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    1.0 PREAMBLE 1

    2.0 PRINCIPLES 2

    2.1 Principles to guide policy implementation. 2


    3.1 Socio-economic setting 3

    3.2 Population, size, composition and distribution 4

    3.3 Components of population growth 5

    3.4 Population and development interrelationship 6


    4.1 Achievements 8

    4.2 Constraints and limitations. 8

    4.3 New developments and continuing challenges 9

    4.4 Major concerns in population and development 10


    5.1 Integration of population variables into development planning 11

    5.2 Population growth and employment 11

    5.3 Problems of special groups in society 11

    5.4 Gender equality and women empowerment 12

    5.5 Reproductive health 13

    5.6 Environmental conservation and sustainable development 14

    5.7 Agriculture, food and nutrition 14

    5.8 Education 15

    5.9 Research, data collection and training 15

    5.10 Advocacy and IEC 16


    6.1 Goals of the policy 17

    6.2 Objectives of the policy 17


    7.1 Integrating of population variables into development planning 19

    7.2 Population growth and employment 19

    7.3 Problems of special groups in society 19

    7.4 Gender equality and empowerment of women 20

    7.5 Reproductive health 21

    7.6 Environmental conservation and sustainable development 21

    7.7 Agriculture, food and nutrition 22

    7.8 Education 22

    7.9 Research, data collection and training 22

    7.10 Advocacy and IEC. 23


    8.1 Institutional structures 24

    8.2 Roles and responsibilities of the stake holders. 26


    AIDS - Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome

    CBD - Community Based Distribution

    CBO - Community Based Organization

    FGM - Female Genital Mutilation

    FLE - Family Life Education

    FWCW - Fourth World Conference on Women

    HIV - Human Immuno-deficiency Virus

    ICPD - International Conference on Population and Development

    IDM - Institute of Development Management

    IEC - Information, Education and Communication

    IRDP - Institute of Rural Development Planning

    LFS - Labour Force Survey

    MCH/FP - Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning

    MMR - Maternal Mortality Rate

    NACP - National AIDS Control Programme

    NGO - Non-Governmental Organization

    NPC - National Population Committee

    NPP - National Population Policy

    NPSC - National Population Steering Committee

    PC - Planning Commission

    PDPP - Population Development and Planning Policy

    PPU - Population Planning Unit

    RH - Reproductive Health

    STDs - Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    STIs - Sexually Transmitted Infections

    TAMWA - Tanzania Media Womens Association

    TBAs - Traditional Birth Attendants

    TCPD - Tanzania Council for Population and Development

    TDHS - Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey

    TFNC - Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre

    TFR - Total Fertility Rate

    UN - United Nations

    UNHCR - United Nations High Commission for Refugees

    WHO - World Health Organization



    This revised version of the 1992 National Population Policy (NPP) has been necessitated by the need to accommodate new developments that have taken place nationally and internationally and which have a direct bearing on population and development. Domestically, the economy moved significantly away from being centrally planned to a market economy with increasing dominance of the private sector which plays a more active role in population and development issues. Furthermore, in April 1997 the Government unveiled a new Development Vision.

    The country's population growth rate of 2.8 percent per annum has had an adverse effect on development. Though not the only obstacle to development, it aggravates the situation and renders remedial measures more difficult. Rapid population growth has tended to increase outlays on consumption, drawing resources away from savings for productive investments and therefore retarding growth in national output through slow capital formation. In particular, rapid population growth has aggravated the problems of poverty, environmental degradation and poor social services. Furthermore, the problems of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS and those facing specific segments of the population like children, youths, the elderly and persons with disabilities have become widespread.

    The policy has the goal of influencing other policies, strategies and programmes that ensure sustainable development of the people and promoting gender equality and empowerment of women. It will be implemented through a multi-sectoral and multi-dimensional integrated approach. In this regard the government will collaborate with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), the private sector, communities and other agencies within and outside Tanzania in implementing the policy. Indeed, individuals, political parties and other organized groups in the civil society are expected to play an active role to ensure attainment of policy goals and objectives.

    The principal objective of the country's development vision is to move Tanzanians away from poverty and uplift their standard of living. The policy therefore, gives guidelines for addressing population issues in an integrated manner. It thus recognizes the linkages between population dynamics and quality of life on one hand, and environmental protection and sustainable development on the other. Its implementation will give a new dimension to development programmes by ensuring that population issues are appropriately addressed.

    It is my expectation that with full support and participation of the people, the implementation of this policy will be a success.



    Minister of State, President's Office (Planning)



    1.0. PREAMBLE

    1. Prior to the adoption of the explicit national population policy in 1992, Tanzania pursued implicit population policies and programmes. These policies and programmes were reflected in actions taken by the government in dealing with various issues pertaining to population. These included policies and programmes such as: settlement schemes of early 1960s, villagization programme of mid 1970s, provision and expansion of free social services (health, education and safe water), literacy campaigns, provision of family planning services as part of MCH services, limiting employment related benefits (such as tax relief) to four children, and paid maternity leave of 84 days at most once in every three years, and census taking after every ten years. As the economic crisis became severe during the 1980s, the gains achieved earlier, especially in social sectors could not be maintained.
    2. It is in part of this context that in 1986 the Government started the process of formulating a national population policy. By 1988, a draft policy document was ready for discussion by various sectors of the population. This process was finalized in 1992 when the final version of the population policy was adopted, and was followed by the Programme of Implementation in 1995.
    3. The thrust of the policy was to provide a framework and guidelines for the integration of population variables in the development process. Moreover it provided policy guidelines which determined priorities in population and development programmes. These were designed to strengthen the preparation and implementation of socio-economic development planning.
    4. To some extent, the 1992 National Population Policy took onboard goals and objectives of the past population programmes. However, new developments that have taken place nationally and internationally have necessitated its revision.




    2.1 Principles to Guide Policy Implementation

    5.The implementation of the population policy will be guided by the following principles:

    i. consideration of regional and district variations with regard to the level of socio-economic development;

    ii. adherence to the development vision which among other things emphasizes the role of the market in determining resource allocation and use;

    iii. continued democratization of the political system with its attendant political pluralism as symbolized in the emergence of various political parties/actors and mushrooming of independent mass media;

    iv. thrift exploitation of the country's non-renewable resources taking into consideration the needs of future generations; and

    v. recognition and appreciation of the central role of the government, NGOs, private sector, communities and individuals in population and development.

    6. The policy also reaffirms the ICPD principles as embodied in the Plan of Action to the effect that:

    i. all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Thus, every human being has the right to life, liberty, security and responsibility;

    ii. people are the most important and valuable resource of any nation and all individuals should therefore be given the opportunity to make the most of their potential. As such, all individuals have the right to education and health;

    iii. the family is the basic unit of society and, as such, it should be strengthened. It is also entitled to receive comprehensive protection and support; and

    iv all couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children as well as to have accessibility to information, education and means to do so.




    3.1 Socio-economic Setting

    1. Following independence in 1961, Tanzania identified poverty, diseases and illiteracy as being the major enemies. But its development strategy was directed at promoting growth without addressing equitable distribution of resources. Both education and health were considered independent variables or factors of production and investments in these sectors were justified in as long as they impacted growth. In 1967, through the Arusha Declaration, a new development strategy emphasizing "equity and social justice" was adopted. The public sector assumed a dominant role in regulating resource use, distribution and provision of social services.
    2. The implementation of the Arusha declaration, however, demanded massive public investments particularly in health and education sectors. With the support of bilateral and multilateral donors the country managed to increase primary school enrolment from 63 percent in 1970 to 90 in 1982 but later declined to 74 percent in 1994. On the other hand, the proportion of urban population with access to clean drinking water declined from 69 percent in 1992 to 50 percent in 1997, and for the rural population, the proportion also declined from 47 percent in 1992 to 38 percent in 1997.
    3. With regard to health, the Government emphasised equitable provision of and access to health services as a basic human right. The basic health package will cover reproductive health and child health services, communicable disease control, non-communicable disease control, treatment of other common diseases and community health promotion/disease prevention. The country has since put in place a total of 5,002 health facilities of which 51 percent are run by Government. At the national level, there are 6 consultant/specialized hospitals, 15 regional hospitals and a total of 50 district hospitals. Each of the district hospitals serves an average of 300,000 people. At the divisional level there are about 269 rural health centres each serving about 50,000 - 80,000 people and at the ward level there are about 3,078 dispensaries each serving an average of 6,000 - 8,000 people. It is estimated that by 1995 about 80 per cent of the population was living within 5 kms from a health facility.
    4. Inspite of the commendable strides made in improving health status, morbidity and mortality still remain high and are mainly caused by the ten common diseases ranked as follows: malaria, upper respiratory problems, diarrhoea, pneumonia, intestinal worms, eye diseases, skin diseases, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS and cholera.
    5. After fifteen years of good economic performance characterised by a satisfactory rate of growth of the country's GDP, averaging 4.7 percent until the mid 1970s, Tanzania began to experience economic decline during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The spiral of large fiscal deficits, rapid monetary expansion, high rate of inflation, balance of payments deficits, declining real per capita income, and erosion of the tax base, accelerated since 1979. These problems resulted into sustained deterioration in the terms of trade and a continuous decline in output and export earnings and to further decreases in production and a deterioration in physical infrastructure.
    6. The government's response to the economic crisis has been to embark on a process of structural adjustment programmes. In implementing these programmes, substantial progress was made in terms of macro-economic objectives. For example, during the 1986 to 1989 Economic Recovery Programme (ERP), the output increased at an average annual rate of 3.9 percent. However, the social services sector has continued to perform poorly and deteriorated because of inadequate resources.
    7. Owing to bottlenecks in the economy, the sustainability of the recovery process has been difficult. The government was not able to sustain the reform process due to a number of factors such as sharp decline in government revenue, substantial increase in recurrent expenditures (despite the progress of the civil service reform), and sharp rise in net bank borrowing and money supply. While the reforms have arrested the economic stagnation, the current economic growth rate averaging 4 percent barely exceeds the population growth rate of 2.8 percent. Rapid change and sustainable living conditions require faster and broad based growth in incomes.
    8. The afore-mentioned economic reforms created pressure for liberalization of the political system as well. This entailed, inter alia, the following:

    i. moving away from monolithic political system to political pluralism symbolized in the emergence of various political actors including many political parties; and

    ii. establishment of private media including the press, TV, radio and newspapers.


    3.2 Population Size, Composition and Distribution

    15. Since independence, Tanzania has conducted three censuses in 1967, 1978 and 1988; these have been the main source of population data. These censuses have indicated that the population of Tanzania increased from 12.3 million in 1967 to 17.5 million in 1978 and reached 23.1 million in 1988. During this period the population growth rate was estimated at an average of 3.2 percent per annum between 1967 and 1978 and declined to an average of 2.8 per annum during the period between 1978 and 1988. The 1988 Census indicates that there is a variation between the regions, for example at regional level the estimated annual growth rates ranged from 1.4 per cent (Mtwara) to 4.8 per cent (Dar es Salaam). On the assumption of a slight decline in fertility and continued falling mortality it is projected that by the year 2000, the population will be about 33 million.

    16. Tanzania has a young population. According to the 1988 Population Census, about 47 percent of the population is aged below 15 years, and 4 percent aged 65 years and above. This youthful age structure entails a larger population growth in the future, as these young people move into their reproductive life irrespective of whether fertility declines or not.

    17. Tanzania's labour force, defined as the economically active persons in the 15 to 64 years age group, has been growing steadily since 1960. From 1960 to 1993 for instance, the average annual growth rate of the country's labour force was 2.8 per cent and it is projected that during the 1993-2000 period, it will grow to 3.0 per cent. Tanzania's economically active population was estimated to have risen from 7.8 million in 1978 to 11.3 million in 1990. The 1990/91 Labour Force Survey (LFS) showed that out of an estimated labour force of 11.3 million, males and females constituted 49.8 and 50.2 per cent respectively.

    18. An important feature of the population profile is its spatial distribution over the national territory and its rural-urban migration patterns and trends. The analysis of population distribution by district carried out on the basis of the 1967, 1978 and 1988 Census results indicates that about two-thirds of the population is concentrated over a quarter of the land area. The population distribution ranges between 4 persons per square kilometre as observed in Liwale district to 383 persons per sq. km. observed in Chakechake and 282 found along the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro. About 79 per cent of Tanzanians still live in rural areas (majority of whom are women) though the urban population has been growing at a rapid rate of more than 5 per cent per annum over the past three decades.


    3. 3 Components of Population Growth

    19. The main components of population growth in any country are mortality, fertility and net migration. In Tanzania, fertility and mortality are the most important factors influencing population growth at national level. Previous censuses have shown that net migration component has been negligible.

    20. Mortality rate has declined substantially in Tanzania over the decades. The main contributing factors to the decline are improved access to health care and better environmental sanitation. The crude death rate (CDR) is estimated to have fallen from about 22 per thousand in 1967 to 15 in 1988. Infant mortality rate (IMR) per 1000 live births is estimated to have declined from 170 (1967) to 115 in 1988 and then to 88 in 1996 (TDHS, 1996). In the same period, the under-five mortality rate per thousand live births, declined from 260 to 137. The declining mortality is reflected in the rising life expectancy at birth from a level of about 40 years in 1967 to about 50 years in 1988. In spite of this decline, mortality still remains high by world standards. Maternal mortality rate (MMR) is still high. The 1996 TDHS shows that the MMR is estimated at 529 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births.

    21. The fertility rate in Tanzania is estimated to have declined slightly over the past decade. At 1996 fertility level, a Tanzanian woman will give birth to an average of 5.8 children during her child bearing years. This implies that the total fertility rate (TFR) has declined from 6.4 (1988) to 5.8 (TDHS, 1996) births per woman with significant regional and educational differences. For example in 1996, Mainland Tanzania recorded 6.3 and 4.1 births per woman in rural and urban areas respectively. Differences related to education are inversely much wider. Fertility rate for women with no education is 6.4, with primary education 5.4 and with secondary and higher education 3.2 (TDHS, 1996).

    22. High fertility level observed in Tanzania is an outcome of a number of factors including:

    i. early and nearly universal marriage for women. For example, the median age at first marriage for women aged 25-49 is 18 years and by the age of 20, over 67 per cent have married at least once (TDHS, 1996). The 1971 Marriage Act stipulates a legal minimum age at marriage of 15 years for females and 18 for males; and,

    ii. the absence of effective fertility regulation within marriage: For example, the contraceptive prevalence rate is currently estimated at 16 percent among women aged 15-49.

    23. Other underlying factors contributing towards high fertility and rooted in the socio-cultural value system include:-

    i. value of children as a source of domestic and agricultural labour and old-age economic and social security for parents;

    ii. male child preference;

    iii. low social and educational status of women in society which prevent them from taking decision on their fertility and use of family planning services; and

    iv. large age differentials between spouses which constrain communication on issues related to reproductive health.

    24. Rural-urban migration has been a main feature of migration in Tanzania for many years. The increase in rural-urban migration has led to increasing rate of urbanization, especially in major urban centres like Dar es Salaam, Mbeya, Mwanza, and Arusha. The proportion of population living in urban areas increased from 5 percent in 1967 to 13 in 1978 and 21 percent in 1988. Between 1978 and 1988, the urban population for Tanzania increased by 53 percent. There are variations between regions with regards to the rate of urbanization. Dar es Salaam alone contained about 25 percent of the total urban population in 1988. The unprecedented migration of people from rural areas increases the burden on alredy over-loaded public services and social infrastructure especially in the squatter areas, which stimulate the flourishment of communicable diseases like tuberculosis, cholera and malaria. Rural-rural migration also contributes to the regional and district level variations in terms of population pressure over resources. These variations are demonstrated by differences in population densities between districts, wards and villages. The general observation is that population increase has not been in line with the land area available for human use.


    3.4 Population and Development Interrelationships

    24. Rapid population growth is one of the primary obstacles to development. In the short run, its effects may appear marginal, but it sets into motion a cumulative process whose adverse impact on various facets of development might turn out to be very significant over the medium to long term. This is because population factors impinge on development and the welfare of individuals, families, communities at the micro level and at the district, regional and the national level as whole at the macro level. The effects and responses to population pressure interact at all these levels.

    25. Rapid population growth tends to increase outlays on consumption, drawing resources away from saving for productive investment and, therefore, tends to retard growth in national output through slow capital formation. The strains caused by rapid population growth are felt most acutely and visibly in the public budgets for health, education and other human resource development sectors. Food requirements for the rapidly growing population also means that part of the gains from increased agricultural production are eroded.

    26. Adverse economic effects due to rapid population growth are shown explicitly by looking at projection of future population and the costs of providing social services. If the 1978 -1988 inter-censal population growth of 2.8 per cent per annum does not decline, then costs for the provision of health services will rise annually but without improvement in either the quality or coverage of the current services.

    27. Population and development influence one another. The influence may be positive or negative depending on other factors and conditions. In the case of Tanzania, the afore-mentioned demographic factors interact and create the following problems:

    i. the rapid growing young population demand increasing expenditure directed to social services such as education, health and water;

    ii. the rapidly growing labour force demands heavy investments in human resource development as well as development strategies which ensure future job creation opportunities; and

    iii. rapid population growth in the context of poverty reduces the possibility of attaining sustainable economic growth.




    28. This policy takes cognizance of the achievements, constraints and limitations of implementing past population policies as well as new developments and continuing challenges.

    4.1 Achievements

    29. The achievements of both implicit and explicit past population policies included the following:

    i. considerable awareness of population issues particularly those related to reproductive health and child survival by the masses of the people. For example, fertility, infant and child mortality has declined overtime;

    ii. the adoption of an explicit population policy in 1992 which recognized the links and interrelationships between population, resources, the environment and development;

    iii. expansion and/or introduction of population studies in institutions of higher learning in the country;

    iv. increased number and capacity of NGOs engaged in population related activities including advocacy and social mobilization, service delivery and capacity building; and

    v. high knowledge and the use of contraceptive methods among both men and women and male involvement of family planning which has increased contraceptive prevalence from about 10 in 1980s to 16 in 1996.


    4.2 Constraints and Limitations

    30. The constraints and limitations that were encountered during the implementation of the past population policies included the following:

    i. inadequate human and financial resources;

    ii. poor information communication systems;

    iii . non-establishment of planned institutional arrangements;

    iv. policies which mainly addressed family planning and child spacing activities coupled with reliance on the Government for implementation;

    v. placing more emphasis on meeting demographic targets rather than the needs of individuals, male and female; and

    vi. inadequate recognition of the causal relationship between poverty, population environment, gender and development.


    4.3 New Developments and Continuing Challenges

    31. Since the adoption of the Population Policy in 1992, there have been new developments arising from national and international developments. These include the Tanzania Development Vision 2025 and international conferences including the 1992 Conference on Environment and Development, the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW), Copenhagen Social Summit of 1995, the Istanbul City Summit of 1996 and the 1997 World Food Summit. These new developments have necessitated changes in approaches and policy orientation so as to address:

    i. population issues in a holistic manner in development plans as well as recognizing the roles of other partners - civil society, NGOs, and the private sector;

    ii. poverty in its broad dimensions including inequalities in resource use and allocation between women and men and various social groups;

    iii. discriminatory and harmful socio-cultural practices against men and women;

    iv. issues related to reproductive health and reproductive rights;

    v. interrelationships between population and sustainable development;

    1. basic needs of the people; and
    2. problems of crime, poverty, unemployment, poor infrastructure etc. associated with growing levels of urbanisation.

    32. Other challenges which have also necessitated review of the policy include:

    i. increased forms and levels of female violence: sexual abuse, neglect and abandonment of children;

    ii. need for more and high quality education and training at all levels;

    iii. high prevalence of STIs including HIV/AIDS;

    iv. high levels of adolescent pregnancies;

    v. increasing unemployment due to poor economic performance and labour force growth;

    vi. high maternal, infant and child mortality;

    vii. rapid and unplanned urban growth; and

    viii. low status accorded to women in society.


    4.4 Major Concerns in Population and Development

    33. The major concerns of the population policy encompass the following areas: population and development planning issues; equality, equity and social justice; natural resources and food production; information and data bases; and advocacy. In this regard there is need:

    i. to allocate more resources for literacy, health and education services with a view to increasing their quality, accessibility and availability;

    ii. to fully sustainable exploit the natural resources in order to boost the economy and also to ensure sustainability of the resources and environment;

    iii. to expand the agricultural production to meet the demanding food requirements;

    iv. to ensure availability of up todate and comprehensive data and information for rational and effective planning as well as for programme formulation and implementation; and

    v. to adopt gender perspective in development planning and to formulate programmes that enhance full participation of special groups in society.




    34. Based on the concerns expressed in chapter four, the Government has identified a number of priority issues that this policy will address as follows:

    5.1 Integration of Population Variables into Development Planning

    1. The integration of population variables into development plans and policies is yet to be fully realised. This is due to a number of factors including:

    i. inadequate commitment and recognition of the relationship between population variables and development;

    ii. use of short term programmes which do not adequately address long-term issues;

    iii limited capacity building at national, sectoral and district levels;

    iv. uncoordinated policy formulation due to lack of a long term vision; and

    v. unavailability of up-to-date, comprehensive sex and age disaggregated data.


    5.2 Population Growth and Employment

    36. Due to high population growth in Tanzania, the labour force has been increasing. The present working age population constitutes about 50 percent of the total population, most of whom are unskilled. This expansion aggravates the already difficult problems of the meager economic activity in the country. Measures taken to restructure the economy such as reducing the size of the Government through retrenchment, employment freeze and promotion of the private sector which uses capital intensive production techniques have resulted in widespread unemployment.


    5.3 Problems of Special Groups in Society

    37. Children and youths, the elderly and people with disabilities are among groups in the society which need special programmes to facilitate their full participation in socio-economic development. Refugees as another special group in the society requiring special attention and measures to forestall the negative impact of their influx in the country.

    1. In this policy, children and youths are defined as those aged below 25 years. This group constitutes 65 percent of the Tanzania population. Severe budgetary cuts to the social sector have aggravated the problems of children’s accessibility to quality health and education services. Retrogressive cultural practices and breakdown of family and societal norms have exposed children to problems such as malnutrition, child labour, abandonment, prostitution and sexual abuse. In addition, the scourge of HIV/AIDS has led to an increasing number of orphans and possibly of street children. Low productivity, shortage of basic needs and lack of employment opportunities in rural areas have forced young people to migrate to urban areas in hope of getting employment but the majority if whom end up in frustration because they cannot find jobs and they often become loiterers, thieves and drug addicts.

    39. According to 1988 census, old people aged 65 years and above account for about 4 per cent of the population. The problems facing the elderly include loneliness, low income, dwindling respect and lack of access to health services, and in some areas being murdered on account of misguided beliefs in witchcraft.

    40. In Tanzania, the number of people with physical and mental disabilities is not known. Among the problems facing people with disabilities include: stigma, discrimination, lack of training, employment, and assistive devices such as wheel chairs, braille books, crutches and artificial limbs.

    41. Since independence, Tanzania has hosted a considerable number of refugees from other African countries. The greatest number entered the country in 1994 from Rwanda and Burundi following political disturbances. Most of these refugees were settled in Kagera and Kigoma regions. Among the problems associated with refugees are deforestation, increased crime rate, break out of epidemics and deterioration of social services as well as internal security.


    5.4 Gender Equity, Equality, and Women Empowerment

    42. Gender refers to the roles of men and women that are socio-culturally determined. It influences the relationships between men and women in all spheres of interaction. Thus, gender inequality in the society arises when gender roles, responsibilities and resources are unequally distributed between men and women. In Tanzania, women's participation and contribution to development have been hampered by discriminatory socio-cultural practices and other laws, regulations and procedures pertaining to childhood socialization, access to and control of property and inheritance as well as participation in formal educational and employment sectors.

    1. For most women, their economic, family and social roles are closely intertwined with their reproductive roles. The task of bearing and rearing many children, in addition to constituting health risks, threaten family welfare by imposing excessive domestic chores to mothers. For young girls, early child bearing tends to impede their educational advancement, skills acquisition and career prospects in the formal sector.


    44. Efforts so far made by the Government to rectify gender inequality include setting up:

    1. Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children;

    ii. Women Development Fund to sensitize and train women at grassroots level in entrepreneurship skills in the informal sector and agriculture, directive to District Councils to allocate 10 percent of revenue to women;

    1. affirmative action in the political arena which ensures that at least 15 percent of members of parliament as well as 25 percent of counsellors in local Governments are women; and
    2. policies to encourage the formation of NGOs to address issues of gender and empowerment of women.


    5. 5 Reproductive Health

    45. Reproductive health as defined by WHO and ICPD, is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being in matters related to reproductive system including its functions and processes. This implies the right to have a satisfying and safe sex life, the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. Since 1974, the Government has been providing 75 percent of reproductive health services through the MCH/FP clinics; these operate as units in hospitals, health centres and dispensaries. In Tanzania, reproductive health encompasses four major components: family planning, safe motherhood, child survival and STIs/HIV/AIDS.

    1. With respect to quality and accessibility of reproductive health services, limited and inadequate trained staff, equipment and supplies contribute to poor ante-natal, natal, and post-natal services. TDHS (1996) revealed that, though 98 percent of pregnant women attended ante-natal services, only 47 percent of deliveries took place in health facilities. Similarly, there is high unmet need for family planning services (24 percent) which require outreach programmes. This situation calls for training of service providers, equipping health facilities with basic essential equipment and expanding reproductive health services to communities through community based approach where various community resource members are used (CBDs, TBAs).
    1. Studies have shown that more than 95 percent of the population are aware of HIV/AIDS. Among those who are aware 35 percent of women and 34 percent of men believe that there is no way to avoid AIDS or that they do not know if there is any way to avoid AIDS (TDHS, 1996). According to the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP), reported AIDS cases in 1990 were 22,084 and the number grew to 88,700 by 1996. Although the epidemic has spread to many regions of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, Mbeya, Kilimanjaro and Kagera are the most affected. he most vulnerable persons are the adolescents/youths who are sexually active. The 1996 TDHS reveals that at age 15, 19 percent of girls compared to 9 percent of boys have had first sexual intercourse. And by age 18, this sexual involvement rises to 62 percent of girls and 48 percent for boys.
    2. The prevalence of female circumcision also known as Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), is confined to only certain regions of the country and is estimated at 18 percent (TDHS, 1996). The proportion varies by region, from less than 1 per cent in Kigoma to 68 percent in Dodoma and about 81 per cent in Arusha. These practices are more prevalent in rural (21 percent) than urban (10 percent) areas; they take place at the ages of 5 years and below (9 percent), 6-10 years (30 percent), 11-15 (32 percent) and at the ages of 16 years and above (15 percent).
    3. Infant and child morbidity and mortality rates are still high. Major causes of infant mortality include diarrhoea diseases, malnutrition, malaria, anaemia, respiratory tracts infection and HIV/AIDS. In order to further reduce the morbidity and mortality, efforts will be made to increase immunisation coverage and strengthening management of childhood illness.
    4. There is a remarkable increase in the proportion of the elderly people with reproductive health problems. Some of the problems which need to be addressed include menopausal and penopausal discomforts and reproductive tract cancers. There is therefore, need to establish and provide reproductive health services for the elderly.
    5. Men have a key role to play in reproductive health issues. However, intended efforts have not been adequately made to involve them fully. Hence, it is crucial to ensure male involvement in reproductive health activities.


    5.6 Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development

    Environmental Conservation

    52. Natural resource base includes forests, land, wildlife, aquatic resources and minerals. About 50 percent of the total land of Tanzania is covered by forests and woodland, 40 percent by grassland and scrub and only 6-8 percent is cultivated. Aquatic resources include Lake Victoria, Tanganyika and Nyasa and a variety of other small lakes, swamps and flood plains, forming a major wetland resource. Marine resource include fish stocks, coral reefs, sandy beaches, mangroves, marine grasses, salt resources and other biodiversity. Wildlife is an important part of Tanzania’s resource endowment; about 25 percent of the total land area is designated as protected areas, including forest reserves. These protected areas form the major tourist base. Energy and mineral resources are another important components of the resource base. The major energy resources are fuelwood, hydropower and coal. There is also potential for natural gas, solar energy and wind energy. This natural resource base is deteriorating. The underlying causes for this deterioration include land degradation (caused by deforestation, overgrazing, etc) and pollution in towns and the countryside, loss of biodiversity and inadequate environmental awareness. Other contributing factors include rapid population growth, land use, inappropriate land use practices, inadequate financial resources and low involvement of stakeholders in environmental management programmes. Inadequate integration of environmental concerns in the planning process also contributes to the deterioration of the natural resource base.

    Water and Sanitation

    1. Water supply is crucial to ensure sustainable economic and social development of human activities and thus human welfare. Realizing the importance of water, Tanzania adopted a 20 year programme in 1970 with the goal of supplying clean and safe water to all people within walkable distance of 400 metres from the homes. However, accessibility to water and sanitation services is still poor. There is evidence to suggest that the water supply services have been declining since 1978. A sharp decline in the proportion of households using piped water was noted during the 1978/88 decade as compared to the 1967/78 period in both rural and urban areas. This decline is often compensated by a rise in the proportion using wells, especially traditional ones outside the compound.According to the 1996 Ministry of Water report, 48 and 80 percent of the rural population have access to safe water and sanitary facilities (pit latrines), respectively. In urban areas, about 69 percent of the population are served with safe water, about 75 percent have pit latrines and 10 percent have sewage connections. The main problems affecting the water and sanitation services in Tanzania include inadequate funds for construction of new and maintenance of existing water and sewerage systems, and destruction of water catchment areas; and inadequate water harvesting techniques and facilities. Other factors include low awareness among decision-makers, planners, and communities on the importance of clean and safe water supply and sanitation; socio-cultural values; and lack of appropriate working tools. Overcrowding in urban areas also contributes to inadequate access to clean and safe water supply and proper waste disposal facilities. To tackle these problems, the Government has formulated a programme to ensure access to safe water to all and proper sanitary facilities to about 95 percent of the population by the year 2002.


    5.7 Agriculture, Food and Nutrition

    54. Agriculture is an important sector to the economy of Tanzania. According to the 1997 Tanzania Agricultural Policy, the sector contributes 60 percent of the export earnings and accounts for 84 percent of the labour force. Performance indicators show that growth rates have been fluctuating over the years with a general trend of decline. For example, between 1965 and 1970, annual growth rate was about 4.5 percent, declined to 0.6 percent during the period 1981 – 1985 but it improved to 3.9 percent in 1996. Food production constitutes the main source of food security particularly in the rural areas. However, it is estimated that about seven million people in the country are chronically food insecure. Also, about 40 percent of the population lives in drought and flood prone areas and hence face transitory food insecurity and malnutrition.

    55. Malnutrition has been closely linked with various disabilities such as reduction of physical and mental capabilities and therefore affects the productivity and educational capabilities of individuals. According to 1996 TDHS, malnutrition is the primary cause in more than 50 percent of all deaths of children aged 1- 4 years.


    5.8 Education, Data Collection, Research, and Training


    56. Human resources development, particularly education, is a critical ingredient in a country's development process. Primary school dropout rates have increased overtime since the early 1980s. Current completion rate is 67 percent and enrolment rate for primary school pupils has gone down from 90 percent in 1982 to 74 percent in mid 1994.

    57. Tanzania's education system still provides few education and training opportunities to the youths after completing their primary education. While the total enrolment in primary schools represent 78 percent of all primary school age children, the transition to secondary school is only 17 percent. Unfortunately, the situation is now worse than it was during the 1960s. For example whereas in 1963, 29.2 percent of primary school leavers entered secondary schools (public and private), this proportion declined gradually to 3.4 percent in 1984. However, there was a gradual rise to 10.5 percent in 1988 and to 14.6 percent in 1995. Currently about 83 percent of primary school leavers do not get secondary school education. These primary school leavers are forced into adult life when they are still too young. Girls in particular marry early and start bearing children. In addition, quality of school performance has deteriorated. For example, from 1993 to 1996 less than 25 percent of Form IV students obtained division I-III passes in their secondary school "O" level examinations. Also, over half of all primary school leavers got scores below 20 percent in their Standard VII school leaving examinations.

    58. Basic and post literacy programmes were integrated in the education system in early 1970s and successfully implemented up to the mid 1980s. Thereafter, public enthusiasm and official support towards adult literacy started to wane off. This lack of official support resulted in the allocation of inadequate financial, material and human resources, leading to low enrollments and attendance in these programmes. As a result literacy level has declined from over 90 percent in 1979 to 68 percent in 1997 and, among the low income families, the literacy rate is 59 percent.


    5.9 Data Collection, Research, and Training

    59. In most recent years, Tanzania has witnessed a growing recognition of the need for more accurate, comprehensive and timely statistical data. The driving force for improving the data collection operations of the Government has come from individual ministries which have become increasingly aware that in-depth studies containing both quantitative and qualitative analyses are essential for rational and effective planning and decision making process. Although population censuses have remained the major sources of population data, they have been supplemented by national surveys including Demographic Survey conducted in 1973, and Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991/92 and 1996 respectively. In these surveys, demographic estimates relating specifically to fertility and mortality as well as to family planning and health-related data were obtained.

    60. Vital registration in Tanzania is not complete since it has so far covered 66 out of 113 Mainland districts. The exercise has remained a legal rather than a statistical operation possibly because of lack of attention and interest as well as obvious omission of some of the events which are not being registered. Research is confined to the leading national institutions of learning and foreign research institutions. They are conducted to meet mainly academic and individual/institutional requirements rather than development planning.

    61. The training in demography and population studies was introduced in the institutions of higher learning in the late 1980s. The University of Dar es Salaam, the Institute of Development Management (IDM), Mzumbe and the Institute of Rural Development Planning (IRDP), Dodoma, have been offering courses in demography and population studies at various levels, and of late, integrating the topic of gender.


    5.10 Advocacy and Information, Education and Communication (IEC)

    62. Implementation of the 1992 National Population Policy did not achieve much due to lack of support particularly in areas of gender equality, equity and empowerment of women, and the integration of population variables into the development programmes. Advocacy and IEC shall be used to shape attitudes and promote behavioural change in population issues.




    6.1 Goals of the Policy

    1. The main and overriding concern of the population policy is to enable Tanzania achieve improved standard of living and quality of life of its people. Important aspects of quality of life include good health and education, adequate food and housing, stable environment, equity, gender equality and security of individuals. The main goal of the policy is to influence policies, strategies and programmes that ensure sustainable development of the people. The sub-goals of this main goal are to contribute to:

    i. Sustainable economic growth and eradication of poverty;

    ii. Increased and improved availability and accessibility of high quality social services;

    iii. Attainment of gender equity, equality, and social justice for all individuals;

    iv. Harmonious relationships among population, resource utilization and environment; and

    v. Improvement, availability and timely dissemination of population information.


    6.2 Objectives of the Policy

    i. To harmonize population and economic growth;

    ii. To promote an integrated rural-urban development;

    iii. To promote employment opportunities;

    iv. To promote gender equity, equality, and women empowerment;

    v. To transform socio-economic and cultural values and attitudes that hinder gender equality;

    vi. To enhance proper upbringing of children and youths;

    vii. To promote the well-being of the elderly and people with disabilities;

    viii. To improve the capacity of the country to address refugee problems;

    ix. To promote public awareness on individual sexual and reproductive health and rights;

    x. To promote and expand quality reproductive health care services;

    xi. To increase agricultural production;

    xii. To improve nutritional status of the people;

    xiii. To promote integrated and sustainable use and management of natural resources;

    xiv. To improve the preparedness and management of disasters and emergencies;

    xv. To ensure adequate supply of safe and clean water;

    xvi. To encourage the private sector, NGOs and religious organizations to invest in provision of education;

    xvii. To promote and provide equitable and quality education;

    xviii. To improve population data collection and research, and their timely dissemination;

    xix. To improve training in population issues;

    xx. To create an enabling environment that will facilitate acceptance of population issues namely: reproductive health, population and development and gender concerns; and

    xxi. To mobilize necessary resources for implementation of the National Population Policy.




    Based on the identified priority issues, the following strategies will be adopted to achieve the National Population Policy goals and objectives.

    7.1 Intergration of Population Variable into Development Planning

    i. Integrating population variables in development planning;

    ii. Creating awareness to the masses of the link between population, resources, environment, poverty eradication and sustainable development;

    iii. Building the capacity of planners at district and national levels in mainstreaming population issues in development plans with gender perspective;

    iv. Encouraging the private sector and local communities to be actively involved in initiating, implementing and financing population programmes;

    v. Improving productivity of small scale farmers and industries; and

    vi. Promoting non-agricultural production in rural areas.


    7.2 Population Growth and Employment

    i. Creating enabling environment for investors in all sectors, especially in the rural areas;

    ii. Promoting self-employment opportunities in the informal sector;

    iii. Providing labour market information to employers and job seekers;

    iv. Promoting labour intensive industrial development; and

    v. Promoting viable family formation.


    7.3 Problems of Special Groups in Society

    The Elderly

    1. Encouraging the private sector, NGO's and religious organisations to invest in provision of social services especially health for the elderly;
    2. Establishing social security measures that address problems of the elderly; and,
    3. Encouraging traditional community-based support networks to the elderly.

    Children and Youths

    i. Encouraging the private sector, NGO's and religious organisations to invest in provision of social services for the children and youths;

    ii. Developing talents and capabilities of children and youths; and

    iii. Developing policies and laws that support of family stability.

    People with Disabilities

    i. Encouraging the private sector, NGO's and religious organisations to invest in provision of social services for people with disabilities;

    ii. Developing talents and capabilities of people with disabilities;

    iii. Establishing social security measures that address problems of people with disabilities; and

    iv. Developing National Policy on People with Disabilities.


    i. Establishing preparedness plan for handling refugees.


    7.4. Gender Equity, Equality, and Women Empowerment

    i. Promoting participation of women in decision making;

    ii. Increasing awareness of the society about the importance of education for all children especially the girl child, and boys under difficult circumstances;

    iii. Promoting women employment opportunities and job security;

    iv. Eliminating all forms of discrimination and gender based violence;

    v. Encouraging women and men to participate equally in household chores;

    vi. Ensuring mainstreaming of gender concerns in development plans and policies;

    vii. Carrying out advocacy activities on gender and population issues; and

    viii. Advocating the value of the girl child and boys under difficult circumstances and creating a conducive environment for strengthening their image, self-esteem and status; and

    ix. Promoting societies’ positive gender knowledge, attitudes and practices.


    7.5. Reproductive Health

    i. Promoting measures to eradicate harmful traditonal practices including female genital mutilation (FGM);

    ii. Sensitizing the public on the benefits of reproductive health to all individuals;

    iii. Promoting and expanding the scope of reproductive health advocacy/IEC programmes;

    iv. Encouraging the participation and involvement of communities in the provision of reproductive health care services;

    v. v. Improving the quality and efficiency of reproductive health care delivery system;

    vi. Establishing specific reproductive health services to cater for the adolescents, youths, men and the elderly;

    vii. Offering comprehensive reproductive health services addressing neglected problems including infertility, STIs, post-natal care, and abortion complications; and

    viii. Improving immunization coverage and strengthening management of childhood illnesses.


    7.6 Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development

    Environmental Conservation

    i. Integrating environmental considerations in developments plans;

    ii. Promoting an integrated approach to planning and management of natural resources;

    iii. Preventing and controlling environmental degradation; and

    iv. Promoting disaster management skills/techniques.

    Water and Sanitation

    1. Rehabilitating existing water and sanitary systems;
    2. Exploring and exploiting new potential water sources; and
    3. Promoting disaster management skills/techniques.


    7.7 Agriculture, Food and Nutrition

    i. Ensuring accessibility and ownership of land to small holder farmers ;

    ii. Promoting modern farming practices and improving appropriate agricultural technologies and infrastructure;

    iii. Extending credit facilities to small-holder farmers;

    iv. Ensuring food security at national and household levels;

    v. Enhancing food and nutrition education to the community;

    vi. Eradicating cultural barriers to improvement of nutritional status;

    vii. Controlling micronutrients deficiences; and

    viii. Controlling protein energy micronutrition


    7.8 Education, Data Collection, Research, and Training


    i. Encouraging community participation in the provision of quality education;

    ii. Facilitating participation of the private sector, NGOs and religious organizations to invest in the provision of education;

    iii. Promoting and ensuring equitable distribution of education opportunities in order to correct gender and regional imbalances;

    iv. Improving the teaching-learning environment;

    v. Providing universal primary education to all children; and

    vi. Reducing illiteracy rate.


    7.9 Research, data collection and training 22

    1. Intensifying efforts in the collection, processing, analysis and timely dissemination of population information;
    2. Promoting the use of information on population in the planning process;
    3. Undertaking training programmes for personnel in the field of data collection, analysis and research in population and development; and
    4. Promoting on-the-job skills training in population issues.


    7.10 Advocacy and Information, Educational and Communication (IEC)

    i. Coordinating population advocacy efforts by Government and development partners to ensure efficiency in the implementation of the National Population Policy;

    ii. Promoting debate on population issues among decision makers and parliamentarians through population fora;

    iii. Strengthening participation of NGOs in advocating population issues;

    iv. Establishing an institutional framework to co-ordinate the population IEC and advocacy activities through the three levels of individual, group and mass communication; and

    v. Improving the quality of advocacy and IEC interventions through capacity building and by developing culturally acceptable IEC materials.




    8.1 Institutional Arrangements

    61. The National Population Policy will be implemented mainly by Government Ministries/Agencies and Civil society and private sector. Efforts will be made to strengthen some of the implementing agencies through capacity building.. Specifically, Government implementing agencies will include the following: Tanzania Council for Population and Development (TCPD); National Population Steering Committee (NPSC); Population and Development Planning Policy Department (PDPP); National Population Committee (NPC), and population desks in all relevant ministries at regional and district levels. The implementing agencies and their roles are as indicated below:

    Tanzania Council for Population and Development

    62. This will be the highest policy making body for the implementation of the NPP. Membership of TCPD will consist of Ministers of relevant Ministries and the Prime Minister will be the chairperson. The TCPD will meet at least once in a year.

    National Population Steering Committee

    63. The NPSC will be the overall co-ordinating and advisory body for the implementation of the policy. Its members will be comprised of Permanent Secretaries of relevant ministries who will be chaired by the Permanent Secretary to the Planning Commission. The NPSC will also meet at least once a year. The NPSC will have the following functions to:

    i. advise the TCPD on strategies for policy implementation;

    ii. co-ordinate, monitor and evaluate the implementation of the NPP;

    iii. approve long-term population programmes and bi-annual policy implementation reports; and

    iv. advise the TCPD on policy revisions and recommend approval of the revised population policy.

    The National Population Committee (NPC)

    64. The NPC, which has been in existence since 1983, is a multi-sectoral and inter-disciplinary technical committee. The committee has been advising the planning ministry on all issues pertaining to population and development. NPC shall be incorporated in the institutional structures that will implement the NPP. The Committee will, among other things, provide technical support to the PC as needed by the organ in its population policy formulation and implementation functions; and advise the NPSC on all matters pertaining to population and development. The NPC will hold meetings at least once in each quarter.

    65. The committee will give advice in the following areas:

    i. compilation of all research work on population and development done in Tanzania, analysis of this research as to its usefulness, and dissemination of the information to planning offices in various sectors and districts;

    ii. preparing and undertaking research for development planning purposes;

    iii. maintenance and efficient operation of a population data bank;

    iv. inter-sectoral population and development planning models;

    v. training programmes including workshops, on the integration of population in development plans; and

    vi. co-ordination of the implementation of population and development programmes.

    Population Research Technical Steering Committee

    66. The committee consists of members drawn from different institutions and other experts involved in implementing the National Population Policy. The Committee is charged with managing the research agenda formulated in early 1998. The main functions and responsibilities of the committee, will be to :

    i. to chart out and review research priorities for the country programme;

    ii. to review suitability of research proposals;

    iii. to determine themes for research proposals; and

    iv. to advocate and facilitate collection both quantitative and qualitative studies.

    Population and Development Planning Policy Department

    67. The capacity of PPU will be enhanced with the aim to be a fully fledged department in the future within the Planning Commission (PC) and renamed Population and Development Planning Policy Department (PDPP). The main functions of PDPP will be to function as a technical and secretariat body for the implementation of the NPP. Specifically, its functions will be to:

    i. prepare guidelines for the integration of population concerns in development plans at national and local level;

    ii. act as the secretariat of TCPD, NPSC and the NPC;

    iii. collaborate with NPC to identify information/data gaps in population/development issues and in preparing a national research agenda;

    iv. commission individuals and institutions to conduct research on population issues;

    v. establish and manage a population and development data bank;

    vi. establish direct links/communications with both ministry's planning units/departments and local Government planning committees and private institutions and organizations; and

    vii. collaborate with all departments of the PC as well as the National Bureau of Statistics in data analysis and identification of the relationships between population and developments dynamics in Tanzania.

    68. Ministries, District Executive Directors= office will establish a body at their level to co-ordinate population activities. Roles of population committees in all levels include:

    i. coordinate and monitor population issues; and

    ii. to ensure full integration of population issues in the development plans at their levels.


    8.2 Roles and Responsibilities of the Stake Holders

    69. The implementation of the NPP requires a multi-sectoral approach and therefore Government ministries and other institutions will be involved. The roles of these institutions are broadly outlined hereunder.

    70. The Planning Commission

    i. to co-ordinate, monitor and evaluate all population activities and programmes;

    ii. to prepare and issue guidelines for the integration of population concerns in development plans at national, regional and local Government levels;

    iii. to collaborate with other stake holders in matters related population and sustainable development; and

    iv. to collect, disseminate and promote population data utilization.

    71. Vice President's Office

    i. to develop programmes that promote social justice and alleviate poverty through sustained economic growth;

    ii. to promote research on the conservation of the environment;

    iii. to carry out research on strategies of eradicating poverty;

    iv. to create awareness and sensitize the mass on environmental concerns through the private and public mass media; and

    v. to coordinate NGOs dealing wiith population issues.

    72. Prime Minister's Office

    i. to ensure that the policy is disseminated and understood at the district level;

    ii. to ensure that population concerns are fully integrated into district development plans and programmes; and

    iii. to ensure that environment issues are included in formal and non formal education at all levels.

    73. Ministry of Health

    i. to co-ordinate the implementation of reproductive health programmes including family planning;

    ii. to collaborate with other public and private institutions in providing reproductive health services;

    iii. to enforce minimum standards that must be met by all service delivery facilities and health providers;

    iv. to train health personnel (including TBAs) at all levels Backas well as to ensure that health education is integrated into training curricula of medical and paramedical personnel;

    v. to carry out research, in liaison with other institutions or agents on reproductive health issues; and

    vi. to implement and also coordinate health aspects of STIs, HIV/AIDS programmes.

    74. Ministry of Education and Culture

    i. to ensure that FLE is extended to all primary, secondary schools and teachers' training colleges;

    ii. to support participation of the community, institutions and the private sector in the provision of equitable and quality education;

    iii. to encourage folk-media and modern theatre fora on themes related to population and development;

    iv. to strengthen advocacy and social mobilization for gender equity, equality and the empowerment of women.

    v. to ensure provision of basic education to all children; and

    vi. to strengthen literacy programmes.

    75. Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development

    i. to ensure that population variables are integrated in training programmes of extension workers and to equip them with relevant skills to enable them to relate population growth to levels of food production, consumption and other development activities at local levels;

    ii. to promote the use of better farm implements, techniques and practices of modern farming and improved food processing and storage facilities; and

    iii. to ensure food security for the nation.

    76. Ministry of Labour and Youth Development

    i. to promote youth programmes for responsible parenthood;

    ii. to promote, in liaison with other institutions, employment opportunities especially for the youths and people with disabilities; and

    iii. to introduce comprehensive labour legislation that will encourage participatory labour relations in public and private sectors.

    77. Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children

    i. to advocate for gender equity, equality and women empowerment;

    ii. to educate women on the importance of breast feeding, safe motherhood and family planning; and

    iii. to ensure that special attention is paid to programs that are directed at elimination of social-cultural and discriminatory practices against the girl child, elderly and people with disabilities.

    78. Ministries of Water, Energy and Minerals

    i. to ensure availability of safe water to all people;

    ii to promote the use of, and research on, renewable energy resources; and

    iii. to create awareness to the community on the dangers of environmental degradation on aspects relating to supply of energy like electricity and fuel wood.

    79. Ministry of Finance

    i. to allocate adequate financial resources to population activities and programmes; and

    ii. to mobilize local and international resources to support population programmes and activities.

    80. Ministry of Home Affairs

    i. maintenance of law and order;

    ii. coordinating refugee matters;

    iii. reduce levels of crime; and

    iv. coordinating immigrants and emigrants matters.

    81. Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs

    i. to collaborate with all other ministries and ensure that laws that are not in line with this policy are either reviewed or repealed as well as facilitating enactment of new ones on matters concerning population, reproductive health, environment, and other population issues; and

    ii. to ensure enforcement of the laws.

    82. Institutions of Higher Learning

    i. to provide training on population and development;

    ii. to conduct research on all population and development related issues,

    iii. to provide consultancies and advisory services on population and development issues; and

    iv. to mainstream gender issues in the existing curricula.

    83. Mass Media

    i. to promote awareness on population issues, policy and programmes in relation to development;

    ii. to promote the use of reproductive heath services; and

    iii. to inform and educate the public on population problems such as sexual abuse, HIV/AIDS, domestic violence, neglect and abandonment of children and adolescents.

    84. NGOs and Private Sectors

    i. to provide reproductive health services including MCH and FP;

    ii. to provide counselling services, especially to the youths, disabled and people with special problems; and

    iii. to supplement Government efforts in both the formulation, financing, implementation monitoring and evaluation of population programmes and projects.

    iv. to involve the community in designing population based development projects and programmes.

    85. Political Parties

    i. to support the integration of population concerns into social and development agenda;

    ii. to sensitise the public on population issues and mobilise support for population programmes.

    86. Religious Institutions

    i. to provide spiritual guidance and set standards for societal moral values; and

    ii to provide, formulate and implement projects to complement efforts made by others.




4th JUNE, 1999

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