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Military Resources  

Warfare in the Ancient World
Bibliography supplied by Hugh Elton Trinity College

SAMH: The Society for Ancient Military Historians
The Society of Ancient Military Historians is an organization dedicated to the promotion of the study of warfare in the Ancient World. Members sponsor and contribute to the publication of our newsletter, Res Militares. Our leadership works with and within the American Philological Association to arrange contact between our members and within the larger academic community.

Annotated Chronology of Military Events
1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 Copyright. Richard R. Orsinger ". . . [T]hat the great deeds of men may not be forgotten . . . and especially, the causes of the war between them."

Military History of the Roman State
A listing of works relevant to particular campaigns and battles in Roman History supplied by Hugh Elton Trinity College

Warfare in the Roman World
"Many of these sites will provide useful tools into. Some currently have descriptions and some do not.  The lack of descriptions does not reflect on the quality of the site, only the time constraints that I have in creating the descriptions."

Imperial Battle Map Index by Hugh Elton, Cartography by Christos Nüssli  Courtesy of the De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors .

Imperial Battle Description Index by Hugh Elton  Courtesy of the De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors .

The Roman Army: A Bibliography
A listing of works relevant to the study of Roman warfare provided by John Paul Adams California State University Northridge

The Roman Army in the Late Republic and Early Empire  "The following information is intended to give a generic picture of military organization, armor, weaponry, etc. during the late Republic and early Empire." Courtesy of Barbara F. McManus, The College of New Rochelle.

The Roman Army, Part II  "...information on legionary armor, auxiliary troops, army activities and pay, and punishments and rewards." Courtesy of Barbara F. McManus, The College of New Rochelle.

Models of the Roman Legion By Gary Brueggeman   "The purpose of the models presented here is to help visualize the legion. The models have been built from data from a variety of experts, many of whom do not agree with each other. The hope is that the models themselves may serve as a tool to clarify questions, identify solutions which are more or less likely, and lead to a further refinement of knowledge about the legion."

Virtual Legion-Online History: Exploring the Army of Ancient rome  "Welcome to Virtual Legion, an interactive historical reference to the legions First Century AD."

The Glory That Was Rome  An overview of the military institutions of the Roman state. Topics covered include Legions, Siege warfare, Artillery, Navy, Command, Wars, Emperors, Timeline, links, sources.

Rome  A brief but fairly detailed complete survey of the military institutions of the Roman state. The site includes an excellent glossary of Roman army terminology

RedRampant.com  "Historical references such as: Uniform and Armor Guides, Shield Patterns, Battle Descriptions, Maps and More!"

Romanarmy.com: a military history and archaeology community  "RomanArmy.com is more than just a resource site -- it's an ever-increasing community of like-minded students and scholars from around the world, who share a mutual interest in the Roman army."

Roman Military Glossary  Excerpted from Roman-Britain.ORG

Rekonstruktion eines Reiters der Ala II Flavia milliaria
"In Aalen war die Ala II Flavia pia fidelis milliaria stationiert, ein 1 000 Mann starke Kavallerieregiment. Diese Reitereinheiten bildeten die Elite der am Limes stationierten Hilfstruppen" The text is in German accompanied by photographs. Courtesy of the Limesmuseum Aalen.

Trajan's Roman Cavalry Site
"Welcome to Trajan's Roman Cavalry Site. The articles that you will find on the following pages will I hope give you an insight regarding current understanding of the Roman Cavalry. These are my own views and do not necessarily reflect the views of my organization."

Marcus Junkelmann
"Marcus Junkelmann ist der Autor zahlreicher Bände zur römischen Militärgeschichte, die grosse Resonanz gefunden haben, da er seine wissenschaftlichen Studien mit einer Nachprüfung der Ergebnisse im archäologischen Experiment zu Pferde und zu Fuss ebenso erfolgreich zu verbinden wie anschaulich aufzubereiten versteht"

On the Cavalry Commander By Xenophon   Courtesy of the Perseus Project at Tufts University.

Military Medicos   "Before Hellenistic influence, the Roman legion did not contain any medical services. The common practice among professional generals." Courtesy of the University of Virginia Health Science Library.

Documents in Ancient Military History Courtesy of Hillsdale College's Documents in Military History.

Frontini: Strategemata  In Latin. Courtesy of Forum Romanum.

Frontini: Strategemata  In Latin. Courtesy of the Latin library.

Frontini: Strategemata  The complete Latin text and English translation by Charles E. Bennett, published by Loeb, 1925. Courtesy of LacusCurtius copyright © William P. Thayer 2002.

Letters Written by Roman Soldiers.  Courtesy of John Paul Adams, Department of Modern and Classical Languages & Literatures, CSUN.

Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies.
The Journal (ISSN 09613684) is dedicated to the Study of the Weapons, Armour, and Military Fittings of the Armies and Enemies of Rome and Byzantium. It covers all aspects of the subject and its source material - archaeological, literary, sub-literary, iconographic/representational, and experimental.

ROMEC:The Roman Military Equipment Conference.
"The first Roman Military Equipment Research Seminar was held in the Department of Ancient History and Classical Archaeology (now, sadly, defunct) at the University of Sheffield (GB) in 1983. It has since grown and now visits various international venues, but still retains the same goals as that first seminar: to further the study of Roman military equipment with contributions from professional or amateur, academic or re-enactor, archaeologist or historian."

Arma
"Arma is the newsletter of the Roman Military Equipment Conference (ROMEC) which, since 1983, has met to discuss the arms, armour, and military fittings of the Roman army. The proceedings of these volumes have been published (four of them by British Archaeological Reports) but Arma now provides an opportunity for the publication of short notes on recent finds, news of relevant publications, and a running bibliography of academic articles published on the subject since 1980. The newsletter also supplies details about forthcoming events, including of course the next ROMEC. Of interest to specialists and enthusiasts alike, as well as unit and museum staff, and academics working in related fields, Arma offers the chance to keep up-to-date with Roman military equipment studies."

Armamentarium:The book of Roman arms and armour.
"ARMAMENTARIVM has the ultimate aim of providing a successor to H. Russell Robinson's seminal volume The Armour of Imperial Rome, published in 1975 and long out of print. As such, ARMAMENTARIVM will exploit the latest available technology to function as a dynamic book: it will be updated as and when new material becomes available and so will be as true a reflection as possible of the current state of scholarship on Roman military equipment".

ArmaList
" ArmaList is intended to act as a forum to discuss all issues relating to Roman military equipment studies, but it is hoped that it will primarily serve for debate on the form and structure of ARMAMENTARIVM, and it will be the main location for posting new contributions to the Web site as they are added. It is manually run, not on a computerized list server, so do not be surprised if it takes a while for things to get posted or responded to. "

Casques Italiques
The evolution of Roman helmets. In French

Two bronze helmets of Etruscan typology coming from a Roman wreck found at the Les Sorres anchorage (Gavą-Viladecans, Catalonia)
First published in spanish at REMESAL, J. & MUSO, O.: "La presencia de material etrusco en la Península Ibérica", Barcelona, (1990) 1991, p. 601-614. Electronic publication 1999.

Loricae Romanae  "This set of pages presents images and information about the construction, decoration and function of Imperial cuirasses of the first two centuries A.D. and the problems in dealing with archaeological and iconographic evidence. Note: Quotes from other sources and Roman words denoted by Italics."

The Newstead 'lorica segmentata'by M.C. Bishop   Excerpted from the Journal of Roman Military Equipment Volume 10, 1999.

Roman armour of unique significance discovered
Hundreds of items of Roman armour thought to date from around the time of the Emperor Hadrian's visit to Britain in June 122 AD have been uncovered on the site of a Roman fort in Carlisle. Courtesy of the Royal Armouries News 4 May 2001.

The Roman Sword in the Republican Period and After.
"The sword was a mainstay of the Roman military throughout its history. It is my intention to describe the manufacture of swords, as well as the use of steel for sword blades. I will then describe the evolution of the sword within the Roman world in the Republican period and afterwards." Excerpted from Ancient Roman Technology.

Tunic Color
Discussion of Roman military tunics excerpted from the Legio XX Online Handbook.

Roman Army Sandals: The original Caligae
Replica Roman army sandals by the Osprey Trading Company.

Catapults in Greek and Roman Antiquity
By D. Baatz

Legio XX Valeria Victrix Ballestria
"The goal of Legio XX Valeria Victrix Ballistaria is to recreate the equipment, clothing, and weapons of a ballista team from the 2nd Century A.D."

Archaeological Finds Related to Siege Engines
Courtesy of Darius Architectvs.

The Cheiroballistra
"What lies in the Greek name 'cheirobállistra'?. It's just the translation of the Latin 'manuballista' (i.e. 'hand-ballista')."

Reconstrucing Ancient Artillery   Courtesy of Aitor Iriarte.

Reconstrucing Ancient Roman Artillery   Excerpted from Ancient Roman Technology.

Roman Print Collection  Courtesy of Aero Art International Online.

Roman Military Diploma from Slavonski Brod Military  "The regional museum in Slavonski Brod, Croatia, managed to obtain an extremely valuable antique artefact in 1997. It is a Roman military diploma dating from the first century A.D, which had been discovered by chance, while recovering sand from the Sava river bed."

Extract from The Earliest Diploma of Thrace, AD 114 (=RMD I 14) by Evgeni Paunov and Margaret Roxan,
Zeitschirift fur Papyrologie und Epigrahik, Band 119, 1997 pp274-279.

The Roman Limes   "The following bibliography consists of 335 relatively modern works on the Roman army, provinces, trade, manufacture, and western frontiers. It is not an exhaustive list. A large proporion of its entries refer to Roman Britain, and few works are provided that cover the the of the Later Empire."

The Roman Forts on the Arabian Frontier: The Meaning of the Limes Arabicus  An excellent survey of the subject, includes photos and maps. Courtesy of the Virtual Karak Resources Project. © Copyright 2001-2002 Virtual Karak Resources Project and Appalachian College Association.

El-Lejjun Roman Legionary fortress, Jordan: A recently declassified CORONA image shows the fortress in plan view.  An excellent survey of the subject, includes photos and maps. Courtesy of the Virtual Karak Resources Project. © Copyright 2001-2002 Virtual Karak Resources Project and Appalachian College Association.

Britannia Military History Bibliographical Database
"The bibliography consists of papers and books all published broadly since the 1970's, plus a separate listing of modern editions of classical authors. The bibliography is drawn from material collected by Dr James Stewart and Peter Green."

Roman Military Sites in Britain
"A non-specialist's introduction to the fortresses, forts, watchtowers, temporary camps, depots and industrial sites, built by the Roman Army in Britain. Plus background material on the Roman Army and the military history of the province." © Peter Green 1997

The Chester Project: Reconstructing Roman Chester
"The Chester Project is a long term project to reconstruct, using computer graphics, the Roman Legionary fortress of the mid-third century AD, a time when the fortress was in it's most complete."

The Defences of Chester: Reconstructing the Defences of Chester
"Welcome to the homepage of a reconstruction project to support the recently published report on the defences of Chester. Although the project currently depicts the early and middle Roman periods, it will ultimately encompass all major periods up to the present, bearing in mind also that the term 'defences' tends to lose its relevance as we approach the present.

Signalling and the Design of the Gask Ridge System
"This paper attempts to describe the signalling arrangements of the Gask Ridge and the influence these may have had on the general layout of the system, in an effort to understand the purpose and context of the Roman line " By D. J. Woolliscroft. Excerpted from the The Roman Gask Project.

Roman Scotland: Outpost of an Empire.
Exhibition at the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. This exhibition tells the story of the Roman presence in Scotland in the first and second centuries AD, with emphasis on the Antonine Wall frontier and the life lived by the soldiers based in forts along its line.

Hygini Gromatici: De Munitionibus Castrorum  In Latin. Courtesy of Forum Romanum.

[Psuedo-] Hygini Gromatici: De Munitionibus Castrorum  In Latin. Courtesy ofThe Latin Library.

Legions of the Roman Empire from C. Iulius Caesar to III cent. AD  Brief histories of the Legions of the Roman Empire from C. Iulius Caesar to III cent. AD. Excerpted from the Roman Empire-Seedbed of Christianity.

The Roman legions
"On this site, you will find an alphabetical and chronological catalogue of the imperial legions." Article by Jona Lendering ©

Roman Period Living History Groups (100BC - 500AD)
"A non-specialist's introduction to the fortresses, forts, watchtowers, temporary camps, depots and industrial sites, built by the Roman Army in Britain. Plus background material on the Roman Army and the military history of the province." © Peter Green 1997

Rome
"This site is intended to represent our Rome - a combat simulation society. This is not a historical Roman site, nor are we by definition a reenactment organization. What we are is more a celebration of what Rome was rather than an attempt to recreate it. If your objective is research, click here for our superb list of Roman resource links. If you're conducting research on Roman sewage systems for your school paper, please understand that's an example of a fascinating topic we care nothing about. We're a fight club. But we thank you for your interest and enthusiasm in Rome, a topic so dear to us all."

Römergruppen - Imperial Roman Reenacting
Links to Roman reenactor groups around the world.

The Roman Hideout
Links Collection for Roman Reenactors. Links to reenactor groups, suppliers, documents, archaeological and other sites of interest to students of Roman warfare.

The Roman Army Page: Imperial Service quarantees citizenship: Would you like to know more?
The homepage of Sander van Dorst with numerous links for the study of the Roman army.

The Romans: "All Roads lead to Rome"
The Rome's tenacity towards any adversity created a  world that lasted over a thousand years. Roman culture evolved through that time, from a small collection of villages on seven hills and the earliest kings, to the Republic, to the Empire, and it is still with us. The Roman culture and military which created and held this together is a fascinating study of organization, arts, economics, discipline, technology and thinking. 

The Ermine Street Guard.
The Ermine Street Guard is a society dedicated to research into the Roman Army and the reconstruction of Roman armour and equipment. The reconstructions are primarily from the latter half of the first century A.D. although equipment from other Roman periods is reproduced for experimental and display purposes.

The Antonine Guard Roman Research Society.
"The Antonine Guard was formed in 1996. It is a Roman Historical / Re-enactment group concentrating on the period of Roman occupation of Scotland in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Our prime aim is to promote a greater awareness of Roman Scotland for the general public."

Legio I Italica .
"The LEGIO I ITALICA of Villadose has been founded in 1996 upon an idea of Sandro Maragno, partner of GAV, to remember the legion recruited by the emperor Nerone in the 67 AD. "

Legio I Italica.
"Legio I Italica (US), as with our sister unit in Rome Italy, is an Imperial Roman living history and educational "unit" that emulates the Legionary of 68 AD to 180 AD.  We are located in Metro-Atlanta with a excellent "Sister" unit based in Rome, Italy. If you think that you might like to "be conscripted"  into Legio I Italica then please contact us........... "

Legio Secunda Augusta.
"Legio Secunda Augusta (LEG II AUG) is the title of a society based in Portsmouth, Hampshire that seeks to re-create the "living history" - in both its military and civilian aspects - of Roman Britain during the first two centuries AD."

Legio II Avgvsta (NZ).
Reenactment group based in New Zealand

Legio II Traiana Fortis (The Strong Legion of Trajan): A Las Vegas based Roman Reenactment Group
"LEGIO II TRAIANA FORTIS, the strong Legion of Trajan, is currently stationed in Las Vegas Nevada, land of glass and steel Monoliths and Pyramids. We portray 2nd century Roman Army drill and camp life during both the Dacian and Parthian War periods, we also recreate 2nd century Civilian life, both Urban and Camp. We hope to have everything from Senators to Gladiators. We also welcome Celts, Greeks and others of the Time to Participate."

Welcome to the Homepage of the II Parthian Legion.
"The significance of the II Parthian legion and the reign of Septimius Severus for the town of Albano is such that it gave rise to the idea of creating a study centre for this period of history approximately three years ago."

VojniciI Legio IV Flavia
"Rimska vojska na tlu Sinigidunuma". In Serbo-Croatian. By Nemanja Mrdjiç

Legio IV Macedonica
" La Legio IV MACEDONICA, es la reconstrucción de un Contubernio (grupo formadolegionarios), creado por el Taller de Reconstrucción Histórica y Arqueológica,del ejercito de las Legiones de Romana en la antigüedad."

Legio V Lucana Cohors Mediolana
"The Legio V Lucana (the name is purely invented) was founded in the year 2000 A.D. and is composed by roman reenactors enthusiasts. The group is young and it's looking for new members to organize cultural activity and entertainment."

MARS (Midwest Ancients Reeanctment Society) and Legio V Macedonica
"MARS is a living history educational society based near Chicago, Illinois. We recreate daily life in and around the Roman Empire during Trajan's Dacian Wars (101-106 CE). We focus on Legio V Macedonica Pia Fidelis, but welcome all occupations and societies of early 2nd century Europe."

Legio VI Ferrata.
"After more than two years of inactivity, LEG. VI is ready to take its place among the great Roman reenactment legions world wide. We are portraying a first century A.D Roman Legion as garrisoned in the deserts of Syriaand Judea."

Legio VI Victrix- Cohors VI Asturum
"Die I. ROEMERCOHORTE OPLADEN e. V ist ein historischer Verein, der es sich zur Aufgabe gemacht hat, die Ausrüstung, die Lebensumstände und den Alltag des römischen Militärs und seines zivilen Umfeldes hypothetisch zu rekonstruieren und so authentisch wie möglich praktisch nachzuvollziehen." Also in English.

Legio VI Victrix
"This is the official website of the Legio VI Victrix, a historical re-enactment group dedicated the study and re-creation of the Roman military life during the 1st and 2nd century A.D. The Legio VI Victrix is a non-profit living history organization, affiliated with the micro-nation Nova Roma."

Legio VI Victrix Castra Eburacum
"Legio VI Victrix, or Legion Six Victorious, played an important part in the existence of the Roman province of Britannia. In a very real way, the soldiers of this ancient army are among the forefathers of our own society. Despite this, most people know only what Hollywood has seen fit to tell them about the Empire and it's people. It is for this reason that we re-create this unit and it's local civilian counterparts. By understanding Imperial Rome, we hope to provide insight into our own modern society, attitudes, and governments. By presenting an accurate and researched picture of life on the Roman frontier, we strive to enlighten our society about the nation that was the main foundation of western culture."

The Sixth Imperial Legion of Rome: Ferrata Fidelas Constans
"The purpose of this organization is to serve the educational and public interests by accurately presenting the life and times of the legionaries of Rome in a credible atmosphere. We are interested in healthy growth of the unit through the addition of like minded members, but stress quality over quantity in both members and equipment. We also want to have fun while when we are together and working on "Living Archeology"."

Legio VII Claudia Pia Fidelis.
"Legio VII CPF is in the initial stages of development here in Canton, Ohio. We are looking for dedicated Roman re-enactors who wish to be a part of our fledgling cohort. Come join us at our first formal meeting July 14th 2000, to be held at my home. Kit items have been ordered, and construction of our lorica segmentata will begin soon.  All interested parties are welcome. For more information please feel free to e-mail me at the address below. I'd be happy to answer any questions you may have. Our goal is to take the field as a unit at Matthew Amt's next (Roman Days) hosted by Legio XX"

Legio VII Gemina.
"We are a Roman re-enactment association based in Tarragona (Catalonia). As we are supported by the History Museum of Tarragona, all performances are assured to be historically accurate."

Legio VIII Augusta.
Interessengemeinschaft für experimentelle Archäologie und Geschichtsdarstellung.
"The Vexillatio LEGIO VIII AUGUSTA is a group of people who are interested in Roman History, especially concerning the 1st century a.d..Since 1991 we reconstruct all kind of ancient weapons, tools and daily-life stuff. During our events, several Roman soldiers show different types of armour, reconstructed catapults (scorpio), a Roman camp and civilian items are on display like a provincial clothes fashion-show, a religious ceremony, a Roman woman doctor (medica) with her typical equipment and a Roman writer`s office (scriptor)." English version availabale.

Legio VIII Augusta MGV; A living historical society depicting 1st and 2nd century Roman Britain.
"We are a group of enthusiasts from Wales and the North of England who aim to authentically depict the society which existed in Roman Britain during the late 1st and early 2nd Century AD."

Roman.org.UK: Legio VIII Augusta MGV/Damonii
"Legio VIII Augusta was formed originally in North Wales. From small beginnings, our membership is now also drawn from much of England, and beyond. We are now counted by our peers to be amongst the top re-enactment societies representing our chosen period. As event promoters realise the public appeal of Roman combat as well as the more traditional drill displays, our events are normally  in partnership with our very good friends, The Damonii."

Legio VIII Augusta
"Bienvenue sur le site de la VIIIème lé'gion romaine "Augusta". Nous sommes un groupe de reconstitution qui s'applique ą recréer avec un souci d'authenticité historique l'uniforme et l'équipement des légionnaires romains du 1er siècle après J.C."

Leg VIIII Hspa Pagina Domus
"The aims of the somewhat anarchic collective of interested individuals (hereinafter known as 'The Society') are: To recreate all aspects of life in the Roman Legions of the last half of the first century anno domini, including campaign, drill, combat and leisure activities as accurately as possible using the tools of living history and practical archaeology."

Legio IX Hispana
"Legio IX Hispana was founded in 1994 as a combined SCA warband(Society for Creative Anachronisms) and Roman reenactment club. Within the SCA we were known as The 9th Legion. While under my command we earned many accolades including the highest award bestowed upon aWarband in the Kingdom of Caid... The Crossed Swords... awarded to us twice, something only 5 other Warbands have achieved in the 30 years of the award1s existence."

Legio X Fretensis.
"Now LEGIO X FRETENSIS is the military historical club. We make reconstruction weapon, armor, eguipment and life of roman legionaries from reign of Emperor Marcvs Ulpivs Traianvs (98-117 AC)."

Legio X Fretensis Cohort IV.
Homepage of a military historical club.

Legio-X- Fr: I Legionari legati al mare
Homepage of an Italian military historical club.

The Legio X Gemina Homepage
Home-page of THE GEMINA PROJECT, a Dutch Roman Military reconstruction and reenactment group.

Legio XI Claudia pia fidelis
Home-page of a Roman Military reconstruction and reenactment group.

Legio XI Clavdia Pia Fidelis Cohors XCandida
Home-page of a Roman Military reconstruction and reenactment group from Germany.

Legio XII Fulminata
"Welcome to the site of Legio XII Fulminata, we are a historical reenactment group based on the Imperial Roman Army of the 1st Century AD. We are based in Quebec City, but have members in Montreal and Gatineau (Hull). We are at in the midst of an intense recruitment drive! Imperial service guarantees citizenship! Read more about joining us, in the "Recruitment" section or contact us at: legioqc@yahoo.ca! We hope that you enjoy your visit to our site. -LEGIO XII."

Legio XII Fvlminata Cohors II Italica Civivm romanorvm volumtariorvm
Anno MMDCCLIII ab urbe condita aliqi iuvenes rerum veterum memoriae studiosi histoicam consociationem institueruntI.  Societas imperialia saecula, quae documentis momentis littrearumque abundant, fingit.

Colchester Roman Society.
"The Colchester Roman Society was formed in the summer of 1987, initially as the Balkerne Gate Guard. The aim of the society was, and continues to be, research into and the recreation of equipment, training and lifestyles of the Roman military and civilians during the 1st and 2nd Centuries AD. Originally adopting the LEG XIIII GEMINA, in 1997 the society decided to concentrate on auxiliary units and adopted the COH I FIDA VARDULLORUM MILLIARIA EQ CR."

Legio XIII GEM ; A living historical society depicting 1st and 2nd century Roman Britain.
" You are now on the Homepage of the Society for Roman History in Austria, an Austrian Roman Military and Civilian reconstruction and reenactment group."

Legio XIII Gemina; A living historical society depicting 1st and 2nd century Roman Britain.
"Welcome to the cyber camp of Legio XIII GEMINA in the United States."

Legio XIIII. Ancient Rome brought to life.
"Cast your mind's eye back through time to ancient Roman Britannia. The year is approximately AD 43, and the Great Roman Empire has virtually conquered the world, by force and by skill-at-arms. The Romans have built a formidable military machine, based on well-equipped, strictly disciplined forces, commanded by some of the greatest military minds in the history of mankind."

Roman Military Research Society: Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix
"The RMRS is a research and re-enactment group specialising in recreating the Roman army and Roman life during the latter part of the 1st century AD. In particular, we represent a detachment of the Fourteenth Legion, Gemina Martia Victrix, one of the most famous units of the Roman army in Britain."

Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix
"We are a living history/reenactment group located in the Milwaukee area. Our members are from many walks of life and different historical backrounds."

Legio XV Apollonaris.
"Welcolme to the homepage of the Legio XV Apollonaris, the Norwegian group for Roman re-enactment and Roman live role playing. Our aim is to portray a Roman unit of the second half of the 1st century AD, and use it in a live roleplaying- setting. As far as we know we are the only group in Europe combining live roleplaying and re-enactment in this manner. We would love to hear from others."

Legio XV Apollanaris
"Die Legio XV ist eine Römergruppe aus Pram (Oö), welche die "altösterreichische" - in Carnuntum (Petronell, Nö) stationierte - Fünfzehnte Legion Apollinaris wieder zu neuem Leben erwachen lässt. Unter wissenschaftlicher Beratung wird das Leben und Kämpfen der römischen Legionäre Ende des 1. Jhdts. n.Chr. originalgetreu nachempfunden."

The Imperial Roman Twentieth Legion: Bringing Ancient Rome to Life
"The Twentieth Legion was founded in 1991 to recreate the soldiers of the Roman Army for public demonstrations and living history displays"

Legio XX Valeria Victrix
Courtesy of Steve Malone of the Trent & Peak Archaeological Trust.

L'association XXII Legion Primigenia
"Bienvenue sur le site de la XXIIème Légion romaine <<Primigenia>> Notre groupe de reconstitution historique créé fin 1994 a pour but d'organiser et de proposer des spectacles militaires et civils romains. La plupart du matériel et les uniformes sont fabriqués par les membres de l'association dans le respect de l'authenticité historique des légions romaines du 1er siècle aprés. JC"

Legio XXII Primigenia: The Imperial Roman Twenty Second Legion
"Legio XXII was founded in 1992 to recreate the soldiers of the Roman Army for public demonstrations and living history displays. Our weapons, armor, and equipment are all carefully researched, and reconstructed at our own expense. We demonstrate the tactics of the day, and the use of the legionary's various weapons. We are available to discuss many aspects of Roman army life, and will sometimes spend a day or weekend living like our ancient counterparts did on campaign. Eventually, we also aim to reenact against the enemies of Rome... a period fortification is in the planning stages."

Vicesima - Quarta Legion XXIV Media Atlantia
"Legion XXIV Media Atlantia was established in 1997 to defend the frontiers of ancient Rome in the Mid Atlantic Region of North America. It is intended as a re-enactment unit to display Roman and other ancient military dress, battle tactics and history at faires, schools or other public functions."

Legio XXX "Ulpia Victrix"
"Legio XXX is a roman reenactment group based in the Niagara Falls area of Ontario, Canada. Established in the summer of 2001, our goal is to recreate the early 2nd Century Roman legion, immediately after the conclusion of the 2nd Dacian War. This is accomplished through tactical demonstrations, weapons and armor displays and various types of public events and appearances throughout the year."

Legio XXX "Ulpia Traiana Victrix"
" This association is a no profit organization of social usefulness(ONLUS);its seat is in Rome, Via Camilla no. 8. It exclusively pursues social aims, dealing with activities in the following sectors:   1) Promotion of culture and art through historical and scientific research of the Ancien Roman Age, with specific reference to the organization of the Army and its armaments  as well as to the role of the Legion. 2) Preservation, promotion and enhancement of items of historical interest dating from the Roman period reflecting the role played by the Legion in the society, and reconstruction of weapons, uniforms and equipment; 3) Cultural information and instruction provided for students and armament's reconstruction enthusiasts. 4) Formation and training for researchers in archaeological technology regarding the military apparatus of the Roman Empire, leading to the handicraft realization of works derived from the study of ancient remains, documents and monuments; 5) Events, displays and exhibitions of the reconstruction realized, conferences and lectures."

Castra Praetoria: an Italian reeanctmect association based in Roma
In Italian and English. cc

Cohors I Germanorum: Darstellung römisch-germanischen lebens
"Willkommen auf der Homepage der Interessengemeinschaft Cohors I. Germanorum C.R."

COH IIII Vind
German group dedicated to the reenactment of Roman military and civilian life.

COH XXVI VOL CR.
"Wenn Sie mehr über uns erfahren möchten..."

COH XXXII VCR Cives Tavnensium
"TAVNENSIVM wurde im September 1999 gegründet. Einige der Mitglieder konnten zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits auf langjährige Erfahrungen in diesem Bereich zurückgreifen. Allen gemeinsam ist ein großes Interesse an der römischen Antike, so sind etliche Mitglieder auch im Beruf mit der Archäologie verhaftet (Leiter Rekonstruktionswerkstatt, Lehrer für Geschichte und Latein, Studenten der provinzialrömischen und klassischen Archäologie sowie der Vor- und Frühgeschichte, alte Philologie, Museumspädagogik, Schmied/Goldschmied).

Cohors III Gallorum et Britannorum.
A history of a fictitous Auxiliary Unit.

The Roman Soldier Adventure
"I am now Arturius Britannicus, an auxilary infantryman of around 31 AD (your time).  I am primarily a member of the Cohors III Gallorum et Britannorum."

Auxilia: Association de Reconstitution Historique
"Auxilia est une association gersoise de reconstitution historique et d'archéologie active qui s'emploie à l'étude approfondie et méthodique de l'antiquité gallo-romaine, sous ses aspects militaires et civiles afin de reproduire et de revivre au plus près la réalité de la vie gallo-romaine, il y a 2000 ans."

End of the Roman Age: (non solum collegium Germanorum ad bibendum )
"So, you’ve got this far then and you’re still curious to find out more about ERA? You may be asking how ERA is different from other ‘dark age’ re-enactment societies so I’ll try and explain the basic principle. The main difference is that we expect members of ERA to be committed to the show as a whole."

Fectio: Dutch Late Roman Re-enactment Society
"Fectio is a Dutch Late Roman Re-enactment Society. We focus on the military part of Late Roman society during the 4th to 5th century. Our area is the Western Empire, especially in the Lower German and British provinces. The name Fectio is taken from the Limes fortress on the Dutch Lower Rhine frontier, today know as Vechten."

Britannia: Battle Re-Enactment & Living History 400-600 AD.
These pages contain information and images from the Island of Britain around the 4th and early 6th centuries AD.

Civies Britanni
"The Citizens of Britain is a website maintained by myself and my partner, as Roman re-enactors, to illustrate some things that we do, the places we go and stuff we want to share."

Campus Martius
" People from across the world have for decades come together to reenact historical military and civilian life at various periods in time. A large number of these are dedicated to the Roman era. The level of historical detail required varies from Legion to Legion, and some engage in mock combat while others display their prowess at period drill and camp life. As part of our efforts to bring ancient Rome back to life, Nova Roma is beginning to sponsor the activities of various Legions across the world."

Quintus
"Experimental archaeology and re-enacting of ancient Roman military life gives us the opportunity to see the old world evoked by present- day people in authentically copied uniforms based on archaeological finds of Roman military equipment all ove rthe Empire's territory."

Familia Gladiatoria
"Our family was founded in 1986 and is specialized on performing Roman Gladiator games. We frequently play at the Museum of Aquincum and at the Park of Archeology of Gorsium and at the yearly Flower Festivities - The Florials. From 1990 on, We regularly participate in abroad Roman Festivities. We played in Italy, Austria, Slovakia, Poland, Germany, France, the and Netherlands. The script of our plays is always performed in the welcoming country's mother tongue."

Ludus Gladiatorius
"Welcome to the Ludus Gladiatoria Reenactment Group based in Hampshire, Great Britain.We are an organisation which seeks to recreate something of the flavour of Gladiatorial Games through Gladiatorial Reenactment, Historical Research and Experimental Archaeology Projects."

familia gladiatoria
"Gladitorial reenactment group." The site is in German.

Pan Browned Polenta   "One of the many dishes dating back to antiquity, polenta was the staple food of the Roman army." Courtesy of the happycookers.com

Ancient History Sourcebook:Livy: The Roman Way of Declaring War, c. 650 BCE  From: William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, pp. 7-9. Courtesy of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

Triumphus
Article by William Ramsay, M.A., Professor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow on pp1163-1167 of William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D.: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875. Courtesy of LacusCurtius copyright © William P. Thayer

Roman Triumph
Brief essay on Roman triumphs

Spolia
Article by William Ramsay, M.A., Professor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow on pp1053-1054 of William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D.: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875. Courtesy of LacusCurtius copyright © William P. Thayer

Battle of the Allia, by John Sloan
Courtesy of the Xenophon Group International

Rome: The Punic Wars
Courtesy of World Cultures: An Internet Classroom and Anthology

Hannibal Barca and the Punic Wars
"Welcome to the Most Comprehensive Web Resource on the Life of Hannibal Barca and the Punic Wars Between Rome and Carthage" Compiled by Hilary Gowen

Ralegh and the Punic Wars by Charles G. Salas
Journal of the History of Ideas 57.2 (1996) 195-215. Copyright © 1996 The Journal of the History of Ideas, Inc.. All rights reserved.

Classic Battle Joined by Greg Yocherer
"As Hannibal met Rome's strongest army at Cannae, Rome's vaunted tenacity and soldiery were expected to prove decisive despite the Carthaginians' recent victories." Article from Military History magazine.

The Siege of Syracuse by Polybius.
Translated by Ian Scott-Kilvert, Penguin Books, New York, 1979

The Siege of Syracuse by Livy from Livy's History of Rome from its Foundation (59 BC-17 AD) .
Translated by Aubrey de Selincourt, Penguin Books, New York, 1965

The Siege of Syracuse from Plutarch's Parallel Lives: Marcellus.
Translated by Ian Scott-Kilvert, Penguin Books, New York, 1965

The Siege of Syracuse :Introduction.
Courtesy of Drexel University

The Development of the Roman Navy: A Bibliography.
Thomas P. Roche supplied the bibliography of his Master's thesis at the University of Vermont (1991) to the readers of he LT-ANTIQ list in February of 1997. Courtesy of Online Bibliographies for Late Antiquity.

The Roman Navy of the First Punic Wars  Courtesy of Dan Diffendale

The Roman Navy: The First and Second Illyrian Wars, and incidental operatio  Courtesy of Dan Diffendale

Money for Rome's naval secrets
"Roman coins show how Rome used her navy, writes John Orna-Ornstein" British Archaeology, no 8, October 1995.

The Battle of Trasimeno by the Borough of Tuoro sul Trasimeno
"In the steps of Hannibal at the scene of the battle."

Ancient History Sourcebook: Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE): The Character of Hannibal
From: Polybius, The Histories of Polybius, 2 Vols., trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (London: Macmillan, 1889), I.582-586. Scanned by: J. S. Arkenberg, Dept. of History, Cal. State Fullerton. Prof. Arkenberg has modernized the text. Courtesy of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

Cornelius Nepos: Hannibal
Excerpted from De Viribus Trans. J. Thomas, 1995. Courtesy of Iowa State University.

Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE): The Battle of Cannae, 216 BCE  From:Polybius, The Histories of Polybius,vol. I. 264-275., trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (London: Macmillan, 1889), pp. 226-230. Courtesy of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

After avidly studying the tactics of Hannibal, Scipio Africanus eventually bested his Carthaginian adversary. By D. Kent Fonner
Article from Military History magazine.

Ancient History Sourcebook: Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE): The Third Punic War, 149-146 BCE [The Histories, Book XXXVI-XXXIX]
From: Polybius, The Histories of Polybius, 2 Vols., trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (London: Macmillan, 1889), II.499-507, 511-515, 528-530.ourtesy of the Ancient History Sourcebook.

Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE):Rome at the End of the Punic Wars   From:Polybius, The Histories of Polybius,vol. 6. , trans. Oliver J. Thatcher (Milwaukee: University Research Extension Co., 1907.), pp. 166-193 Courtesy of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE): The Roman Maniple vs. The Macedonian Phalanx  From:Polybius, The Histories of Polybius, 2 Vols., trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (London: Macmillan, 1889), pp. 226-230. Courtesy of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

Gladius versus Sarissa Roman legions against Greek pike phalanx by Dimitrios Kitsos   "During the first half of the 2nd century BC the Roman legion confronted the Macedonian phalanx. In most of the engagements - including the major ones at Cynoscephalae, Magnesia and Pydna - the Romans prevailed over their opponents and the Republic emerged as the indisputable Mediterranean power. This essay deals with the causes of the Roman military successes by examining briefly the Macedonian and Roman systems of war and searching for possible other factors that contributed to the defeat of the phalanx" ANISTORITON: History, Archaeology, ArtHistory Issue E991 of 6 January 1999.

Rome's Persian Mirage: Rome's six-hundred-year struggle for control of the ancient world was one of the earliest tests of East versus West.  By By Barry S. Strauss. Article from The Quarterly Journal of Military History. Volume12 Number1 Autumn 1999

Ancient History Sourcebook: Mithridates & The Roman Conquests in the East, 90-61 BCE  From: William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, pp.118-120, 123-127. Courtesy of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic and Civil Wars: with the Supplementary Books attributed to Hirtius.
From the Electronic Text Center at the University of Virginia.

Caesar and Vercingetorix
From Caesar. The Gallic War, translated by H.J. Edwards. (London: 1917), pp. 403-425. Courtesy of Hillsdale College's Documents in Military History.

The African Wars By Julius Caesar.
Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive

The Alexandrian Wars By Julius Caesar.
Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive

The Civil Wars By Julius Caesar.
Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive

The Spanish Wars By Julius Caesar.
Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. From Internet Classics Archive

Pharsalia (aka "The Civil War") By Lucan (Marcus Annaeus Lucanus) A.D. 39 - A.D. 65  "The text of this edition is based on that published as The Pharsalia of Lucan, as transhttp://www.hillsdale.edu/academics/history/Documents/War/Classical/Rome/36-Antony-Medes.htmlated by Sir Edward Ridley (Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1896)." Courtesy of the Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #16b.

Antony's Campaign Against the Medes
Dio's Roman History(London: 1917), pp. 399-403. Courtesy of Hillsdale College's Documents in Military History.

Augustus' Speech Before Actium
Dio's Roman History(London: 1917),pp. 487-501. Courtesy of Hillsdale College's Documents in Military History.

Antony's' Speech Before Actium
Dio's Roman History(London: 1917),pp. 469-485. Courtesy of Hillsdale College's Documents in Military History.

The Battle of Actium
Dio's Roman History(London: 1917),pp. 501-515. Courtesy of Hillsdale College's Documents in Military History.

The Actium Project 1997: A Research Project of The University of South Florida and The Greek Ministry of Culture.
"In the summers of 1993 and 1994, a team of American and Greek researchers scanned the ocean depths where, 20 centuries before, Mark Antony and Cleopatra fought Octavian for control of the Mediterranean world. Using computer, video and remote-sensing technology, Project members hoped to locate on the sea floor actual physical evidence from the battle. Our expectations were based on various threads of evidence that suggest 60 or more bronze warship rams plummeted to the bottom during the course of the battle on September 2, 31 B.C."

The Fleets and Roman Border Policy
"Through the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C. the destiny of the Roman Empire was decisively influenced by a sea-battle for the final time. Following it Rome dominated the seas; enemies with their own large fleets no longer existed. Despite this, the Roman navy was not disbanded; indeed, it was expanded further. This clearly demonstrates that the fleets did not play an inconsiderable role in Roman imperial policy. As a result, one has to ask oneself what functions the fleets performed." By Barbara Pferdehir. Translation by Clive Bridger, Xanten

The Battle of Teutoburg Forest from Gaius Velleus Paterculus (c.19 BCE-after 30 CE) Roman History.  Translated by John Selby Watson. (New York: 1881), pp. 511-514. Courtesy of Hillsdale College's Documents in Military History.

Victory of Arminius over the Roman Legions under Varus, A.D. 9.  From: Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World from Marathon to Waterloo According to Edward Sheperd Creasy. Chapter V. Copyright © 1998 by Pierre Sandboge. All Rights Reserved.

Clades Variana (The Varus Disaster) By Kevin Barry   Article courtesy of Barry & Darling Ancient Coins. Includes photographs of recent finds from the site of the battle.

Clades Variana- Home of the Varus Film Project  "'Clades Variana' is a web-based project to develop a screenplay which could bring this dramatic true story to the big screen. The project is based on the premise that accurate history is far more interesting than the Hollywood version and aims to produce an exciting and evocative script which is also well researched and detailed in its portrayal of the period."

Kalkriese Die Örtlichkeit der Varusschlacht: Ein studentisches Projekt an der Universität Osnabrück  An excellent overview of the Clades Variana in German.

Cn. Domitius Corbulo and the Parthian War   Courtesy of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

Josephus (37- after 93 CE): The Roman Army in the First Century CE  From: Flavius Josephus: The Jewish War. III.5-6, trans. William Whiston. Courtesy of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

The Roman Army: Flavius Josephus From: The Works of Flavius Josephus.(London: 1906). Courtesy of Hillsdale College's Documents in Military History.

Roman Invasion of Galilee From: The Works of Flavius Josephus.(London: 1906). Courtesy of Hillsdale College's Documents in Military History.

The Siege of Jerusalem From: The Works of Flavius Josephus.(London: 1906). Courtesy of Hillsdale College's Documents in Military History.

Josephus (37- after 93 CE): An Imperial Triumph, 71 CE  From: Flavius Josephus: VII. 3-7, trans. William Whiston. Courtesy of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

The Siege of Masada From: The Works of Flavius Josephus.(London: 1906). Courtesy of Hillsdale College's Documents in Military History.

Trajan's Column: A Record of the Dacian Campaign and a Monument to Logistics
Courtesy of Lacus Curtius by Bill Thayer

The McMaster Trajan Project, 1999.
"This is a site for exploring the Column of Trajan as a sculptural monument. The core of the site is a searchable database of over 500 images focusing on various aspects of the design and execution of the column's sculptural decoration. These images (slides and drawings) were generated by and for sculptor Peter Rockwell, over the course of his study of Roman stone-carving practices. The aim of this site is to make these images available to the widest possible public, in a form that can contribute both to ongoing study by specialists and to enjoyment and appreciation of the monument by the general public."

The Military Orientation of the Roman Emperors Septimius Severus to Gallienus by Constantina Katsari (146-268 C.E.) Anistoriton Journal Issue E022 of 15 June 2002

The Roman Army AD 163 From: C.R. Haines. The Correspondence of Marcus Cornelius Fronto. (London: 1920), II:147-151, 207-213. Courtesy of Hillsdale College's Documents in Military History.

An Overview of the Sassanian Persian Military by Chris Cornuelle ©1996
This paper originally appeared in a 1996 issue of Spearpoint, and will appear in a 1997 issue of Slingshot. "In this article I will take a fresh look at topics of interest to wargamers, namely command and control, the famous cavalry, the hidden sinfantry, and various allies and vassals."

Petition to the Emperor Philip, On Official & Military Extortion, 246 CECE  From:Petition of the Araguenians and Rescript of the Emperor Philip [r. 243-249 CE] on Official & Military Extortion, 246 CE. Courtesy of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

Notitia Dignitatum
"The compilation of 78 lists and 89 pictures which is limited by the itemsnotitia dignitatum omnium tam ciuilium quam militarium in partibus orientis and ceteri praesides ad similitudinem praesidis dalmatiae officium habent"

Notitia Dignitatum
"This pages, contains the text of the Roman document "Notitia Dignitatum". The document is a list of dignitaries and their areas of responsibility, in the Late Roman Empire, at about 400 AD. It is usually considered to be up to date for the West at about 420, and for the East at around 400. However, no absolute date can be given." Courtesy of Halstein SjŅlie.

Late Roman Military Bibliography
"This page contains a short bibliography on the Late Roman Army between 300 and 600. It does not pretend to be comprehensive. For a much larger and wider-ranging bibliography, see the Warfare in the Roman World page." Bibliography courtesy of by Hugh Elton.

Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean:The Collapse of the Roman Empire--Military Aspects by Hugh Elton .
Courtesy of the On- line Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Online Encyclopedia. Copyright (C) 1996, Hugh Elton. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean :The Late Roman Army by Hugh Elton .
Courtesy of the On- line Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Online Encyclopedia. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean : Barbarization" in the Late Roman Army by Hugh Elton .
Courtesy of the On- line Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Online Encyclopedia. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

Ammianus Marcellinus (330-395 CE): The Battle of Hadrianopolis, 378 CE  From: Ammianus Marcellinus, The Roman History of Ammianus Marcellinus During the Reigns of The Emperors Constantius, Julian, Jovianus, Valentinian, and Valens, trans. C. D. Yonge (London: G. Bell & Sons, 1911), pp. 609-618. Courtesy of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

The Battle of Adrianople From: Charles D. Yonge. The Roman History of Ammianus Marcellinus During the Reigns of the Emperors Constantius, Julian, Jovianus, Valentinian, and Valens. (London: 1862), book XXXI, chapters 12-14. Courtesy of Hillsdale College's Documents in Military History.

Ammianus, Theodosius and Sallust's Jugurtha By Robin Seager  "The purpose of this paper is to examine Ammianus' treatment of the elder Theodosius and to suggest the existence of certain parallels between his account of Theodosius' suppression of the rising of the Moorish chieftain Firmus (29.5) and an earlier North African war, that waged by Q. Metellus and C. Marius against the Numidian king Jugurtha, narrated in Sallust' s monograph." Histos, Volume I (1997).

Procopius of Caesarea: Gaiseric & The Vandal Conquest of North Africa, 406 - 477 CE  From: Procopius, History of the Wars, 7 vols., trans. H. B. Dewing (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard University Press & Wm. Heinemann, 1914; reprint ed., 1953-54), II.23-73. Courtesy of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

Procopius of Caesarea: Alaric's Sack of Rome, 410 CE By Robin Seager  From: Procopius, History of the Wars, 7 vols., trans. H. B. Dewing (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard University Press & Wm. Heinemann, 1914; reprint ed., 1953-54), II.11-23. Courtesy of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.

Medieval Sourcebook: Jordanes: The Battle of Chalôns, 451 CE  From: William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, pp. 322-325. Courtesy of the Internet Medieval Source Book.

The Battle of Chalons, A.D. 451.  From: Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World from Marathon to Waterloo According to Edward Sheperd Creasy.Chapter VI. Copyright © 1998 by Pierre Sandboge. All Rights Reserved.

Attila the Hun and the Battle of Chalons by Arthur Ferrill
Draft of an article that appeared in a slighty different form in The Quarterly Journal of Military History MHQ.

The Military Martyrs.  "The primary purpose of this site is to enable people to begin to explore the cult of the military martyrs during the late antique and early medieval periods..." Courtesy of David Woods.

Book Reviews