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Advanced Placement Government
Class Resources

These are the Supreme Court Decisions you will need for class.

Decisions Related Case
1. Marbury v. Madison (1803) Established judicial review;midnight judges; John Marshall; power of the Supreme Court. U.S. v. Nixon (1974).
2. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Established national supremacy; established implied powers; use of elastic clause; state unable to tax federal institution; John Marshall; "the power to tax is the power to destroy". Gonzales v. Raich (2005).
3. Schenck v. U.S. (1919) Oliver Wendell Holmes; clear and present danger test; shouting "fire" in a crowded theatre; limits on speech, esp. in wartime. Texas v. Johnson (1989).
4. Brown v. Board, 1st (1954) School segregation unconstitutional; segregation psychologically damaging to blacks; overturned separate but equal; use of 14th Amendment; judicial activism of Warren Court; unanimous decision. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).
Brown v. Board, 2nd (1955) Ordered schools to desegregate "with all due and deliberate speed."
5. Engel v. Vitale (1962) Prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools by virtue of the 1st Amendment's establishment clause and the 14th Amendment's due process clause; Warren Court's judicial activism. Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002).
6. Baker v. Carr (1962) "One man, one vote." Ordered state legislative districts to be as near equal as possible in population; Warren Court's political judicial activism. Gill v. Whitford (2017).
7. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) Ordered states to provide lawyers for those unable to afford them in criminal proceedings. Warren Court's judicial activism in criminal rights.
8. NY Times v. Sullivan (1964) Held that statements about public figures are libelous only if made with malice and reckless disregard for the truth.
9. Roe v. Wade (1973) Established national abortion guidelines; trimester guidelines; no state interference in 1st; state may regulate to protect health of mother in 2nd; state may regulate to protect health of unborn child in 3rd. Inferred from right of privacy established in Griswald v. Connecticut. Pottawatomie v. Earls (2008).
10. Shaw v. Reno (1993) No racial gerrymandering; race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries; majority-minority districts. Gill v. Whitford (2017).
11. U.S. v. Lopez (1995) Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce. The first case to begin reigning in Congress' authority under the Commerce Clause. Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S. (1964).
12. Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972) Compelling Amish students to stay in school past 8th grade violates free exercise clause. Oregon v. Smith (1990).
13. McDonald v. Chicago (2010) The Second Amendment is applicable to the states. District of Columbia v. Heller (2008).
14. Citizens United v. FED (2010) Political spending by corporations/labor unions is protected speech.
15. Tinker v. Des Moines ISD (1969) Public school students have the right to wear black armbands to protest Vietnam War. Morse v. Frederick (2007).