the ship, followed by a cloud of dust and then white steam from the boilers. A British sailor was killed and the remaining 77 were taken as prisoners of war. After failing to sink the ship with demolition charges, guns and a torpedo were used to finish off The Scientist.

Continuing to sail south, Atlantis passed the Cape of Good Hope, reaching Cape Agulhas on 10 May. Here, she set up a minefield with 92 horned contact naval mines, in a way which suggested that a U-boat had laid them. The minefield was successful, but the deception was foiled and the ship's presence revealed by a German propaganda broadcast boasting that "a minefield, sown by a German raider" had sunk no fewer than eight merchant ships, three more were overdue, three minesweepers were involved, and the Royal Navy was not capable of finding "a solitary raider" operating in "its own back yard". Furthermore a British signal was sent from Ceylon on 20 May and intercepted by Germany, based on the report from City of Exeter, warning shipping of a German raider disguised as a Japanese ship.

Atlantis headed into the Indian Ocean disguised as Dutch vessel MV Abbekerk. She received a broadcast—which happened to be incorrect—reporting that Abbekerk had been sunk, but retained that identity rather than repainting, as there were several similar Dutch vessels.

On 10 June, Atlantis stopped the Norwegian motor ship Tirranna with 30 salvos of fire after a three-hour chase. Five members of Tirranna's crew were killed and others wounded. Filled with supplies for Australian troops in the Middle East, Tirranna was captured and sent to France.

On 11 July, the liner City of Baghdad was fired upon at a range of 1.2 km (0.75 mi). A boarding party discovered a copy of Broadcasting for Allied Merchant Ships, which contained communications codes. City of Baghdad, like Atlantis, was a former Hansa Liner, having been captured by the British during World War I. A copy of the report sent by City of Exeter was found, describing Atlantis in minute detail and including a photograph of the similar Freienfels, confirming that the "Japanese" identity had not been believed. Rogge had his ship’s profile altered, adding two new masts.

At 10:09 on 13 July, Atlantis opened fire on a cargo ship, Kemmendine, which was heading for Burma. Filled with whisky, Kemmendine was quickly ablaze and a boarding crew returned with only two stuffed animals. Lifeboats were taken aboard which carried women and children.

In August, Atlantis sank Talleyrand, the sister ship of Tirranna. Then she encountered King City, carrying coal, which was mistaken for a British Q-Ship due to its erratic maneuvering, which was caused by mechanical difficulties. Three shells destroyed the bridge, killing four merchant cadets and a cabin boy. Another sailor died on the operating table aboard Atlantis.

In September Atlantis sank Athelking, Benarty, and Commissaire Ramel. All of these were sunk only after supplies, documents, and POWs were taken. In October, the Yugoslavian steamboat Durmitor was taken and was loaded with documents and 260 POWs, and dispatched to Italian-controlled Mogadishu. Lacking sufficient fuel, the steamer resorted to sails and, after a "hellish" voyage, made landfall in Somaliland on November 22, five weeks after departure. In the second week of November, Teddy and Ole Jacob were seized.

At about 07:00 on 11 November, Atlantis encountered the Blue Funnel Line cargo ship Automedon about 250 mi (400 km) northwest of Sumatra. At 08:20, Atlantis fired a warning shot across Automedon's bow, and her radio operator at once began transmitting a distress call of "RRRR – Automedon – 0416N" ("RRRR" meant "under attack by armed raider").

At a range of around 2,000 yd (1,800 m) Atlantis shelled Automedon, ceasing fire after three minutes during which she had destroyed her bridge, accommodation, and lifeboats. Six crew members were killed and twelve injured.

The Germans boarded the stricken ship and broke into the strong room, where they found fifteen bags of Top Secret mail for the British Far East Command, including a large quantity of decoding tables, fleet orders, gunnery instructions, and naval intelligence reports. After wasting an hour breaking open the ship's safe, to discover only "a few shillings in cash", a search of the Automedon's chart room found a small weighted green bag marked "Highly Confidential" containing the Chief of Staff's report to the Commander in Chief Far East, Robert Brooke Popham. The bag was supposed to be thrown overboard if there was risk of loss, but the personnel responsible for this had been killed or incapacitated. The report contained the latest assessment of the Japanese Empire's military strength in the Far East, along with details of Royal Air Force units, naval strength, and notes on Singapore's defences. It painted a gloomy picture of British land and naval capabilities in the Far East, and declared that Britain was too weak to risk war with Japan.

Automedon was sunk at 15:07. Rogge soon realised the importance of the intelligence material he had captured and quickly transferred the documents to the recently acquired prize vessel Ole Jacob, ordering Lieutenant Commander Paul Kamenz and six of his crew to take charge of the vessel. After an uneventful voyage they arrived in Kobe, Japan on 4 December 1940.

The mail reached the German Embassy in Tokyo on 5 December, and was then hand-carried to Berlin via the Trans-Siberian railway. A copy was given to the Japanese where it provided valuable intelligence prior to their commencing hostilities against the Western Powers. Rogge was rewarded for this with an ornate katana Samurai sword; the only other Germans so honoured were Hermann Goering and Field Marshal Erwin Rommel.

After reading the captured Chief of Staff's report, on 7 January 1941 Japanese Admiral Yamamoto wrote to the Naval Minister asking whether, if Japan knocked out America, the remaining British and Dutch forces would be suitably weakened for the Japanese to deliver a death-blow: the Automedon intelligence on the weakness of the British Empire is credibly linked with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the attack leading to the fall of Singapore.

During the Christmas period, Atlantis was at Kerguelen Island, in the Indian Ocean. There they did maintenance and replenished their water supplies. The crew suffered its first fatality when a sailor fell while painting the funnel. He was buried in what is sometimes referred to as "the southernmost of all German war graves".

In late January 1941, off the eastern coast of Africa, Atlantis sank the British ship Mandasor and captured Speybank. Then, on 2 February, the Norwegian tanker Ketty Brøvig was relieved of her fuel. The fuel was used not only for the German raider, but also to refuel the German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer and, on 29 March the Italian submarine Perla. Perla was making its way from the port of Massawa in Italian East Africa, around the Cape of Good Hope, to Bordeaux in France.

By April, Atlantis had returned to the Atlantic where, on April 17, Rogge, mistaking the Egyptian liner Zamzam for a British liner being used as a troop carrier or Q-ship, as she was in fact the former Bibby Liner Leicestershire, opened fire at 8.4 km (5.2 mi). The second salvo hit and the wireless room was destroyed. 202 people were captured, including missionaries, ambulance drivers, Fortune magazine editor Charles J.V. Murphy, and Life magazine photographer David E. Scherman. The Germans allowed Scherman to take photographs, and although his film was seized when they returned to Europe aboard a German blockade runner, he did manage to smuggle four rolls back to New York. It is generally believed that his photos later helped the British identify and destroy Atlantis. Murphy's account of the incident, as well as photos by Scherman, were in the June 23 issue of Life.

After the German battleship Bismarck was sunk, the North Atlantic was swarming with British warships. As a result, Rogge decided to abandon the original plan to return to Germany, and instead returned to the Pacific. En route, Atlantis encountered and sank the British ships Rabaul, Trafalgar, Tottenham, and Balzac. On 10 September, east of New Zealand, Atlantis captured the Norwegian motor vessel Silvaplana.

Atlantis then patrolled the South Pacific, initially in French Polynesia between the Tubuai Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago. Without the knowledge of French authorities, the Germans landed on Vanavana Island and traded with the inhabitants. They then hunted Allied shipping in the area between Pitcairn and uninhabited Henderson islands, making a landing on Henderson Island. The seaplane from Atlantis made several fruitless reconnaissance flights. Atlantis headed back to the Atlantic on 19 October, and rounded Cape Horn ten days later.

On October 18, Rogge was ordered to rendezvous with the submarine U-68 800 km (500 mi) south of St. Helena and refuel her, then he was to refuel U-126 at a location north of Ascension Island. They met with U-68 on 13 November. On 21 or 22 November, Atlantis rendezvoused with U-126. The OKM signal instruction sent to U-126 commanding this rendezvous, was intercepted and deciphered by the Allied Enigma code breakers at Bletchley Park and was passed on to the Admiralty, who in turn despatched the heavy cruiser HMS Devonshire to the rendezvous area.

Early on the morning of 22 November Atlantis was intercepted by Devonshire. U-126 dived, leaving her captain behind (he had gone aboard the Atlantis). At 08:40, Atlantis transmitted a raider report posing as the Dutch ship Polyphemus, but by 09:34 Devonshire had received confirmation that this was false. From 14–15 km (8.7–9.3 mi) away, outside the range of Atlantis's 150 mm (5.9 in) guns, she opened fire.

After 20–30 seconds, salvos of 8 in (200 mm) shells began to reach Atlantis; the second and third salvos hit the ship. Seven sailors were killed as the crew abandoned ship; Rogge was the last off. Ammunition exploded and the bow rose, then the ship sank.

Devonshire left the area and the U-126 resurfaced and picked up 300 Germans and a wounded American prisoner, whom it began carrying or towing to Brazil (1,500 km (930 mi) west). Two days later the German refueling ship Python arrived and took on the sailors. On 1 December, while Python was refueling two submarines, the third of the British cruisers seeking the raiders, HMS Dorsetshire, appeared. The U-boats dived immediately, and Python's crew scuttled her; Dorsetshire departed and it was left to the U-boats to recover the crew. Eventually various German and Italian submarines took Rogge's crew back to Germany.


FN BELFORT is also one of those NavyField ships where we should keep in mind that the characteristics of some of the units in the game are sometimes historically inaccurate. In this case, the Belfort was actually a French gunboat or sloop (which had been converted to a seaplane tender) rather than an Assault Troop Ship.

Belfort was a French Seaplane tender which was converted from an Amiens class sloop (Arras Class Gunboat) which was placed in service with the RN from 1939 to 1946.

An aviso (formerly also an adviso), a kind of dispatch boat or advice boat, survives particularly in the French navy, they are considered equivalent to the modern sloop.

The Dictionnaire de la Marine Française 1788 – 1792 (by Nicolas-Charles Romme) describes avisos as "small boats designed to carry orders or advices".

French World War I avisos, used also during World War II, had a displacement of around 300-700 tons, speed 13-20 knots, a main armament usually of two 100 mm guns, two 138 mm guns or four 100 mm guns. In English nomenclature they are often referred to as sloops.

The colonial aviso class was a type of sloop of the French Navy of the 1930s that were designed to operate in remote locations of the French Empire.

The ships were designed to operate autonomously from French colonies in Asia and Africa with a capacity of 297 tons of diesel, giving a endurance distance of 13,000 nautical miles (24,000 km). Their shallow draught allowed them to operate on large rivers, while carrying an infantry company. In this respect they were an improvement over existing gunboats.

Modern avisos have grown to become combat-capable ships, smaller in size than a corvette, but larger than patrol ships. They typically have roles in anti-submarine warfare and coastal defence. In NATO classification they are usually recognized as corvettes.

These were originally built as sloops/escorts. About eleven of these sloops were still in service when WWII began. They were designed to resemble merchant ships. I think it's safe to assume their appearance was an attempt at deception. From what i found out they were used as avisos. Which means that they were used as courier ships or used to carry orders and advice.

Belfort was adapted to tend seaplanes, rather than being a full-on dedicated aircraft carrier, Belfort launched her planes from catapults and then recovered them from the sea by use of cranes.

However, when she fled France and entered service with the British Royal Navy she was again converted. This time as a depot and repair ship.

Below is an except from “The Greatest Raid of All” and other Wartime Memories of the Royal Navy --by Dick Fulford

The F.S. Belfort was an elderly French Navy Seaplane Tender built in 1919. After the fall of France she joined our Fleet and was my first ship. I joined her in 1940 when she was alongside the China Clay jetty in Fowey and she eventually sailed to Dartmouth where she was moored in the middle of the River Dart between the Kingswear and Dartmouth ferry terminals.

She had been converted into a Depot and Repair ship for Coastal Forces - Administration, Engineering Workshops and Accommodation for spare crews - and me! She looked after some of the Royal Navy’s small warships, MTBs, MGBs, MA/SB’s and ML’s - Motor Launches.

I had been in the Navy just three months. Fortunately the Captain’s secretary was a raw recruit too so we muddled through. If this was an example of life in the Wartime Navy then I was all for it. Ashore most nights, duty frees, daily grog ration and weekend leave once a month. “A life on the Ocean Waves” - I was glad I joined!

But Alas! Their Lordships, unknown to all concerned, were planning something sinister, for in March 1942 there occurred what has since been referred to as “The greatest raid of all”, the raid on the only enemy Battleship Dock on Germany’s Western Seaboard at St Nazaire.

The Normandie Dock at St Nazaire was the only one able to accommodate the TIRPITZ and Germany’s other Capital Ships. To keep this menace away from our Atlantic shipping the Dock had to go. It was considered impregnable so had to be blown up. Yet situated at the mouth of the Loire, this seemed almost impossible.

HMS Campbeltown, an old expendable destroyer, was gutted and chosen to be the source of the explosion. She was packed with an enormous weight of explosives and manned with a chosen RN crew and Commandos to blow the whole of the dock and surrounding area to smithereens. And the 16 MLs plus one MTB and one MGB were chosen to escort her to the Loire from Falmouth and were then to act as rescue vessels after the raid.

The escort vessels were built of mahogany and ran on petrol! And because of the distance, extra petrol tanks were added. What chance did they have against a very heavily defended enemy river mouth!

However this daring night raid was planned for the night of March 28th 1942. “Into the jaws of death rode the 600” - in fact 611 men took part; 345 Navy personnel, 166 soldiers from 2 Commando, 91 forming demolition teams from the combined Commandos plus a medical party, 3 liaison officers and 2 Press representatives.

Success was overwhelming, for the Dock was out of use for 10 years, such was the destruction. Enemy Capital ships were never again able to reach out from Norway to destroy our Atlantic shipping. But sadly the cost was high for only one of the MLs (out of 16) returned to Falmouth. 105 sailors were killed, many were wounded and most of the remainder taken prisoner. 64 Commandos died, most of the others were taken prisoner. Amazingly 6 soldiers eventually reached Gibraltar and then rejoined their Units to fight again. What stories they could tell!

Admiral of the Fleet Earl Mountbatten said of the raid: “I know of no other case in Navy or Military Annals of such effective damage being inflicted so swiftly with such economy of force, for in less than half an hour from the moment the “Campbeltown” rammed, all the Commando’s chief demolition objectives were successfully achieved”.

He continued: “No fewer that five VCs were won at St Nazaire, surely by far the highest proportion of VCs ever awarded for a single operation; and this is the measure of the heroism of all who took part in that magnificent enterprise”.

I don’t believe it will ever be known how many German and French personnel were lost. The delay between the “Campbeltown” ramming the dock and then exploding was considerable and in the interim period the ship and surroundings attracted many visitors!

Some 57 years after, I went to La Baule on holiday. Here was the War Cemetery where many of those who died at St Nazaire rested. As is so often the case, many of the graves were marked “An unknown sailor, known only unto God”. Obviously chaps I had known. Able Seaman Bill Savage VC was not there. I learned after he was taken home, obviously by ML 160 and buried at Falmouth. A hero’s ending.

I did, however, view the grave of Sergeant T F Durrant VC. It was beautifully attended at La Baule cemetery and the Victoria Cross was engraved on his tombstone.

In a small way I was involved with the St Nazaire Raid. 42 very high awards were made to the sailors and quite a number were “mentioned in despatches”, many posthumously. It was so rewarding to have dealt with the administration work involved with some of these awards. It was also painful to have dealt with the sadder business.

I’ve learned much about St Nazaire since 1942. Many of my Shipmates were heroes. I remained safely on this side of the ocean - I was no hero!

Shortly after St Nazaire I was drafted to the “proper” Navy. I joined HMS Anson in 1942, a ship which, in hindsight, must have greatly benefited from the Raid. We spent 2 years protecting Russian Convoys from such as the Tirpitz; an enemy ship which caused no little trouble time and again.

When writing these notes, interesting and amusing memories flashed back to those days. I vividly remember Lieutenant Tom Boyd DSO, the skipper of ML160 coming into the office to report to the Captain of “Belfort”. He was improperly dressed - a section of his cap was missing; it had been shot away!

And just another interesting memory, Lieutenant Leslie Fenton DSC the Skipper of ML156 returned, but his boat had to be scuttled on the way back. He was an American, a well known Hollywood actor. His wife, who lived in Dartmouth at that time, was Anne Dvorak the very famous Hollywood film actress.

SN - Type LCT

The SN Type LCT is another of those NavyField ships where we should keep in mind that the characteristics of some of the units in the game are sometimes historically inaccurate. In this case, the Type LCT was actually an American Landing Craft.

Landing craft are boats and seagoing vessels used to convey a landing force (infantry and vehicles) from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault. Most renowned are those used to storm the beaches of Normandy, the Mediterranean, and many Pacific islands during WWII. This was the high point of the landing craft, with a significant number of different designs produced in large quantities by the United Kingdom and United States.

The Landing Craft, Tank (or Tank Landing Craft) was an amphibious assault ship for landing tanks on beachheads. They were initially developed by the British Royal Navy and later by the United States Navy during World War II in a series of versions. Initially known as the "Tank Landing Craft" (TLC) by the British, they later adopted the U.S. nomenclature "Landing Craft Tank" (LCT). The United States continued to build LCTs post-war, and used them under different designations in the Korean and Vietnam Wars.

Although the Royal Navy had built and used powered lighters used to land horses and men during the ill-fated Gallipoli Campaign of World War I, the invention of the tank meant that a specialized landing craft would be needed. In 1926 the first Motor Landing Craft (MLC1) was built by the Royal Navy.

However, it was at the insistence of the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill that the LCT was created. In mid-1940 he demanded an amphibious vessel capable of landing at least three 36-ton heavy tanks directly onto a beach, able to sustain itself at sea for at least a week, and inexpensive and easy to build. Admiral Maund, Director of the Inter-Service Training and Development Centre (which had developed the Landing Craft Assault), gave the job to naval architect Robert Baker, who within three days completed initial drawings for a 152-foot (46 m) landing craft with a 29-foot (8.8 m) beam and a shallow draft. Ship builders Fairfields and John Brown agreed to work out details for the design under the guidance of the Admiralty Experimental Works at Haslar. Tank tests with models soon determined the characteristics of the craft, indicating that it would make 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) on engines delivering about 700 hp (520 kW). Designated the LCT Mark 1, 20 of were ordered in July 1940, and a further 10 in October 1940.


The first LCT Mark 1 was launched by Hawthorn Leslie in November 1940. It was an all-welded 372-ton steel-hulled vessel that drew only 3 feet (0.91 m) of water at the bow. A 12-foot (3.7 m) wide hinged ramp enabled tanks to exit directly onto the beaches, while a second steel door behind the ramp sealed the bow area from the tank deck. On both sides watertight bulwark coamings contained storage compartments, which added to the buoyancy provided by the double bottom under the tank deck. Within the double bottom were ballast and fuel tanks which allowed the fore and aft trim to be adjusted for beaching. At the rear was a small bridge, beneath which were two 350 hp (260 kW) Hall-Scott petrol engines, an auxiliary generator, batteries and pumps. The hull tanks contained enough fuel for a range of 900 nautical miles (1,700 km; 1,000 mi). Aft of the engine room were quarters for ten crewmen with galley and storage. Behind the bridge was a wardroom for two officers, and mounts for port and starboard 2-pounder pom-pom machine guns. Key to the LCTs operation was the large stern-mounted kedge anchor which was dropped while inbound to the beach. This anchor stopped the LCT from slewing or broaching, and with its powerful winch, enabled the craft to pull itself off the beach once the cargo was unloaded. The bow ramp was initially raised and lowered by hand cranks, but in later versions a powered winch was installed. In each subsequent model, despite the size differences, the basic arrangement of power ramp, long tank well and aft steering station was retained.

Sea trials soon proved the Mark 1 to be difficult to handle and almost unmanageable in some sea conditions. During its tests on the Tyne the LCTs shallow draft made steering by the helm alone all but impossible, and a quick response from the engines was essential. Below, the crew compartment was damp and the sound level deafening. The engine spaces were no better, being insufferably hot and cramped. However, despite its many shortcomings, the prototype LCT delivered its promise of putting tanks ashore on any beach.

The Mark 1 first saw action during the British evacuation from Greece and Crete early in 1941. The LCTs played a key role in saving much of the armoured equipment that would soon serve in North Africa. Though the campaign in Greece was a defeat, it was not a disaster on the scale of Dunkirk, where the Army was forced to abandon all of its vehicles, artillery, and armour. During the evacuation 17 of the Mark 1's were lost.


The designers set about correcting the faults of the Mark 1 in the LCT Mark 2. Longer and wider, three Paxman diesel or Napier Lion petrol engines replaced the Hall-Scotts, and 15 and 20 lb. armoured shielding was added to the wheelhouse and gun tubs. Built in four sections, the increased length and beam also allowed for the loading of two rows of 25-ton tanks and enough fuel to triple the range to 2,700 nautical miles (5,000 km; 3,100 mi). In handling and reliability, the Mk.2 was a vast improvement on its predecessor. Seventy-three Mk.2s were built.


The Mark 3 had an additional 32-foot (9.8 m) mid-section that gave it a length of 192 feet (59 m) and a displacement of 640 tons. Even with this extra weight the vessel was slightly faster than the Mark 1. The Mk.3 was accepted on 8 April 1941, and was prefabricated in five sections. The increase in length allowed it to carry five 40-ton tanks and all their related support equipment, or 300 tons of deck cargo. Though the Royal Navy appreciated the higher load capacity of the Mk.3 it soon discovered several construction deficiencies. Pressed into service without sufficient testing, combat operations demonstrated the need to add longitudinal stiffeners to the Mk.3s (and later the Mk.4s) in order to avoid torsional stresses to the hull. Two hundred and thirty-five Mk.3's were built.


The Mark 4 was slightly shorter and lighter than the Mk.3, but had a much wider beam of 38 ft 9 in (11.81 m), and was intended for cross channel operations as opposed to seagoing use. Better accommodation for tank crews was also made possible by the increased beam. It had a displacement of 586 tons and was powered by two 460 hp Paxman diesels. With a capacity of 350 tons, it could carry nine M4 Sherman or six Churchill tanks. Eight hundred and sixty-five Mk.4s were built, the largest LCT production in British yards.

When tested in early assault operations like the ill-fated Canadian commando raid on Dieppe in 1942, the lack of manoeuvring ability led to a preference for the return to a shorter overall length in future variants.


When the United States entered the war in December 1941 the U.S. Navy had no amphibious vessels at all, and found itself obliged to consider British designs already in existence. One of these, advanced by K.C. Barnaby of Thornycroft, was for a double-ended LCT to work with landing ships. The Bureau of Ships quickly set about drawing up plans for landing craft based on Barnabys suggestions, although with only one ramp. The result, in early 1942, was the LCT Mark 5, a 117-foot craft with a beam of 32 feet that could accommodate five 30-ton or four 40-ton tanks or 150 tons of cargo. With a crew of twelve men and one officer, this 286 ton landing craft had the merit of being able to be shipped to combat areas in three separate water-tight sections aboard a cargo ship or carried pre-assembled on the flat deck of a LST. The Mk.5 would be launched by heeling the LST on its beam to let the craft slide off its chocks into the sea, or cargo ships could lower each of the three sections into the sea where they were joined together.

Powered by three 225 hp Gray marine diesels the Mk.5 had a limited range of only 700 nautical miles (1,300 km; 810 mi). They were only capable of making 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) at best; a speed too slow for independent passage across the Pacific. Shipped aboard other vessels, Mk.5's soon proved themselves in operations. Inland yards would lead LCT production and it was not long before yard workers boasted that "they built them by the mile and cut them up in feet". Four hundred and seventy Mk.5's were built.

First used in the invasion of North Africa, the Mk.5 crews immediately earned a reputation for efficiency under fire and in the worst of weather or sea conditions. Enjoying little priority in fleet maintenance schedules the LCT crews also gained a reputation for "finding" whatever they needed. Much of this lack of status within the amphibious forces was that the LCT was the smallest landing craft organized into independent assault flotillas. Almost entirely manned by reservists and draftees LCT crews operated in a free and easy manner that horrified professional naval officers. By late 1943, most early Mk.5's were relegated to training or harbor duties in the United States.


The LCT Mark 6 was a slightly larger 120-foot landing craft, but had the same engines, equipment and crew as the Mk.5. The main difference was the addition of a stern gate that allowed the LCT to moor in front of larger LSTs to become a bridge for tanks and vehicles disembarking the deeper draft vessel. In practice, this method of use was more difficult to carry out than the vessel's designers anticipated. Strong tidal currents in the uncharted reef shoals of the Pacific limited the employment of this form of beaching to heavy armoured vehicles. To allow for the passage of traffic, the small wheelhouse was moved to the starboard side of the fourteen-foot wide passageway. The winch for the stern kedge anchor was relocated atop the port side deckhouse, just aft of the port side 20 mm mount. Nine hundred and sixty Mk.6's were built. One hundred and sixty Mk.5 and Mk.6 LCTs were lend-leased to the Royal Navy, and a small number to the Soviet Union.

Though never designed to cross the Pacific under their own power, several flotillas of LCTs did make the journey from Pearl Harbor to forward areas. Success in towing strings of LCTs behind LSDs led to the decision to let Flotilla No. 31, comprising 24 Mk.6's, to make an island hopping voyage under their own power. The passage was slow and breakdowns numerous, however the flotilla safely arrived at its destination. Three months later Groups 91 and 92 of this flotilla encountered six days of high seas during a typhoon off Okinawa. Fighting 50 foot swells and hurricane force winds the craft made only 26 miles in nine hours, and were almost impossible to steer or control. When the typhoon finally abated, all the LCTs had survived and took stock of the damage. Halyards, antennas and masts were blown away, guns ripped from their mounts, and the craft had been so severely overstressed each had to replace the stripped bolts or welds holding their sections together before they could proceed to their destination.


So successful was the Mk.6 that naval architects where soon ordered to draw up plans for an even larger LCT, the Mark 7, which would have troop-carrying accommodations that Mk.6 lacked. As the design evolved, more emphasis was placed on speed and range for long Pacific transits, with the result that the Mk.7 outgrew itself by virtue of needs far greater than the LCT could provide. In 1944, when the Mk.7 design reached a length of 203 feet, its designation was changed to Landing Ship Medium (LSM). Placed in production and proving itself able to maintain convoy speeds up twelve knots, the LSM quickly took over much of the role of the LCTs in the Pacific, and 558 were built.


The British would produce one more large LCT design, the 225-foot LCT Mark 8, similar to the American LSM, in 1944. Intended for service in the Pacific and Far East, it carried eight heavy tanks or 350 tons of cargo and had accommodation for 50 fully armed troops plus a crew of 22. One hundred and eighty-six Mk.8's were ordered, however, when the war ended most were cancelled and scrapped, or sold directly into civilian service. Only 31 entered service with the Royal Navy. Twelve were later transferred to the British Army; these were initially operated by the Royal Army Service Corps, then by the Royal Corps of Transport. Between 1958 and 1966, the other 19 ships were transferred to foreign navies or civilian companies, converted for other uses, or otherwise disposed of.


An even larger LCT Mark 9 was considered in 1944, but by then, Allied amphibious shipping was at peak production and the Admiralty saw no further need for additional LCT variants. The Mk.9 design was never finalized.

Armament varied widely on the LCTs, with the British 2-pounder pom-pom mounts being gradually replaced by the faster firing 20 mm Oerlikon. The 40 mm Bofors was also widely used, and proved that the LCT was an excellent gunfire support vessel.

Other weapon combinations made the LCT into an effective floating anti-aircraft battery for harbour or support area defence. These were often manned by mixed Army and Navy crews. Others were modified post-war for other specific uses such as dredging, salvage, repair, and mine craft. Their shallow draft also made the LCT ideal for use in inland waterways.

Being in the forefront of assault landings, LCTs sustained the heaviest losses of any large landing craft. The Royal Navy lost 133 LCTs of all marks, 29 of which were U.S made Mk.5's. The U.S. Navy lost 67 Mk.5's and Mk.6's in storms, accidents or combat, with 26 lost in the Normandy landings alone, many in the gales that lashed the French coast after the initial landings.

Unlike most wartime landing craft the LCT remained in active duty with the U.S. Navy after the war, and many LCTs were also loaned or given to the post-war navies of Allied countries. In late 1949 their designation was changed to Landing Ship Utility (LSU), and changed again on 15 April 1952 to Landing Craft Utility (LCU). New landing craft (the LCU 1610-, 1627- and 1646-classes) were also built to a modified Mark 5 design. Some were later reclassified during the Vietnam War as Harbor Utility Craft (YFU) as they no longer served in an amphibious assault role, but were used in harbor support roles such as transporting goods from supply ships.

In 1964 NASA converted an LCT Mk.5 for astronaut recovery training as MV Retriever.

As of August 2007, at least one wartime LCT is still in use, the Mark 5 LCT-203, now renamed Outer Island, and operating on Lake Superior, working as a dredge and construction barge.

The British Mark 3 LCT-7074 served in Normandy. She was decommissioned in 1948, and presented to the Master Mariners' Club of Liverpool to be used as their club ship and renamed Landfall. Later converted into a floating nightclub, in the late 1990s the vessel was acquired by the Warship Preservation Trust and was moored at Birkenhead. In January 2006, the Trust went into liquidation and the ship was left to rot, and by April 2010 had sunk at her berth. Efforts are being made to raise the funds for restoration.

NB: The above text has been collected / excerpted / edited / mangled / tangled / re-compiled / etc ... from the following online sources :

APA - Amphibious Attack Transport - wikipedia article #1

APA - Bayfield class Amphibious Attack Transport - wikipedia article #2

APA - Haskell class Amphibious Attack Transport - wikipedia article #3

APA - Amphibious Attack Transport - Pacific War Online Encyclopedia

APA - Amphibious Attack Transport -

APA - Amphibious Attack Transport -

APA - USS Randall - wikipedia article #4

APA - USS Pitt - wikipedia article #5

APA - Japanese amphibious assault ship Shinshu Maru - wikipedia article #6

APA - IJN Shinshu Maru -

APA - Shinshu Maru class - Pacific War Online Encyclopedia

Shinshu Maru, Japanese Landing Craft Depot Ship -

German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis - wikipedia article #7

Seaplane Tender - wikipedia article #8

Aviso Gunboats - wikipedia article #9

Aviso - Bougainville class Sloop - wikipedia article #10

Belfort - Survivor Memory -

Amphibious Landing Craft - wikipedia article #11

LCT - Landing Craft,Tank - wikipedia article #12

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