Yivokuchi Dictionary

-a infl marks an indefinite noun phrase. Variant: -ya (for roots ending in -i). Variant: -wa (for roots ending in -u).

abr vi [1\] shake; tremble; shiver; twinkle. Etym: /?abl/.

ache conj [1/] because; since; for; considering that; this in reference to. Etym: /haxjE/. Variant: che (only in poetry, for metrics' sake).

ada- deriv [1\] (directional) up; upward, upwards; towards the upper limit; to the top. Etym: /?and/. Variant: ad- (before vowels). Ex: adatabor "surge, surface".

adam n [1/] carbon, the 12th element of the periodic table. Etym: /hadam/. See: adamet "hydrocarbon".

adamet n [1/] hydrocarbon; any compound of carbon and hydrogen, especially complex biological polymers. Morph: adam eot.

adie adj [1\] friable, brittle, fragile, easily breakable. Etym: /?adI:h/. See: vokr "hard, solid".

adzor vi [1/] resign; abdicate; reject, repel (a charge); step aside; leave (a post). Usage: GEN. From: Hytsu /@sd_zo/ 'step down'. Etym: /sgjo/.

ae nLoc [1\] origin, source; 'from'. Etym: /?E:h/.

ael adj [1/] full, filled, stuffed, packed; obstructed. Implies discomfort or excess. Etym: /hE:l/. Ex: khout ael "full sinus (sinusitis-related headache)". See: khout "sinus". See: piw.

aevin n [1\] lit. source of light; lightsource; lamp, lantern. Etym: /?E:hbin/. See: bin "light".

-ai deriv [-] shows a result state, or an action that results in a state, esp. a volitive action. Etym: /e:/. Usage: vRoot:n(vowelLen). Ex: braomai "agreement, contract (n)". Ex: taurai "damage, injure (n)".

ai- deriv [1/] appointed, designated; marked, signaled, referenced. Etym: /he:/. Ex: aivav "yearly quota". Ex: ayov "official post".

aid adj [1/] loving, adoring, deeply wanting; longing. Etym: /he:nt/. Usage: ALL-nphr. Ex: Aida gatlani de "He loves the sea". nAbs: ait "love".

aillit adj [1/] open to love; able and willing to receive the love of another person. Etym: /he:nlet/ (l-infixed /he:nt/, with epenthetic /e/). Converse: aid "loving, lover".

ait n [1/] love; being loved. Etym: /he:t/. Usage: ALL = patient, GEN = experiencer. Ex: Ge aitade "To me is love = I am loved". Ex: Ye sel sel wo aitade "From me these children are love = I love these children". Ex: Aita ge ak wo de "Love to me is this woman = I am loved by this woman".

ajam n [2\] bed; a piece of furniture intended to be slept on. Etym: /?agjam/.

ak n [1\] woman; female human being. Etym: /?ak/. Gen: li "person". See: ka "man". Variant: akaka (some women). Variant: ekeki (the women).

-akam deriv [1\] -ist, -er; marks a habitual agent, esp. sbdy whose profession has to do with the stem. Etym: /ag_ham/. Ex: kranatakam "disinformer, propagandist". Ex: arbakam "dentist". Variant: -kam (with syncope). Ex: uwarkam "embalmer". See: -ew. See: -ibuy.

akir vi [1\] end (a conversation); finish; terminate; put an end to an argument or exposition. Etym: /?aker/.

-aks deriv [-] adjectivizer from nouns and verbs; -ful (in the active sense); full of ~; that does much ~. Etym: /haks/. Variant: -kas (syncoped). Ex: kumaks "frightful, loathsome".

-alt deriv [-] result nominalizer; forms deverbal nouns which represent the result of the generic action expressed by the verb. Usage: vt:n. Etym: /alt/. Ex: dokalalt "inscription, text". See: oen "result".

alub nBody [1/] knee; knee joint; rotula (not in medical speech). Etym: /hahlob/.

antavey n [1\] stairs; a set of steps. Etym: /wIj/ (initial /an/ probably from OL /?and/, ML ada- 'up, upward', with medial /tav/ from the same root as tab 'surface, board').

ao adj [1/] white. Etym: /hO:/. See: lea "black".

aotos n [1/] grief; (non-physical) pain; extreme anguish. Etym: /?O:tOs/. See: ragh "sad, unhappy".

apur adj [1/] random; chance; apparently uncaused or unintended by any known will. Etym: /hapor/. Adv: apauva "by chance". Ant: tepur.

ara- deriv [1/] shows an object that is similar in shape and/or function, but larger, than a certain other. Usage: n:n. Etym: /hara/. Ant: pres-. Ex: araneod "shovel".

arb n [1\] tooth, teeth (individually considered). Etym: /?arb/.

as n;adj [1\] one; the number one. Etym: /?as/.

astakimat adj [2\] Macchiavellian; placing profit and power over morality or honour. Etym: /stIk_him/ (the name of a political philosopher who reformulated Macchiavelli's doctrine).

-at deriv [-] having the feature of, characterized by. Etym: /at/. Ex: gabat "limited, finite". Ex: binat "lit, illuminated".

atan n [2/] silver (Ag). Etym: /had_han/. See: etentin "made of silver".

atev n {-wa} [1\] cause, mechanical reason. Etym: /?atIwh/. Cpart: neofan "effect".

aukh vi [1/] live; survive, endure, keep one's position. Etym: /ho:x/. Variant: au (in some forms where a consonant follows the root). Variant: aikh (perfect stem). Degrad: fanaukh "survive, live past, cling to life".

aus adj [1\] enough; sufficient. Etym: /?o:s/.

av adj [1\] weak; faint; unforceful, lacking strength. Etym: /?asw/.

ay n [1\] ground, floor, surface soil. Etym: /?aj/. See: khen "soil".

ayakir vi [1/] end and close an exposition; wrap up a speech; declare a meeting closed; officially finish an audience. Etym: /?aker/. See: akir.

ayallet n [2\] axiom, postulate, basis, basic premise. Morph: ay llet. See: llet "logic".

ayel n [1/] (fig.) label, appointed name; scientific name; technical designation. Etym: /he:?El/. Emphasizes the official or non-spontaneous nature of the name.

ayijhep n [1/] (reserved) radio frequency; a part of the spectrum allotted to radio emissions from a certain source. Morph: ai- ijhep. See: ijhep "radio".

aza- deriv [1/] marks the opposite sense, or antonym. Etym: /hansa/. Variant: az- (before a vowel). Ex: azaguir "useless, futile". See: guir. Ex: azuram "unsophisticated". See: uram.

azuram adj [1/] unsophisticated, disrespectful of tradition. Syn: bibi "nouveau". See: uram "old, ancient". See: aza-.

bachero n;adj [1\] spring; the spring season; lit. pregnant season. Etym: /basjErO/ (reduced from */basjErnO/). Morph: bas yer -no.

baib n [1\] (a person's, a thing's) age; age or antiquity expressed in time units. Etym: /bahib/.

bakazokh n [2/] realm of existence; field; dimension; medium. Etym: /bakasdOx/. See: tokh "essence".

baks n [1\] space; Euclidean space; spatial medium. Etym: /baks/.

ban n [1/] colour, tint, tone. Used especially for opaque surfaces (i. e. not of water). Etym: /bahn/.

bans vi [1/] start (a task); get to work; get moving. Etym: /bINxj/. From: Hytsu /b@ns/. See: ga "work".

bao- deriv [-] intensifier; to a higher degree than is normal; maximally. Etym: /bO:/.

bark* precategorial common; share; with; together; con-, com-. Etym: /barg_h/. Ex: barkat "shared, in common".

barkat adj [1\] shared, in common. See: bark*.

barmeyer n [1\] coordination; synergy; qualities of a group of people (or fig. other items) that are strengthened by their combination and coordination. Morph: bark* meyer.

bas nLoc [1/] stage of development, given part of a process; notch; degree. Etym: /bas/.

batoghaeg n [2\] siege; entrapment; blockade. Morph: bato- ghaeg. See: ghaeg "bother".

batousukh vt [3\] reform (socio-politically). Morph: bato- du- sukh. See: dusukh "reshape".

batseke n [1\] revolution, and esp. the effects of a revolution; regime change; socio-political transformation. Morph: bato- seke. See: seke "change".

batu- deriv [1/] shows a 'political' action. Etym: /mbato/. Variant: bat- (before vowels and liquids).

batulac vt [3\] act demagogically; perform political tricks to divert attention from serious matters; amuse the masses using 'bread and circus' techniques. Morph: batu- lac. Agent: borbatulac "demagogue".

batunapr n [1/] conflict of interests; an instance of socio-political conflict where a compromise should be sought to appease the different parties, leaving all of them with less than expected. Morph: batu- napr.

bay adj [1/] minor, minimal, at the minimum level, rather insignificant. Etym: /mpaj/. dAdv: baiva "minimally". Ant: ghar.

beit adj [1\] dying, in the process of becoming dead. Some speakers use this word as a verb. Etym: /bE:t/. From: Gayat /bejt/. Degrad: zadbeit "dying uselessly".

bejh vi [1/] rise; stand up. Restrict: Not in the meaning of 'ascend', since it implies a fixed seat. For a person's standing up, erections, or the movement of plant leaves and the opening of flowers. Etym: /bINxj/. Ant: mus.

bel conj [-] due to; because of; given that; considering that. Often followed by cet '(which) reason' (not interrogative). Etym: /mbEl/.

belet n [1\] conception (union of gametes); inchoation, inception, beginning. Etym: /bElEt/. Variant: belt (for inflected forms). Ex: Ge beltade "To me [there] is conception = I have conceived". vAct: dubelet "conceive; impregnate".

ben- deriv [1/] static, stable, sustainable, sustained, balanced. Etym: /bIn/. Ex: bentemer "sustainable development". See: temer "system".

beom n;adj [1\] violet; purple; the colour at the higher end of the visible spectrum. Etym: /banm, banmab/. See: taubeom "ultraviolet".

beow n [2\] green; the colour of leaves and grass. Etym: /ba:w/.

besigo n;adj [1\] summer; lit. fructifying season. Etym: /bas?iknO/. Morph: bas ik -no.

bet n [1/] maiden, young girl. Etym: /bIt/.

bia n [1\] dew, dew drop. Etym: /bi?ah/.

bibas n [1\] sugar (sucrose); (Chem.) sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose, etc.). Etym: /mpibas/.

bibi adj [1/] new, nouveau, brand-new. Often sarcastic. See: ibi "new".

bica adj [1\] (logically) necessary; absolutely certain; lit. wholly possible, i. e. likely to the point of certainty. Morph: bik- ca.

bid adj [1/] free; free to go; free to move around; unbounded, unrestrained. Etym: /mped/.

bigmor adj [1\] involved; absolutely compromised; immersed; lit. 'wholly inside'. Morph: bik- ESS- or.

bigveb vt [2\] destroy; devastate; utterly ruin. Morph: bik- veb*. See: veb* "destroy, ruin".

bik- deriv [1/] wholly, thoroughly, completely, absolutely; until the end, until finished. Etym: /beg_h/. Variant: bika- (phonotactical variant). Ex: biksav "fill, fill up". Ex: bigmor "involved, immersed".

bikosok adj [2/] absolute, total; all-encompassing; global; inescapable; integral and seamless. Morph: bik- osok. Ex: Teon bikosoki wuka bikosokvakomo. "Absolute power corrupts absolutely.". See: bik-. See: osok.

bil* precategorial [-] health, good condition; equilibrium, balance; self-support, sustain; sustainable; in good shape. Etym: /bel/. Ex: chabil "heal, cure". Ex: bilkam "doctor".

bilkam n [1\] doctor, medical doctor, physician; lit. health-workperson. Morph: bil* -akam.

bin n [1\] light; lightsource. Spec: aevin "lightsource, lamp". Etym: /bin/.

bir vt [1\] know, be familiar with. Etym: /ber/.

birti vt [1\] learn; come to know; apprehend, comprehend, grasp. Morph: bir -ti. See: bir.

bo n [1/] people; (formerly) clan, tribe. Etym: /bO/. Unit: li "citizen, person within society, clan member". Syn: famas.

bod n [1\] father, male parent. Etym: /bOd/. Spec: boje "my father". Spec: baojo "your father".

braid n [1\] hat; topping; a piece of clothing that is used to cover the head; something that tops a structure. Etym: /bre:d/ (ML /bre/ 'head' adds -/d/ with previous vowel lengthening, which seems to be an old instrumental affix).

brakh vi [1\] explode; burst; puff; pop. Etym: /blax/. Caus: obrakhak "burst (vt)".

braomai n [1\] agreement, accord, contract, formal understanding. Etym: /brO:me:/. vAct: brom "agree".

brec adj [1/] sober, not drunk; aware, attentive. Etym: /blEkj/.

bres n [1\] story; display; detailed picture; -graphy. Etym: /brIs/. Often in compounds. Ex: bresnokh "biography".

bri n [1/] head (human or animal head, up to the neck); top, highest part. Etym: /bre/.

bris vt [1\] {virs-, viris-} finish; end. Etym: /bris/.

brom vi [1\] agree, openly coincide, express agreement over some issue. Etym: /brOm/. nDev: braomai "agreement".

brud vt [1\] send a message to; send for; call for; summon. Etym: /blod/. Usage: COM-(pu) [instrument] ESS-[person].

brujal n;adj [1/] (political) insincere change of ways or laws intended to preserve the statu quo while appearing to reform it; cunning adaptation to new circumstances in order to keep privileges; 'change so that nothing changes'. Etym: /brodjal/. nAbs: telbrujal "political self-preservation".

-bu clitic [1\] marks hypothetical phrases (for conditional/subjunctive clauses). Etym: /mbo/. Ex: Yizun jebu furkade yin "As if they were afraid of it". See: -me.

budrosod n [1\] hell; lit. 'place of great despair'. Morph: but los -od.

bun n [1/] benefit, sake (Jap. tame). Etym: /bun/. Usage: ALL-nphr. Ex: Yusi wo bun gede "These clothes are for me". See: zi "exclusivity".

but 2 n [1\] despair; utter anguish; desperation; depression. Etym: /bod_h/.

but 1 n [1\] baby; a child that is only a few months old and cannot speak or toddle. Etym: /mbut/. See: tomim.

ca adj [1/] possible, that may be; 'can'. Etym: /kja?/. Ex: Guo yesa cade "It may be cold tomorrow". Ex: Ukue zun wo cade "He may choose this way".

caka adv [1\] by or in itself; per se; on its own. Etym: /tjaka/.

cal adj [1/] pure, uncontaminated, wholly of a single substance. Etym: /g_hjal/.

ce- deriv [1/] cessative; cessation of action. Etym: /kjE/.

ceduyue vi [1\] start dawn (lit. cease being night). This is an impersonal verb, often used in the absolute participle, with the meaning of 'dawn', though it may also imply 'sunrise'. Etym: /kjEndujuhI/. Cpart: duyue "become night". Morph: ce- du- yue.

celit adj [1/] sheer; mere; no more than stated. Etym: /g_hjalit/ (ML /cal/ 'pure' + (probably diminutive/despising) /it/). Adv: celteva "merely".

cesif n [1/] lizard; lizard-like reptile; (fig.) saurian, dinosaur. Etym: /kjEsIf/.

cetsu pron [1\] why, for what reason. Etym: /tjEtoso/.

-ch See: -i.

chab* precategorial [-] group; organized group, esp. of people; army; squadron. Etym: /sjab/.

chabil vt [1/] heal, cure; improve the medical condition of. Etym: /jahbel/ (OL /bel/ is a morpheme meaning 'health', appearing also in ML /bilkam/ 'doctor'; /jah/ might be a general verb-former or a verb meaning 'give' or 'produce', not attested elsewhere). nDev: cheobail "cure, remedy". Degrad: zatchabil "appease an illness, provide an illusion of health".

chabritia n [1\] legion; squadron; group of soldiers; army. Morph: chab li tia. See: chab* "group". See: tiaugh "army".

chakr n [1/] enterprise, organized action; adventure; (business) venture. Etym: /jahkl/.

chakraod n [1/] art, expressive enterprise. Etym: /jahklO:d/. Morph: chakr laod. See: laod "expressive".

chante n;adj [1/] 1000, one thousand. Etym: /xjantE/.

char adj [1/] quick, swift, rapid. Etym: /jahr/.

chebuluym n [1\] master (esp. of a house); housemaster; headmaster (of a school); lit. 'hand (management) over home'. Morph: chen pul uym. See: uym "home, house".

chek n [1\] cat; (gen.) feline. Etym: /xjEk_h/.

chen nBilat [1\] hand; either of the hands of a person, considered as a whole. Etym: /xjEn/. Part: kuel "palm".

cheul vt [1\] praise, sing praise, admire. Etym: /xjE?ol/.

chey n [1/] yellow, esp. greenish yellow. Etym: /jEhj/.

chi n [1/] nut, berry; small round lignified fruit. Etym: /xi/. See: kuchi "walnut tree".

chikaw vt [1\] deflect, neutralize, reject to avoid harm. Etym: /sjekaw/. See: puk "dodge, avoid".

chod n [1\] wave, sea wave. Etym: /xjOd/.

-chu deriv [1/] negated adjectivizer. Forms the antonym of an adjective from a noun root. Etym: /Nxjo?/. Ex: kakchu "unlikely". See: kekin "likely, probable".

cie- deriv [1/] derives the meaning of group, esp. when not clearly defined (massive, unnumbered, fluctuating, or disordered). Etym: /g_hjI:/. Ex: ciekheb "cloudy sky". Ex: ciewat "(someone's head of) hair".

ciewat n [1/] hair, head of hair; the hairs on a person's head, considered as a whole. Etym: /g_hjI:wat/. Unit: wat. Morph: cie- wat.

cimas n [1/] cross; the shape of the plus sign ('+'); intersection of two perpendicular lines. Etym: /tjemas/.

cir vi;vt [1\] look, watch; turn one's eyes towards. Etym: /kjer/.

cirtal adj [1\] seriousness, grave (face), serious look. See: tal "great, grave, important".

ciru adj distant (from); away (from). Usage: ~(undeclined) GEN-nphr.

ciug adj [1/] deep (as in sound), intense (as in pressure), strong (as in feelings); ingrained, heartfelt. Etym: /ge?hog/.

ciwotao n [2\] cancer; malign tumor. Etym: /?U:t_hO:/. Morph: uc-, uci-?. See: oto "thrive, grow".

cog n [1/] door; gate; portal; opening. Etym: /kjUg/.

cu nLoc [1/] the location behind sthg. Etym: /kjo/. Ant: meo.

cucab n skeleton, skeletal system; the set of bones of an animal's body. Unit: cut "bone". Morph: cut -yab.

cupri n skull; cranium; the set of bones that shape the head and protect the brain. Morph: cut bri. Gen: cut "bone". See: bri "head".

cut n bone; cortical bone (as a material). Often in fused compounds. Etym: /kjud_h/. Whole: cucab "skeleton".

cuy vi [1/] talk; speak in a conversation; chat. Etym: /kjuj/. Usage: COM|ALL-hearer ESS-issue.

da- deriv [1/] marks a noun of action derived from a verb. Etym: /ndah/.

dac vt [1\] ask, ask for; request; require. Etym: /dakj/.

dad adj [1\] blunt; smooth; (a piece of writing) boring, unable to excite interest; (a person) dull, boring, unattractive, stolid. Etym: /dad/.

dadam adj [1/] round, circular or spherical; rounded (oval). Etym: /ntadlam/ (from OL /ntad/ 'circle', /lam/ 'contour', to avoid homonymy with ML /dad/ 'blunt').

daekeo n [1\] pain, physical suffering, algia. Etym: /dE:ka:/. See: dekan "painful, sore".

dafel n [1/] dance, the art of dancing. See: fel "dance". Gen: chakraod "art".

dagauro adj [1/] having a surrounding border; circumscribed; bound within an area of influence. Morph: dad(am) gur* +LEN -no. Ant: azdagauro.

dakh n [1\] death, the act or moment of death. This word is etymologically unusual, probably an innovation over a taboo concept. Etym: /dax/. See: beit "dying".

dal vi [1\] dive; submerge oneself; jump from a great height. Etym: /ntal/. See: dalk "push, make to dive".

dalkutu vt [1\] force sbdy to submerge in water (or a suitable medium) with the intention of drowning them. Morph: dal -k -utu. See: dalk "submerge". See: -utu "violent action".

dall vi [1\] introspect; find a new personality; find a great truth; adopt a new religion. Usage: ESS. Etym: /ntanl/ (/ntal/, ML /dal/ 'dive, jump from high').

dama- deriv [-] durative aspect mark; 'keep on ~ing'. Etym: /dama/. Ex: damacir "watch over, observe".

dasat adj [1\] oblivious; unaware; lost in thought. Etym: /dExjEt/. From: Hytsu /d@s@t/.

dauf n [1\] jaw, esp. the lower jaw. Etym: /do:f/. See: arb "tooth".

daup n [1\] loss; the state of being lost; something lost, forgotten by mistake, or accidentally left behind. Usage: ESS. Etym: /do:p/.

davi vt [1/] create, invent, make from scratch. Used in reference to cosmological theories, divine action, and human inspiration/creativity. Etym: /dafne/.

de cop [-] copula ('to be'). Etym: /dE/.

dech n [1\] tear, teardrop. vAct: dechor "cry for". Etym: /dIxj/.

dechet adj [1\] enjoying, happily involved. Etym: /dExjEt/.

dechor vt [1\] cry for (sthg/sbdy), cry over, shed tears over. This word has lost its concrete association with dech 'tear'; cries of suffering and other manifestations of sadness or pain besides tears are included in its sense. Etym: /dIxj/. See: dech "tear".

dekan adj [1\] painful, sore (an area); in pain (a person); oversensitive, hot (issue). Etym: /dEkan/. Feel: daekeo "pain". nUg: teka "sick person".

del vi [1\] go; move in a specific direction. Etym: /dIl/. Almost never used alone, and not in the meaning of 'leave'.

deoc n [1\] science; the subject of epistemology; the sciences as a whole. Etym: /da:kj/. See: dac "ask, question". Spec: kaug "science, discipline".

det n [1\] material, substance. Used esp. in construct-state compounds to designate the materials of which a certain thing is made; also (GEN) to render the meaning of '(made) of'. Etym: /dIt/. Ex: niga yizet teda "a bridge made of stone". Ex: det beni "the ink used to produce the given colour".

deu n [1\] truth; a statement that is true. Etym: /dIho/.

dezuar n [1/] nostalgia; feeling of loss for past things. Etym: /gjU:r/. From: Hytsu /d_zu@r/, from OL /gjU:r/ ~ /gjUr/ 'mourn', as in Y /J\or/.

diad n [rain] rain; water falling from the clouds. Etym: /dihad/.

dibil n [1\] ring, round hollow metallic jewel. Etym: /dempel/.

difay n [1\] curve; curvilinear shape or contour; a curved line, esp. when smooth and having only one inflexion point. Etym: /ndip spaj/. See: dip "line".

dilay n [1/] sunny afternoon; the time between noon and 16:00-17:00, in autumn or spring, in days where temperature is mild and the sun shines. Etym: /ndelaj/.

dindip n [2\] straight line; (Math.) a one-dimensional figure in two-dimensional space where all points follow the same direction. Etym: /ndip/ (DUP).

dip n [1\] line; one-dimensional figure, or a physical concept that can be abstracted as such. Etym: /ndip/. See: dindip "straight line".

dir n;adj [1\] many; a lot. Etym: /der/.

dird n;adj [1\] gray; half-black, half-white; gloom. Etym: /dird/.

direa n [1/] glicerine; alcohol of the form CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH. Etym: /dira:/. From: Gayat /dira@/. Compound: gankadirea "nitroglicerine".

dise- deriv [2\] marks an artificial, mechanical, or otherwise non-natural device; used for many names of machines with a function that is analogue to that of some part of the human body. Etym: /disI/. Ex: diseneod "bucket of an earth-moving machine".

-diw deriv [1/] marks an action as performed by a specific instrument. Etym: /diw/. Ex: fildiw "count with the fingers".

-do deriv [-] (aspectual) cessation of action; rest; end state. This affix appears in several forms, fused into ancient verb stems; it's not productive in the modern language. Etym: /dUh/. Ex: garido "lay down (gifts)". Ex: krujo "flatten; tame". Ex: jhordo "set up an appointment".

dochug vt [1\] drag; move; transport (esp. in bad condition). Morph: dos- lug. The original meaning was a pejorative of lug 'move, transport', suggesting evil intent; by extension it came to mean 'transport without care' and finally 'drag'.

dokal vi;vt [1\] write, write a text. Etym: /dOka?l/. nDev: dokalalt "text, inscription". Spec: mibirdokal "calligraphy".

dokaldiw vt [1\] record; register; engrave; write down over a more-or-less permanent medium. Etym: /dOka?l/.

dokh vi manifest (oneself); appear; show self as; exist as. Restrict: archaic or technical (philosophy). Etym: /dOx/. See: tokh.

doldol vi;vt [1\] make a list (of); write down, esp. in a commercial context; (fig.) note sbdy's faults. From: Gayat /dOwl/, from OL /dOka?l/ 'write'. See: dokal "write".

dor* precategorial shaft, pole, rod, bar; a long thin straight object, esp. rigid or not easily bendable. Etym: /ndOr/. Ex: dortlot "sceptre".

dos- deriv [-] (attitudinal) (perceived as) having bad intentions; for an evil purpose; dishonest; sneaky. Etym: /dUs/. Ex: dosekor "ambush".

dovrud vt [1\] set price on sbdy's life; start a manhunt; (fig.) blacklist. Morph: dos- brud. See: brud "send for, summon".

drab vt [1\] raise, elevate, uplift. Etym: /dlab/.

drau n [1\] mental state; feeling; pathos. Often in compounds. Etym: /dro:/. Ex: drau saksak "state of perceived abandonment".

dreim n [1\] care, concern, preoccupation. Etym: /dli:m/.

drik vi [1\] stop. Etym: /drek/. See: drikh.

drikh vt [1\] stop, detain, hold. Etym: /**drekk/. Morph: drik -k-. See: drik.

drin adj [1/] mediate, far-, causally connected but not directly, remotely related. Etym: /drin/. Compound: mesendrin "descendant".

droa adj [1/] old, decrepit; phased out, cliché. Derogatory, and taboo when speaking of people. Etym: /drO:h/. From: Hytsu /dro@/ from OL /drO:h/. See: uram.

drud adj [1/] odd, strange, weird; undescribable, ineffable. Etym: /drohd/.

drus adj [1\] long; spread wide; spanning a long time. Etym: /dlos/. Ant: liay.

du- deriv [1\] verbalizer; turns (stative) adjectives into (dynamic) verbs. Etym: /du/. Ex: ardujeme ves "they are settling here".

duay vt [1\] plant (a tree, a flag); introduce in the ground; make firm; seal an agreement. Etym: /dohaj/. See: ay "ground".

dubelet [2\] (1) vt engender; impregnate; inchoate, start, cause to exist. (2) vi conceive, become pregnant. The intransitive form of this verb is medio-passive and a newer development; many people prefer to use yernomo 'become pregnant'. Both the transitive and the intransitive forms may be used with a dual subject in the sense of 'become parents' or 'engender (a child)'. The gloss of the intransitive sense as 'become pregnant' is misleadingly passive-like syntactically, but the verb is semantically active.

ducom adj [1\] supporting; strong; bearing. Etym: /dutjOm/. See: dut*.

dujem vi [1\] settle, occupy a territory, build one's home. Usage: ESS-nphr. Morph: du- jem. See: jem "inhabiting".

dumarchen vt [2\] peruse, browse (a book); go through a text divided in pages lightly; lit. '(do) eye-hand'. Morph: du- mar chen. Variant: o- (scan (a book) for sthg methodically).

dumitun vt [2\] marry, wed, take in marriage. See: mitun "lasting, holding".

dunarow vt [1\] mislead, disorient, induce confusion. Morph: du- narow. See: narow "confusing".

dunur vi [1\] fly (in the inceptive sense); take to the air, become airborne (with reference to birds, it involves the spreading of wings and their movement, up to the point when the bird is sustaining a stable flight). Morph: du- unur. See: unur "flying, gliding".

duore n [1\] affinity; similarity or general agreement of ideas. Etym: /dU:rI/.

dusol vi [1\] retreat; move back; leave the battlefield; abandon the fight. Implies complete defeat and/or inconditional retreat, sometimes associated with fear or terror. Morph: du- sol*. Syn: nasol.

dusukh vt [1\] shape, reshape; turn into; mold; reform. Morph: du- sukh. nDev: dusukhr "reform, transformation". nDev: ucusukhr "distortion". Spec: batousukh "reform politically".

dut* precategorial [-] vertical; column, pillar; tall and thin; upward growth. Etym: /dut/. Ex: vidudva "vertically". Ex: batodut "obelisk, monument".

dutruw n [1\] supporting column; pillar; sthg that supports a building. Etym: /dutlu:h/ (incorporates /lu:h/ 'tower'). See: dut*.

dutsos n [1\] trunk (of a tree or bush). Etym: /dutsOs/ (incorporates /sOs/ ~ /sO:s/ 'wood'). See: dut.

duyue vi [2\] become night, fall (night), get dark. This verb is, of course, impersonal. Cpart: ceduyue "starting (dawn)". Morph: du- yue.

e pron [1\] first person singular pronoun, 'I'. Etym: /?I/.

e- clitic [1/] marks the topic or gives emphasis; it's also required for absolute participles when the verb/object phrase is the grammatical subject. Etym: /hE/. Ex: etiari azaguirde "resistance is futile".

ech adj [1\] much, a lot, very, a great amount of. Etym: /?Exj/.

ei [1/] pron when, what time. [hIhe]

ejop n [1/] control, levelling, stabilization, standardization. Etym: /hEgjOp/. Compound: git ejop fokor "air conditioning".

eken vt [1/] push (sbdy); provoke; induce to fight; bully. Etym: /sken/. From: Hytsu /h@ken/ 'attack' from OL /sken/. See: khin "attack".

ekheb n [1/] cloud (of water). Etym: /?IxIb/.

el n [1\] name, identification, label. Etym: /?El/.

ell vt [1\] help, assist sbdy with. Etym: /?Ilj/. Usage: ALL-(person) ~ (action). Ex: Sellu ge zolun "(S/he) helped me put it on".

en n [1\] river, wide stream of water. Etym: /?En/.

end n [1/] rest, recovery, sleep. Etym: /hEnd/.

endirfit adj [1/] dreaming of (sthg); seer of sthg in dreams. Morph: end -ir- fit. See: fit "seeing".

engael n [1/] story, fable (esp. when passed as true fact); collection of invented facts; flight of imagination (pejorative). Etym: /Ngadl/. From: Gayat /Nga@l/. See: gadr "myth".

enie conj [1\] besides, also; moreover; in addition. Etym: /?InI:h/.

-enim infl [-] adverbializer; turns a verb into an adverb based on its active participle. Morph: ACP -im. Usage: subject verb-~ [GEN-object]. The glosses are approximate (there is no true temporal sense). Ex: eki garimenim yivimi "as the woman opened the book". See: -im.

eochuy vi [1\] talk orderly; participate in a conversation; dialogue (lit. 'talk one by one', i. e. first one, then the other, in a orderly fashion). Etym: /?a:skjuj/. Morph: eos(eo) cuy. See: cuy "talk".

eoseo adv [1\] one at a time; one by one. This word acts as a distributive. Ex: Su eoseo ge "They came to me one by one". Etym: /?a:sa:/.

eot n [1\] hydrogen, the first element of the periodic table. Etym: /?a:t/. Group: mazeot "molecular hydrogen".

er- deriv [1\] side; aside; para-; counter-; lateral. Etym: /?Er/. Ex: erjaid "exempt".

eral 1 n [2\] honey, bee honey. Etym: /?Eral/.

eral 2 n [1/] pressure; (Phys.) pressure change, relative to zero if unspecified; the (delta of the) physical magnitude calculated as the quotient of force over surface. Etym: /hIral/.

erjaid n;adj [1\] excepted; exempt; set aside; exception. Morph: er- jid +LEN. Syn: laf.

eska n [2/] mystic sign, occult symbol; cryptographic code. Etym: /sga?/. From: Hytsu /@ska/. See: gha "letter, glyph".

estin adj [1\] primary, primeval, original; basic, fundamental. Etym: /?astin/. Ex: Nude omi estini yighat "Atoms are the fundamental blocks of matter". See: as "one".

estiva adv [1\] firstly, first, in the first place. Morph: as -tib -va. See: seseva "secondly".

-ew deriv [-] agent; a person who does ~, a ~er. Etym: /Iw/. Syn: -ibuy. Ex: kuntew "chief". See: kunt "drive, induce".

eza n [1\] finger; toe. Etym: /?Isda/. Whole: chen "hand".

fa- deriv [1/] forms abstract nouns, esp. collectives. Etym: /fa/. Ex: fakinel "traffic, transit". Syn: tel-. Syn: lau-.

fae deriv [-] re- (as in resume); shows repetition or continuation. Etym: /fE:/. Ex: faezur "resume".

faek n [1/] rib; ribcage; outer thorax, thoracic box; (fig.) physical endurance. Etym: /p_ha:k/. From: Gayat /Pa@k/, from OL /p_ha:k/, also yielding Y /peok/ 'chest'. Group: chab faek "ribs, ribcage". Unit: nufaek "one rib".

faf vt [1/] tie; restrain, subject to restriction. Etym: /spaf/.

fai nLoc [1\] among, between; middle. Etym: /fe:/. Variant: vai (ESS). See: siu "central spot, middle point".

faidad n [1/] arc; a curved segment of a circle; regular curved countour. Etym: /spaj ntad/. See: difay "curve". See: dadam "round".

faizo n;adj [1\] dreamer; dreaming. Etym: /fe:d_hnO/ (from /fed_h/ 'seeing', with dialectal fricativization). nAbs: fait "a dream".

fakinel n [1/] traffic; transit; circulation; the quality and quantity of vehicles, people or other items going through a set of paths. Morph: fa- kim- del.

fall vt [1\] give; give away; transfer control and/or ownership of sthg to sbdy. Etym: /falj/.

famas n [1/] kin; clan; ethnic group; race. Etym: /p_hamas/. From: Gayat /Pamas/ 'ancient guild'. Syn: bo.

fams adj [1/] slow, moving at a slow speed. Etym: /spams/. Spec: ofams "lazy".

fan nLoc [1\] after; forward; a posteriori thing. Etym: /fan/. Used both in the temporal and spatial senses.

far n [1/] flower. Etym: /fahr/.

farin n [1\] generation; the group of people that were born around the same time in a given place; (fig.) people or things that share an origin or beginning around the same time. Morph: fa- rin*. See: rin*.

farjasniy n [1/] peach blossom. Morph: far jas niy2.

farod n [1/] garden; lit. flower-place. Used only of decorative flower gardens, maybe with trees. Morph: far -od.

faus n [1/] vertex; apex; point of inflection, turning point; corner point. Etym: /spo:s/.

fecek n [1/] ice, frozen water. Etym: /spIkj/ (with reduplication /spIkjIk/?).

fefid n [1\] meaning (of a word); translation; (esp. metaphysical) explanation. Etym: /fIfend/. Ex: Fefidi yifoy wo 'yue' de "The meaning of this word is 'night'".

feg n [1\] mark, written signal; dent, scratch. Etym: /fIkn/.

fein n [1\] (1) will, want; what one wants or is about to do. Renders the concept of 'want'. Ex: fein ye mijanade "my want is [= I want] a pencil". (2) desire, wish, longing. Etym: /p_hE:n/. From: Gayat /Pejn/ 'need'.

fel vi [1\] dance, perform a dance or choreographic arrangement. Etym: /fIl/. nDev: dafel "the art of dance".

felci vi;vt [1\] dismantle; turn to pieces; disassemble and give the parts away; (fig.) quit and surrender. Morph: fall -ti. Etym: /**faljt_hi/. See: fall "give away".

fene conj [1\] then, and then, after that, after which, and. Etym: /fanI/.

feochu adj [1\] unrestrained; unbound; free from all ties. Morph: faf +LEN -chu. See: faf "tie, restrain".

fer vi [1\] leave, go away, abandon (a place). Etym: /fIr/.

fia n;nLoc [1/] bottom; summit; lowest part; floor. Refers specifically to the bottom surface and immediately over it, not merely the lower part of sthg. Etym: /spe?a/. See: oukoy "lowest, minimum".

fiaj n [1/] status, esp. the inherent social status of a group of people, an artistic genre, or a branch of science (as opposed to status that is acquired). Etym: /p_hi?adj/. From: Gayat /Piad_z/.

fier n [1\] tradition, custom, common way. Etym: /spI:r/.

fikab n [1/] triangle; three-sided shape; any triangular object. Morph: fik gab. See: gab "limit".

fil vi [1\] count. Etym: /fil/. Usage: ~ [GEN-nphr]. Ex: E aefile yizuta "I'm counting stars".

fildiw vi;vt measure; count using the fingers; count or measure sthg by using instruments. See: fil "count".

filt adj [1\] showing; displaying; appearing as. Etym: /fed_h/. Morph: fit + -l-. See: fit "seeing".

fir n [1\] moon; the Moon.

fit adj [1\] seeing, witnessing. Variant: fi (irregular). Etym: /fed_h/. Caus: fikor "show". Converse: filt "showing, appearing as".

fokor n [1/] temperature change, temperature delta; the difference between a reference value (in degrees) and the current temperature. In everyday use, the reference value is implied (0ºC, water's freezing point). Etym: /spOk/. Compound: fokor zil "temperature (in standard degrees over 0ºC)". Compound: git ejop fokor "air conditioning".

fonfon adv [1\] so far; yet; still; up until now. Etym: /fOn/.

foy n [1\] word. As happens in all human languages, the word for 'word' means one thing to lay speakers and a different, more specific thing to linguists. Etym: /fOj/. Ex: Foyi oine yin zezide gaude "The word for world is forest".

fuin n [1/] pupil, student; a person who attends a school class. Etym: /p_hukiN/. From: Gayat /Puin/.

fuk vi [1\] answer, reply, respond. Etym: /fuk_h/. Variant: fouk (k-stem [vt]).

furk adj fearing, afraid of. Ex: Etozmura e furkide "What I fear is making a mistake".

furkiryue n [2\] nightmare, lit. 'fear night'; bad dream; inability to sleep due to bad dreams. Morph: furk -ir- yue.

ga vi;vt [1\] {ga, gais-, ghau, ghoisu} work; do work at; work with. Most often used intransitively with the proper complements, but sometimes (when context is clear) used transitively with either the place of work or the materials worked on as the direct object. Etym: /ga/. Ex: Gae gillin ye "I work with my brain". Ex: Ghau udugal siuch kach? "Did he work at the central administration?". Incept: bans "start, get to work".

gab n limit, bound; a border (esp. non-physical); (Math.) a boundary condition.

gabat adj limited, finite, having a defined limit or fixed borders. Morph: gab -at. Ant: lagabat. See: gab "limit".

gadr n [1/] myth; mythical story; legend; fable; metaphorical account. Etym: /Ngadl/. See: sega "story".

gaim n [1\] cosmos; the order and structure of the natural system, with physical laws. Etym: /ge:m/.

gaivair n [1\] account; reckoning; calculation; estimation. Etym: /ge:sbe:r/.

gak n [1\] fact; thing; happening. Used mainly as a helper noun. Etym: /gak_h/. Variant: gakak (DUP = plural). See: tan. See: more.

gam- deriv suggests repetitive aspect or lack of novelty, or things done/found again. See: gaemat.

gambriag n [1\] mirror, looking glass. Morph: gam- llag. Etym: /**gamrjag/. See: llag "glass".

gamdabat adj [1\] awake; aware; not asleep. The literal meaning is 'again in the surface', but this term tab has shifted a lot in meaning. It is said that gamdabat may be a seafaring term meaning 'back on deck', i. e. back to work after sleep. Morph: gam- ESS tab -at. vAct: gamdabor "wake [sbdy] up".

gamso vi come back, return, come again, revisit. Morph: gam- so. See: so "come".

gamva adv again, back, another time. Morph: gam- -va.

gank n [1\] nitrogen; nitrogen compound. Etym: /NgaNk/. Compound: gankadirea "nitroglicerine". Compound: oen gank "nitrate".

gankadirea n nitroglicerine. Morph: ganka direa. See: gank "nitrogen, nitric". See: direa "glicerine". Compound: gankadirea liejop "dinamite". See: ejop "control, stabilization".

garido vt [1\] lay down (gifts, products); deposit before sbdy; give, concede, render unto, surrender before; (Relig.) make a ritual offering. Morph: garim -do. See: garim "offer, extend, share".

garim vt [1\] offer, extend, spread, reach for, distribute, share. Etym: /garem/.

gau n [1/] forest, jungle. Etym: /Nko:/.

gaur nLoc around; the surrounding area, the surrounding space. Variant: maur (ESS). Etym: /go:r/. See: gur*.

-gaw deriv adjectivizer suffix. Usually translated as '-able'.. Ex: feingaw "desirable". See: fein "want, desire". Ex: tiagaw "resistable, which can be fought". See: tia "fight, struggle".

gay* precategorial routine; common; usual; used to; custom; everyday work. Etym: /Ngaj/.

gayur adj [1/] famous; notorious; recognizable. Etym: /Nkajor/.

ged 2 n [1\] bird; a winged bipedal animal with feathers, usu. small and capable of flight. Etym: /gId/.

ged 1 n [1/] wine; fermented juice. Etym: /gEhd/.

geikibrembe n [1\] 'pitch conjugate'; said of a word with respect to another one, when they differ only by their pitch pattern (each one having low pitch where the other has high pitch, and viceversa). Morph: geki kim- rembe. See: geki "pitch".

geki n [1\] pitch; the height of a sound; the tone (high or low) with which a syllable is pronounced. Etym: /NgEki?/. See: geikibrembe "pitch conjugate".

gem n [1\] subject; topic; theme of conversation. Etym: /gIm/. Ex: Kherenetsu ligem wudi "They have been keept ignorant on the topic of the valley".

geomat vt recite (a verse), repeat, quote sbdy's words. Morph: gam- mat.

geoy n;adj [1\] accustomed, used to; habitué, habitual agent. Etym: /ga:j/. See: gay*.

geukab n [1\] square; four-sided shape; square object. Morph: geop gab. See: gab "limit".

gha n [1/] letter; alphabetic character; symbol, glyph. Etym: /sga?/.

ghaeg n [1/] sthg done in order to bother or upset sbdy; a thing or deed intended to cause trouble for sbdy else, esp. when set up secretly or sneakingly; a trap. Etym: /sgE:g/. See: gheg "bother".

ghakod n [2/] gold (Au). Etym: /Nxag_hOnt/.

ghar adj [1/] major, relatively large, almost total or very important; being in the majority. Etym: /sgar/. See: tal "great, grave, important". dAdv: gharva "almost". Ant: bay.

gharva adv almost, practically. Morph: ghar -va.

gheg vt [1/] set sbdy up with a trap; arrange things in order to bother or cause trouble to sbdy. Etym: /sgeg/. nDev: ghaeg "bother, trap".

gherg vi;vt [1/] conspire against; mislead; deceive systematically. Etym: /sgErg/ (cf /sgEg/, ML /Geg/ 'set up, set a trap for'). See: dunarow "mislead, induce confusion".

ghew vi diminish, dwindle, decrease in number, vanish. Ex: Bo wo arghewe "This people are decreasing in number". This verb is almost always used in the continuous aspect. Ant: oto.

ghien n [1/] adobe (construction material). Etym: /NxE:n/.

ghik adj stuck, unmovable, unappropriately fixed or blocked.

ghul n (human) voice.

gidav vt [1\] absorb, swallow, ingest. Etym: /gedasb/. nDev: gaideo "draught".

gifir n Adam's apple, epiglottis. Etym: /Ngifer/.

gilel n;nBilat [1\] wing; a bird's upper limbs. Etym: /gelI?l/.

gillin n [1/] brain; the organ of thought, located inside the cranium. Etym: /gehrjeN/.

git n apparatus, gadget, set, appliance. Ex: git ijhep "radio receiver".

giu adj [1\] loose; flaccid, soft; flexible. Etym: /Ngihoh/. Ant: jaks.

go- infl allative/dative case marker; to, towards; for, intended for; in order to. Variant: g- (before vowels). Etym: /gO/.

gorui adv ago; (a given time) into the past. Ex: yue yue gorui "(some) nights ago". Ex: chante vav goruide "it's been a thousand years since".

got vt [1\] soothe, make calm, calm (sbdy) down; sedate, anaesthesize; quench. Etym: /gOd_h/. See: ughaot "resisting sleep". Reflex: gutud "calm down".

gram adj [1\] closed; locked; shut; blocked; having an opening that is covered. Etym: /gram/.

griud vi [1\] incline; bend, bend over; (fig.) bow, make a reverence. Etym: /grehunt/ (with mediopassive -/unt/).

gudat adj [1\] hungry; feeling hunger. Etym: /god/. See: nAbs = gugud "hunger".

gudung adj [1\] hunger-causing; 'hungrifying'. Etym: /god/.

gugud n [1\] hunger. Etym: /god/ (preduplicated).

guir adj useful, having some use or benefit. Ant: azaguir. See: aza-.

gund n heir, inheritor, receiver of valuable things from an ancestor. Usage: COM-nphr. Ex: kai gundide leprozia loine "we are inheritors of a spoiled world".

guntuv vt inherit, receive sthg from one's ancestors. Refers to some material possessions but not money, and includes non-material objects such as the traditional enterprise and, particularly, suitable farming lands and ecologically preserved environment. Ex: Kai ghuntuvu oine prozia "We inherited a spoiled world". Morph: gund -uv. See: gund "heir".

guo n [1\] future, tomorrow, future tense. Etym: /gohU/.

gur 2 adj [1/] thinking, engaged in thought. Etym: /Nkor/. nInstance: jegur "thought". Compound: nig jegur "synapsis, neural bridge".

gur* 1 precategorial around; surround; circle; area of influence. See: gurud. See: gaur. Etym: /gor/.

gurdiw vt [1/] embrace, surround with one's arms, hug; take with both hands (esp. someone else's offered hand). See: gur*.

gurud adj around, surrounding, encircling. This word conveys a subtle opressive sense. See: gur*.

-i infl marks a definite noun. Variant: -ch (for roots ending in a vowel).

ibad n;nBilat [1/] (female) breast; mammary gland. Etym: /hebad/.

ibi adj [1/] new, recent, of recent making or appearance. This word is neutral, though it may carry a derogatory tone when referring to people (i. e. newcomers). Ant: uram. Etym: /hembe/. See: bibi.

-ibuy deriv [-] agent; a person who does ~, a ~er. Etym: /empuj/. Syn: -ew.

ichut vt [1\] leave (sbdy) waiting; stand (sbdy) up. Etym: /?ixjot/. See: yelk "waiting".

ici n [2/] substitute, replacement. Etym: /hek_hje/. See: iciyus "costume".

icirnarkam n [2/] labyrinth; maze; a structure made to confuse the senses and/or the logical thought; (now rare, but probably the original meaning) a sophist, a deceiver, or anyone who cheats and confuses with clever words. Morph: inc -ir- narow -akam. The literal meaning seems to be 'the confuser of paths' or 'the one who confuses using (twisted) paths'. The etymology incorporates the non-nasal-infixed form /hikj/ (the cognate inc 'path' comes from /hiNkj/), and a shortened form of narow 'confusing'.

iciyus n [2/] costume, especial clothes for a theater play. See: yus "clothes".

ideo adv [1\] hardly; barely. Etym: /?ida:h/.

igid n [2\] colon; the last part of the gastrointestinal tract. Etym: /?iged/. See: kunut "intestin".

ijhep n [1\] radio, low-frequency electromagnetic radiation; radio emitter. Etym: /?ijEhp_h/. Cpart: git ijhep "radio receiver".

ik vi;vt [1\] (1) support, provide, take charge of the needed resources; service. Ex: Lileodi caka ike iciyusa golaozok "The artists provide themselves [with] costumes for the theater [plays]". (2) give, produce (fruit) (said of a tree or plant); provide an ecological service. Etym: /?ik/. Ex: Tuoki ike jeujir gokhen "Earthworms provide oxygenation for the soil".

ikop adj [1\] foaming, bubbling. Etym: /?ekOb_h/. nDev: aikaop "foam".

il adj [1/] having, possessing, 'with'. Etym: /hil/. Ant: alil.

-ili deriv [-] -ness; -ity; the quality of being/having ~. Etym: /ele/. Variant: -ill (DEF). Ex: gayurili "notoriousness".

illes adv [1\] often; with a high frequency; a lot of times during any given period. Etym: /?iljEs/.

-im infl [-] forms abverbial clauses from verbs. See also the participial forms -enim and -iyam. Etym: /em/. Usage: COM-subject vStem-~ [GEN-object]. Ex: liyuech zurim "as the night continued". Ex: liboch yolim iteskach "as the people assessed the signs". See: -enim. See: -iyam.

ime conj [1/] but, on the other hand; nevertheless; yet; and still. Etym: /hemI/.

imur n [1/] mistake, error, equivocation; bad choice. Etym: /?i?mur/ (/?i?/ seems to be a cranberry morpheme; /mur/ is a negative connotation marker). See: -mur.

inc n [1/] road, street, well-marked path. Etym: /hiNkj/. Part: pado "corner".

inica n [1/] choice, alternative; lit. 'possible path'. Morph: inc ca. See: saecha "dilemma".

inzibo n [1/] sense of uniqueness of a people, nation, region, country, etc.; parochialism; nationalism; tribal isolation. Not specifically referring to articulated doctrine. Etym: /hInsibO/ (reborrowed, transparently from /hInsi/ 'exclusivity, uniqueness', /bO/ 'nation, people').

-ip deriv forms an adjective from a verb.

-ir- deriv [-] specifies generic verbs by preposing adjectives. Etym: /er/. Usage: adj-~-verb. Ex: mibirdokal "calligraphically write". Ex: vamirund "kill in cold blood".

irio n [1\] spirit; vital force, separated from the physical body; anima. From: Gayat /iriO/ 'spirit, anima', probably a loan in turn.

-iro deriv [-] -logy; the science of, the study of; the discipline or science whose subject is. Etym: /irU/. Ex: gaimiro "cosmology".

is n [1\] company, 'with', 'together with'. Usage: COM-~(CON) nphr. Etym: /?est/.

isil n [1/] animal; living being that is not a vegetable. Etym: /hesel/.

isilit n [1/] bacterium, bacteria; micro-organism; lit. 'animal-DIMINUTIVE'. Morph: isil -it.

isot vi [1\] put off, postpone or cancel (an event); frustrate (a plan). Etym: /?ixjot/. From: Hytsu /isot/, from OL /?ixjot/ 'cancel, frustrate', also yielding Y /iCut/ 'leave waiting'. Usage: GEN-person COM-object. Ex: Trimi isotse khai lisaibi "The storm has frustrated [= forced to cancel] our gathering". Ex: Isotokia linde. "It is cancelled.".

ival vt [2/] miss (an opportunity); let pass; ignore. Etym: /hevahl/. Variant: oeval (VOL).

iw n;nLoc [1\] place; extension; area. Not for precise locations or small sites. Etym: /?ew/.

iwalnokh n [2\] desert; lit. 'place of no life'. Morph: iw al- nokh.

-iyam infl [-] adverbializer; turns a verb into an adverb based on its passive participle. Morph: PAP -im. Usage: subject verb-~ [GEN-object]. The glosses are approximate (there is no true temporal sense). Ex: kach ukuiyam "as the man was chosen". See: -im.

iz adj [1\] short, of small stature. Etym: /?i:gj/. From: Hytsu /i:d_z/.

izbey n [1/] (esp. safe) hiding place; invisible place. Etym: /sbE:/. From: Gayat /sbej/, from OL /sbE:/, yielding also Y /vae/ 'where'. vAct: izbeyor "hide". nAbs: telizbey "secrecy, occultation".

ja clitic [-] marks a phrase as a consequence of sthg stated before, as perceived by the speaker; also marks simple temporal succession. Often translated 'and so...', 'and then...'. Tends to be used in storytelling, to link parts of a narrative thread. Etym: /ntja?/. Variant: -aja (with back-echo vowel).

jae pron second person plural pronoun, 'you, you all'.

jaks adj [1\] tight, firm, firmly fixed; rigid. Ant: giu. Etym: /gjaks/.

jaokai pron first person plural inclusive pronoun, 'we'. Includes second persons ('you and us'). See: kai "we (but not you)".

jaot n [1\] attempt, instance of exploration. Etym: /gjO:t/. See: jot "try, attempt".

jas n [1\] spring (season); blossoming; surge. Etym: /gjas/.

je- n activity, action, service. Ex: jegau "forestation".

je pron who, which person.

jefecek n freezing; the transition of matter (esp. water) from the liquid to the solid state. Morph: je- fecek. See: fecek "ice".

jefikomo n revelation, vision, discovery, inspiration, epiphany. See: fit "see". Morph: je- fi(t) komo.

jem adj inhabiting, dwelling, residing in a place. Usage: ESS-nphr. See: dujem "settle".

jerir n institutionalization, officialization; stereotyping, labelling. Suggests a loss of spontaneity and freedom. See: rir "hall, room".

jeuvokat n [2\] allergic reaction, manifestation of allergy; (Soc.) an act of xenophobia, and also the psychological process behind it. Morph: je- uvokat. See: uvokat "xenophobe". See: nuvokat "antibody".

jhao n mountain, mount; mountain range. Often in standard toponyms. Etym: /sdjO:/. See: lle "hill".

jhar vt find, encounter; (+VOL) meet. Etym: /Nxjar/.

jhau n [1/] west, the West. See: jhu "descend". Etym: /sgjo:/.

jho pron genitive case of the pronoun jo.

jhordo vi;vt [2/] set up an appointment (with sbdy); agree to meet; (fig., ext.) decide the date of some event. Morph: jhar -do. See: jhar "find, meet".

jhu vi [1/] move down, go down, descend. Ant: wey. Etym: /sgjo/.

ji- infl right hand side; the item on the right (for 'bilateral nouns'). Ex: jimari jho "your right eye". Ant: vie-. See: ti-.

jid vt [1/] place, hold (in a position), consider. Etym: /djed/.

jinai n [2\] island; a small portion of land surrounded by water, esp. when not containing resources for sustainable inhabitation by humans (such as drinking water). Etym: /gjene:h/. See: wut.

jo pron second person singular pronoun, 'you, thou'.

joim n corner; a corner inside a house, where two walls meets; accute angle; straight angle (as seen from inside). Cpart: pado "obtuse angle".

jor vi;vt [1/] mourn; lament; cry over; feel and show the loss of (sbdy). Etym: /gjUr/.

jot vt try, try and do, attempt, attempt to make. Etym: /gjOt/. Ex: Jote bejheri "He's trying to stand up". nDev: jaot. dAdj: jotip "viable".

jotip adj viable, doable, attemptable; sthg that may be tried with a certain opportunity of success; sthg that is worth the effort. See: jot "try, attempt". Morph: jot -ip.

juirtai n ivory.

julun n [1\] dam; a strong wall that keeps a body of water from flowing, usu. associated with an artificial lake, sometimes with additional devices to control the flow and/or generate hidroelectric energy. Etym: /djoluN/. See: manjulun "beaver dam".

junil adj [1/] kind, nice, gentle, showing good manners; taking the comfort of others into account. Etym: /juhnil/.

junki adv [1/] kindly; carefully; please. Morph: junil -ki.

junut adj soon, sooner, in advance, in a short(er) time.

ka n [1\] man; male human being. Etym: /ka/. Gen: li "person". See: ak "woman".

-ka deriv [-] appear, seem, look (as if). Etym: /ka/. Usage: copula~. Ex: kekindeka "it seems likely".

kada- infl [1/] reciprocative, apropriately translated 'each other' or 'one another' in most cases. Etym: /k_hanta/. Ex: Dicirle nut kadavotu "They said to each other, 'look at the stars'".

kai pron [1\] first person plural exclusive pronoun, 'we'. Means 'we' as opposed to 'you and us'. Etym: /ke:/. See: jaokai "you and us".

kaibo adj [1/] drunk; intoxicated with alcohol. See: kaip. Etym: /gh_e:pnO/. Morph: kaip -no.

kaif n [1/] room, esp. personal room (for sleeping); chamber; quarters. Etym: /g_he:f/.

kaip n [1/] alcohol. Etym: /g_he:p/. See: kip "burn".

kak* precategorial likelihood, probability, possibility. [kak] Ex: kekin, kakchu

kakchu adj unlikely, improbable, not very possible; long shot. Ant: kekin.

kaud n [1\] pipe, tube, duct, passage; (coll.) blood vessel. Etym: /ko:nt/.

kaudrey n [1\] windpipe, trachea; the passage through which we breathe. See: rey "air".

kaug n [1/] science; one of the sciences; discipline; branch of systematized knowledge. Etym: /g_ho:g/. Gen: deoc "science".

kekin adj [1\] likely, probable, very possible; that can be predicted to happen with a certain degree of confidence. Etym: /kakiN/. Ant: kakchu.

kel adj [1/] falling, going down, in free fall. Etym: /g_hEl/.

keo adj [1\] hearing; listening. Etym: /ka:/. See: okeo "listen, pay attention".

keomat n [2/] poet; one who quotes famous literary passages. Etym: /ga:?ma?t/. See: geomat "recite".

kep adj [1\] small, little. Etym: /kEb_h/. Adv: kieva "little, a bit".

ket* precategorial pointy; sting; pierce; thorn; acute; fine point. Etym: /g_hIt/. Ex: ketap "syringe". Ex: ketet "(insect) sting".

kewik n [1\] professional; craftsman. Morph: ka -uik. See: -uik "-ist, -er".

khab n [1/] a mess, a messy gathering; noise, noisy environment; a place or occasion of not having peace or quiet. Etym: /skab/. Ant: yetie.

khad vi [1\] sing (a song). Etym: /xad/. nDev: kheod "song".

khaga n [1\] dragon; one of several mythological animals. Etym: /xaNkah/.

khais n;adj [1\] necessary, needed; compulsive given the circumstances; a necessity; sine qua non. Etym: /ske:s/.

khak n [1\] bed sheet; bed cover; blanket; a piece of cloth intended to keep sbdy warm, usu. when in bed. Etym: /xak/. Compound: nakh khak "greenhouse effect".

khanda adv [1/] reciprocally, mutually; equally, the same (as has been just stated); (in conversation) same to you, same here. Etym: /k_hanta/. From: Gayat /xanda/ 'mutual' from OL /k_hanta/. See: kada- "reciprocal".

khas adj [1/] wide. Used especially of geographical features and roads, not so much with reference to the distance between the sides of objects such as tree trunks or houses. Etym: /skas/.

khef n [1\] branch; tree branch or small-caliber trunk; (fig.) subdivision in a tree-like system; (Med.) a vessel that stems from another, larger one. Etym: /xEf/. Abs: khaefai "branching, progressive subdivision".

khen n [1\] soil; the soil in the ecological sense, as an ecosystem and chemical complex; earth (in the mystical, 'elemental' sense). Etym: /xIn/. See: ay "ground".

khigas n [1\] anxiety; uneasiness; sense of expectation. Etym: /xegas/. Ex: ughigas "in anxiety = anxious".

khin vt [1/] attack; assault; act aggressively on. Etym: /sken/.

khofar adj [1\] unnecesary, superfluous; noticeably out of place, 'dangling'. Etym: /xop_hOr/. See: khupor "clumsy".

khout n the point where the middle of the forehead meets the top of the nose; the area corresponding to the frontal sinus, esp. as a source of pain. Etym: /xOhut/. Feel: khout ael "sinusitis-related headache".

khowi n [1\] narcissism; touchiness, excessive delicateness reserved for oneself, and self-indulgence; the tendency to feel superior and more deserving of praise than other people. Etym: /so:j/. From: Gayat /xowj/ 'selfishness'. See: sauy "pride".

khozon n [1/] model, static simulation; theory, theoretical frame. Etym: /xOsdOn/.

khul n;adj [1\] blue; the colour blue, esp. the blue of deep waters and stormy skies; marine blue. Etym: /xol/.

khupor adj [1\] aesthetically insensitive; non-elegant; untidy, badly presented; clumsy, disbalanced, disharmonic. Etym: /xop_hOr/.

-ki deriv [-] adverb former; -ly. Etym: /ki/. Variant: -ci. Variant: -ic. Ex: junki "kindly". Syn: -va.

kiep n;adj [1\] a little; a bit; a small amount. Etym: /kE:b_h/. See: kieva. See: kep.

kieva adv [1\] little, by a little; by a small amount. Etym: /kEb_h/ (adds adverbial /va/ with compensatory lengthening). See: kiep.

kim- deriv [1/] (directional) trans-; movement across, crossing; diametrical; opposite. Etym: /ke?m/. Ex: kimseke "transition".

kiminc n [2/] bridge; tunnel; crossing; a road or path across a space; (fig.) an instance of conveying information or feelings, an interpersonal connection. See: nig "bridge". Compound: nakh kiminc "quantum tunneling".

kimseke n [1/] transition; change from one state to another (esp. a critical change, or a 'binary' shift); a turn of circumstances. See: seke "change".

kip vi [1/] burn; inflame. Etym: /g_hep/. See: kaip "alcohol".

kiu- deriv [-] less than, almost but not quite, near-. Etym: /kijo/. Ex: kiureile "semi-darkness".

kivak vt [1\] salute, beckon, acknowledge; recognize; make oneself noticed to sbdy. Etym: /kisbahk/.

kiz n [1/] back of the neck, esp. the area just above and around the noticeable bump made by the first protruding cervical vertebra. Restrict: colloquial use. Etym: /g_his/ (with dialectal fricative voicing). See: uy "neck".

ko- deriv [-] causative; indicates the concept of causing an action or state; generally turns intransitive verbs into transitive. Etym: /kO/. Ex: kotia "incite".

kob* precategorial [1/] blade; long and sharp; longer-than-wide 2-dimensional surface; leaf; sheet; razor; edge. Etym: /k_hUb/.

-kobi deriv [-] (abstraction) -ization, -izing. Shows a state resulting from a change; the root is an adjective or noun. Etym: /kUbi/ (related to the causative-inceptive copula komo; triggers i-Umlaut). Ex: siutukobi "centralization". Ex: yiretekobi "over-provision, over-satisfaction".

kocha conj [-] so that, in such a way as to. Etym: /kOsja/.

kof n [1/] taste, flavor. Etym: /g_hOf/.

kold adj [1/] reaching (a level or degree); reaching up to (a place); coming so far as to sthg. Etym: /g_hOld/.

komo cop [-] causative-inceptive copula; cause to become, turn into (transitive sense), make into, change sthg into (sthg). See: de. See: mo.

kop n [1/] fish; a water-bound vertebrate animal, with fins, that breaths oxygen disolved in water, captured by gills. Etym: /k_hOp/.

kopkhain n [2/] sword; sharp knife; lit. attack blade. Etym: /k_hUbske:n/. See: kob* "blade, sharp".

kopok vt [1/] find mistakes; point at and criticize flaws; denounce. Etym: /g_hUpUk/. Ex: Nerie kopok der o e taze "My mother finds mistakes in everything I do".

kotia vt incite (esp. a fight), induce a response; (Med.) induce (a fever, a coma, a shock); cause sbdy to react aggresively. See: tia "fight". See: ko-.

-koy deriv [-] extreme; superlative. Etym: /kOj/. Ex: taokoy "maximum".

kranat vt [1/] {krenets-, khoronot-, kherenets-} keep sbdy ignorant of sthg; hide the truth from sbdy, esp. for their own good; disinform. Ex: Kherenetsu ligem wudi "They have been keept ignorant on the topic of the valley". Etym: /k_hlaNat/. Usage: OBJ COM-nPrep.

krib adj [1/] narrow; constricted. Etym: /klib/.

krik n today, this day, the present day. See: rik "day".

kripag n [1\] disaster, catastrophe, (non-provoked) act of destruction. Etym: /klep_hag/.

krug vt [1\] chew; crush, reduce sthg to pieces or pulp using a mechanical device. Etym: /krug/.

krujo vt [1\] flatten; force to settle down; suffocate; tame (an animal) cruelly; force into submisioon. Morph: krug -do. See: krug "chew, crush".

kruy n;adj [1\] 216000, two hundred and sixteen thousand; sixty cubed; 1000b60. Etym: /kloj/.

ku n [1\] tree. Often compounded with fruit names. Etym: /ku/.

kuar adj [1/] staying; lying in a place; standing still. Etym: /ko?ar/.

kub n;adj [1/] north; the northern part of a territory. Etym: /k_hub/.

kuchi n walnut, nut tree; a species of tree that gives small round fruits with a hard kernel and a lignified shell. Morph: ku chi. See: ku "tree". See: chi "nut, walnut".

kud- deriv [-] over-, extra-; more than expected. Spec: akhud "one more than expected". Etym: /kud/.

kudmaitu n;adj [1/] daring; brave (enough); courage. ESS|ALL. Morph: kud- mid* -utu.

kuel n [1\] palm of the hand; the inner surface of the hand minus the fingers. Etym: /kuhIl/. Whole: chen "hand".

kui adv [1/] ever; in any future time; anytime. Etym: /ku?e?/.

kuif n;adj [1\] bitter; bitter taste. Etym: /kuhef/.

kum* precategorial (inspiring) fear; terror, terrible; horror, horrible; loathsome; fright. Etym: /kom/. Ex: kaum "fear". Ex: kumaks "horrible, frightful".

kunt vt drive, induce, put through; serve as a passage. See: kunt*.

kunt* precategorial drive something through a tube or passage; put through; pipe, tube, passage, enclosed way. Variant: kaud* (noun stem). Etym: /kont ko~:d/. Ex: kaudrey "trachea".

kunut n [1/] intestin; bowel, bowels. Etym: /k_huNut/. See: igid "colon".

kuo- deriv [1/] pre-, fore-; previous; before. Etym: /k_hU:/. Ex: kuomat "predict, foretell".

kup adj [1\] evil; morally wrong; bad. Etym: /kup_h/.

-l- deriv [-] marks an object or quality that has the inverse or converse relationship towards the speaker as the modified stem. Generally used with perception adjectives. Ex: filt "showing, appearing as". See: fit "seeing". Ex: keol "sounding, making a sound of". See: keo "hearing".

lac vt [1\] entertain, provide entertainment for; keep distracted, divert the attention of sbdy from serious matters. Etym: /latj/. Derog: batulac "act demagogically". Agent: borlac "entertainer".

laf adj [1\] separated, apart, set aside. Etym: /lasp/.

lagabat adj infinite, with no limits; having no fixed borders; (Math.) discontinuous. Morph: la- gab -at. Ant: gabat. See: gab "limit".

lai n [1\] hope; favourable expectations. Etym: /la?e?/. Degrad: zatrai "blind faith, ridiculous hope".

lail vi come, arrive; roll (into a place). Has connotations of pomposity or boastful grandiosity, but may be used ironically in the opposite sense. It was formerly used for transportation on wheeled vehicles, which are often a luxury. Etym: /le:l/. See: lile "wheel".

lalub vt [1\] imitate, copy; follow instructions verbatim. Etym: /lalomp/.

lam n [1\] contour; shape; silhouette. Etym: /lam/. See: sukh "shape, configuration".

lamb n [1\] mist, fog. Variant: lam (zero-inflected). Etym: /lamb/.

laod adj [1\] expressive, outpouring; said of sthg that brings forward sensations or triggers a reaction. Etym: /lO:d/. See: chakraod "art (expressive enterprise)".

laolave adj;adv [1\] not at all; no way; absolutely not; zero; not one; lit. 'nothing-nowhere'. Morph: lao lave. Variant: laolava (adv, analogical).

laozok n theater, the art of writing and performing plays. Morph: laod osok. See: osok "integral". Gen: chakraod "art".

lar nLoc outside, the outer side, exterior. Ex: Dalde yivin brar "I see light outside". Ant: or.

lau- deriv [-] forms abstract nouns. Etym: /lo:/. Ex: lautan "certitude". Syn: tel-. Syn: fa-.

laupurni n;adj [1/] coincidence (lit. random sameness/equalness); coincidental. Morph: lau- apur ni. See: apur.

lautoria n [1\] victim; casualty; sbdy/sthg harmed; sthg damaged. Etym: /tUr/. Morph: lau- tor -ia (PAP). vAct: tor "harm".

-le clitic marks a phrase as reported speech or a quotation, i. e. sthg that sbdy else (not the speaker) has said; also used as a mark of hearsay (which gives a certain doubtful tone to assertions). Ex: Votu khaba saodele "(He) said this is a mess". Ex: Aida gon sach aldele "(She) doesn't love him (so I've heard)".

lea adj black; the darkest shade of any colour. See: ao "white".

lea n [1\] value; economic value; importance; preciousness; uniqueness. Etym: /lIhah/.

lelile n bicycle. Morph: (li)le=lile. See: lile "wheel".

leomo adj [1\] ecstatic, in a state of ecstasy. Etym: /dla:bnO/ (cf. OL /dlab/ 'raise, elevate').

lerm n [1\] morning; the time between sunrise and noon; (fig.) the first stage of a process. Etym: /lIrm/.

lew n [1\] hint; clue; key; insight. Etym: /lEw/.

liay adj short; brief; of small span, of small range. Ant: drus.

lilaod n artist, esp. a performer. Sit: chakraod "art". Morph: li laod.

lile n [1/] wheel. Etym: /lelE/.

lim vi [1\] take charge; take care of things. From: Gayat /lim/ from OL /dlim/, whence also Y /dreim/ 'concern' (OL /dli:m/). Variant: limik (k-stem).

liy n [1\] hue, tone (esp. of semi-transparent, undefined or irregular objects); colour. Etym: /lej/. See: ban "colour".

llaf adj [1\] small and parochial; closed-minded (environment); single-minded, prejudiced (community); exophobic. Etym: /ljaf/.

llag n [1/] glass; a more-or-less transparent solid substance, usu. made from silicon. Etym: /rjag/.

lle n [1/] hill; small mountain, esp. one covered by vegetation. Etym: /ljE?/. See: jhao "mountain".

llepllep vt [1\] manipulate; play with; touch and feel with the hands or fingertips. Etym: /ljIp/ (DUP).

llet n [1\] logic; logical system; axiomatic system. Etym: /ljEd_h/. See: ayallet "axiom".

lli n;adj [1/] past, before-time; previous (item). Etym: /lje?/. See: milli "before-time".

llun n [1\] feather; a bird's feather. Etym: /ljuN/. Variant: llunged (overspecified).

lluwut n;adj [1\] {llout-} lead; the chemical element whose symbol is Pb. Etym: /rju:t/.

-lob deriv [-] doctrine, belief, ideology, -ism. Etym: /lUb/. Ex: buntralob "egoism, own-benefit-ism". Variant: -lb (syncoped). Variant: -rob (regular l:r shift).

los adj [1\] great; encompassing; important; imponent. Etym: /dlos/. From: Gayat /los/ 'large'. See: drus.

lug vt [1\] move; transport; take (sthg from a place to another). Etym: /luNk/ (k-stem of /luN/, ML /lun/ 'move' (intransitive)).

-lum deriv [-] appearance; similarity; -like; -oid. Etym: /lom/. Variant: -rum (after stops). Ex: nutrum "star-like shape, asterisk, pentagram".

lumin n [1\] image, visual representation, picture, icon. Etym: /lomin/. Spec: ucilumin "stereotype". Spec: ailumin "logo; official view".

lun vi [1\] move, change position in space. Etym: /luN/.

luw n [1/] tower; tall building. Etym: /lu:h/.

mag n [1/] food; sthg than is or can be eaten; edible stuff. Etym: /mag/.

maig adj drowned; submerged, immersed; suffocated; dimmed.

mamag n food and drink. Part: mag "food". Part: poat "drink".

man- deriv [1/] marks a 'natural', non-artificial thing, such as non-transgenic food, a natural cave (as opposed to a human-made excavation), or an animal track (as opposed to a road). Etym: /mahn/. Ex: manjulun "beaver dam".

manusazr n [1\] reflex; automatic biological reaction against sthg (a blow, a sense of pressure, an infection, a feeling of pain). Morph: man- usaz -r.

mar nBilat [1\] eye. Etym: /mar/.

markh n [1\] blood. Etym: /marx/.

mat vt say, state, assert. Sometimes needs a reported speech mark. Ex: okeole yinde mate "listen to it, he says".

maz- deriv together, as a group or team. Ex: mazruw "concert". See: ruw "music".

me- deriv locational prefix, conveying the idea of a high/higher place. Ex: mejid "respect". See: jid "place, hold". See: meme "highly". Ant: ou-.

mejid adj respecting, revering, holding in high esteem. Usage: ALL-nphr. See: jid "place, hold".

meme adv highly, to a high degree. See: me-.

meo nLoc front; opposite; before; the location before sthg. Ex: umeo yiprinimi "in front of the teacher". Ant: cu.

mesen n [1/] child, offspring, son or daughter. Etym: /mI?sIN/. Spec: eomesen "daughter". Spec: kamesen "son". Spec: mienie "my child". Spec: mienjho "your child".

meyer n [1/] psycho-physical energy; stamina; strength of will, strength of character; personal force; dynamism. Etym: /mjE:r/. From: Gayat /mjejr/ 'energy, force' from OL /mjE:r/, also yielding Y /Jaer/.

mib adj [1\] beautiful, aesthetically pleasant. Etym: /mib/.

mid n time; specific lapse of time, era, age. Variant: midi. Ex: midi yue "night time". Ex: midi fecek "ice age".

mid* precategorial passion; feeling; pathos; inner state. Etym: /med/. Ex: taumaid "passion". Ex: kudmaitu "courage".

mijan n [1\] pencil, pen, writing instrument with a fine point. Etym: /megjan/.

mik n [1\] rag; piece of cloth that has been torn. Etym: /mek_h/.

miksid n [1\] bush; small tree-like plant with a short trunk and abundant foliage. Etym: /mek sint/ (overspecified (OL /sint/ 'foliage')). Variant: mik (underspecified old form; poetic).

mim n [1\] book.

mis adv essive case of is 'company'; together, as a group.

misin n [1\] birth. Etym: /meseN?/. vAct: misinor "give birth".

misinor vt [1\] give birth, deliver a child after pregnancy. Etym: /meseN?/.

mitun adj [1\] lasting, holding, keeping. Etym: /met_hon/.

miyim n [1\] joy; happiness; blissful exhilaration. Etym: /mi?im/.

mo cop [-] inceptive copula; become, turn into, get to be. Etym: /mbO/. See: de. See: komo.

more n [1/] thing; conceptual or concrete object. Etym: /mOhrE/. Group: more more "(many) things".

muc nBilat [1\] kidney; either of the two organs that filter the blood and produce urine. Etym: /mukj/.

mukh adj [1\] (1) remote; from a distance. (2) mediate, mediated; by proxy. Usage: COM. Ex: Wao mukhade lika miyoweyi "This is (done) through a man in the East". Etym: /mox/.

-mur deriv marks an action as wrong, incorrect, bad, or mistaken; mis-, wrong-, mal-. Ex: tozmur "mistake". Etym: /mur/.

murg adj [1/] gross; yucky; out of place; very inappropriate. Used esp. of things that are OK in other circumstances (such as excretion). Etym: /morg/. Ex: Yilanri minic bo vewo murgade! "Urinating here in a public street is totally inappropriate!".

murs vt [1\] appease; calm down; pacify; sit (sbdy) down to chat. Etym: /mburs/ (cf /mbus/, ML /mus/ 'sit, fall back').

mus vi [1\] go down, sit, sit down; fall back into a low position. Implies a fixed seat. Etym: /mbus/. Ant: bejh.

mut n [1\] persecutory dellusion; (non-tech) hysteria; frantic hysterical behaviour. Refers to a variety of erratical, disturbed patterns. Etym: /mbut/. From: Hytsu /mut/ (aggressiveness motivated by depression). See: but "despair".

-n pron stands for the direct object of the phrase, or the subordinate in a case-marked phrase. Ex: Yuech e aida gon "the night that I love".

na- deriv inceptive aspect; marks the beginning of an action, or the preliminaries to it, or the first part of it. Ex: nator "threaten". See: tor "harm".

nad vt [1\] scoop up; pick up; accumulate; gather and take. Usually refers to water, earth or other (semi-)fluid materials being scooped up using both hands or any similar mechanical device. Etym: /Nad/ (formerly meaning 'contain').

nag n cup; small hollow glass, esp. for special occasions.

naikew n [1\] follower (esp. in the derogatory sense). Morph: nik* +LEN -ew. See: nik*.

nais n;adj [1/] glue, glue-like viscous substance; ooze; sticky (substance); slimy. Etym: /ne:hs/. Ex: miba uzun yaun naisa "beautiful like a sticky orchid [insect-eating flower]". vAct: nis "glue, bind".

nak n [1/] leaf (from a tree or plant). Etym: /na?k/. Variant: kobnak (overspecified, 'leaf-blade').

nakh n [1\] happening, occurrence, instance; (Sci.) effect (as in 'greenhouse effect'). Etym: /nax/. See: neofan "effect".

nan n [1\] face, the front part of the head. Etym: /nan/. Whole: bri "head".

napalchen n [2\] juggling game; hand tricks performed with several objects; (fig.) a display of ability. Etym: /napr xjEn/.

napr n [1\] conflict; set of oppositions; struggle among different parties. Etym: /napl/.

narmat n [1\] mask; face cover; lit. 'lying face', and used fig. in the sense of facade, emotional mask. Etym: /nanrU?m/.

narow adj confusing, difficult to sort out, uncomfortably disordered. Conveys a sense of anguish or feeling lost. See: dunarow "mislead, disorient".

nasol vi [1\] retreat; leave the battlefield; accept defeat and move back. Parallels nator 'threaten'. The inceptive aspect of na- is barely taken into account. Morph: na- sol*. Syn: dusol.

nator vt threaten, vulnerate; do minimal harm in order to warn; fire warning shots. Res: tor "harm".

natorgaw adj vulnerable, harmable, that can be threatened with success. See: nator "threaten". Ant: aznatorgaw.

naub n;adj [1\] mass, massive amount; big, large; giant, gigantic, huge, massive. Etym: /no:b/.

naul vi [1\] say goodbye; announce one is leaving. Etym: /na?ol/. nDev: neolai "goodbye (n)".

ne n kind, class; likeness. Usage: GEN~ nphr. Ex: nut nut yize feg itarba "stars like teeth marks".

nef vt [1\] store; keep for future use; check in. Etym: /nIf/. See: nief "store".

nei n [1\] musical note; (written form of) a single pure musical tone. From: Gayat /NgEji/, from OL /NgEki?/, yielding also Y /geki/ 'pitch'.

nekhadat adj [2/] 'disarmed', non-armed; (a country) not having great stocks of weapons or ammunition. This word has strong positive connotations; note that the stem is a primitive, not a derived form with a negative affix (as is the case in English). Etym: /nEhxahnt/.

neod n [1\] (1) pelvis. (2) spoon, scoop; shovel. Etym: /Na:d/ (related to /Nad/ 'contain').

neofan n effect; that which follows a cause; consequence; (adj) a posteriori. Cpart: atev "cause". Morph: nakh fan.

ner n mother, female parent. Spec: nerie "my mother". Spec: niejho "your mother".

neset n [1\] fire. Etym: /nEsI?t/.

nesetuv vt [1\] light, inflame; kindle; set on fire. Morph: neset -uv.

-ng deriv [-] causative mark, in-...-ing, -fying; sometimes used as an instrumental. Usage: nAbs:adj. Etym: /kN/ (the /k/ in /kN/ probably has the same origin as the k-stem of verbs). Ex: zakang "infuriating". Ex: torong "harmful, harm-causing". Variant: -g (word-final). Ex: Evebeg trima wode! "(How) destructive this storm is!".

ni adj [1\] same; identical; equal. Etym: /ni/.

nief n [1\] store; a place (usually a building) where things are kept in order. Etym: /nI:f/. See: nef "store, keep".

nig n [1\] bridge; a stone, brick or wooden structure crossing usu. over a river or stream. Etym: /Neg/. See: kiminc.

nik* precategorial follow, following; sequence; row; after, behind; consecutive. Etym: /nek/. Ex: nikud "follow".

nikuc n ore; a mineral that can be extracted and processed to obtain one or more metals.

nikud vi;vt [1\] follow; go after, go behind. Etym: /nekunt/. See: nik*.

ninie adv [1\] too; as well; same as above. Etym: /ni?nI:h/. Morph: ni + enie. See: enie "also, besides".

nis 1 n [1/] body; the physical body of an animal or person. Etym: /Ne?s/.

nis 2 vt [1/] glue; adhere; stick together, join, bind; pair up. Etym: /nehs/. See: nais "glue, binding".

niy 1 n [1\] drop; a small portion of any liquid substance, esp. water, held together in a more-or-less rounded shape by surface tension. Etym: /nej/.

niy 2 n [1\] peach. Etym: /Nij/. See: farjasniy "peach blossom".

nnaer n [1\] energy (potential, kinetic, etc.). Etym: /mjE:r/.

nnakh n [1\] muscle. Etym: /mjax/.

nnao n [1/] (usu. helper noun) amount; bulk; mass; quantity. Etym: /njO:/. Ex: o nnau bibasa? "how much sugar?".

nnau n;adj [1/] easy (task); not difficult, not complicated. Etym: /mjo:h/. Ant: narow.

nnep adj [1\] neuter; sexless, genderless; having no polarity; (VOL) neutered, castrated, neutralized. Etym: /njIb_h/.

nni- deriv [-] repetitive/iterative/alternative aspect. Usage: v:v. Etym: /nje/. Ex: nnok "pump".

nnir n [1\] sound, air vibration that is perceivable by the human ear; a sound, an instance of air vibration with a given pitch, length and quality. Etym: /njer/. Aug: nniryok "loud noise, boom".

nnubos adj [1/] parallel; side by side; similar, but in a different plane. Etym: /Njo?bOs/.

-no deriv adjectivizer; having.... Ex: cirtalno "serious". See: cirtal "seriousness".

nokh n [1\] life; the span of a person's life. [nUx]

notod n [1\] political power, influence; popular charisma. Etym: /nUt_hont/.

nu- deriv pro-, in favour of, tending towards, favouring. Ex: nuyetie "abstentionism; agnosticism".

nu n [1/] significant part, unit; atom, particle. Etym: /nu?/.

nukhu vt handle, handle carefully, treat with care. Etym: /nUxU/. See: nuokhoy.

nuo n [1\] one or both lips, plus their inner part, the gums, and the mouth opening. Etym: /no?U/.

nuokhoy adj delicate, fragile, needing careful treatment. Etym: /nU:xU:/. See: nukhu.

nut n [1\] star. Etym: /Not/.

nuvokat n [2\] antigen, antibody (a chemical mark that targets strange organisms and substances within a living organism, being thus a part of the immune system, also causing allergies); lit. 'anti-outsider unit'. Morph: nu uvokat. See: uvokat "xenophobe, anti-outsider".

nuyetie n abstentionism, 'pro-silence' position, the act of refusing to offer an opinion; strong agnosticism. See: yetie "silence".

o- infl indicates volitional state, esp. regarding the senses. Ex: okeo dide! "listen!". Etym: /?O/.

o pron what, what thing, which thing.

-oce deriv [-] passive (from active adjectives); turns -ing to -ed. Etym: /UkjE/. Variant: -ece (Umlauted). Ex: narowoce "confused".

-od deriv [-] place; site; shows the typical location or building/facility used for a certain purpose. Etym: /Ud/. Usage: v:n. Ex: chabilod "hospital".

oen n [1\] result, esp. the substance(s) resulting from a physico-chemical process; product, end product. Used often in construct state. Etym: /?a:N/. Ex: oen ted "brick, construction stone". Ex: oen gank "nitrate".

oengur n [1/] counsel; inner thought; awareness of consequences, obtained by meditation; a result of inner consideration and pondering. Etym: /?a:N Nkor/ (lit. 'result of thought').

oenisilit n [1\] a kind of viscous substance used as glue, as a substitute of tar, and for several other uses, produced by chemical processes by certain bacterial cultures. Morph: oen isilit. See: isilit "bacteria".

-of deriv [-] (attitudinal) unpleasant, unwanted or inconvenient for the speaker. Etym: /Osp/. Ex: usazof "react with reluctance". Variant: -f (syncoped, generally after sonants). Ex: jharf "run into (sbdy one doesn't want to meet)".

ofams adj lazy; slow on purpose, purposefully slow, moving slowly (as if) by will. Gen: fams "slow".

oine n [1/] the world; planet Earth; the globe. Etym: /hO?inE/.

ok vt [1\] extract, take out; draw (blood); draw (a sword from its sheath). Not in the sense of 'substract'. Etym: /?Uk_h/. Iter: nnok "pump".

oksen vt [1/] forbid; ban; prohibit. Etym: /?Uk_hsEn/ (the element /?Uk_h/ means 'extract'; /sEn/ seems to be the basis of /sEnEns/, ML /senez/ 'cover, hide').

olaets vt [1\] distract; mislead; divert sbdy's attention from sthg important. Etym: /latj/. From: Gayat /O/ (verb former) + /la@t_s/ 'distraction, diversion', from OL */la:tj/ 'distraction' from /latj/ 'distract'. See: lac "entertain".

olo- deriv [2/] directional; along; down (a stream, a road); moving together with and in the same direction as. Etym: /hUlU/.

ololun vt [1/] approach (esp. with the intent of talking); go to; come close with a purpose. Morph: olo- lun. See: lun "move".

on n [1/] water, liquid water; (generic) clear liquid. Etym: /?ON/. See: fecek "ice".

onnu n [2/] knot; (fig.) problem, esp. one caused by complicated circumstances (not anyone's fault). Etym: /hOnjo?/.

onnuit n [2/] navel; belly button. Etym: /hOnjo?it/ (/it/ seems to be a diminutive; /hOnjo?/ 'knot').

opak n [1\] waist; waistline. Etym: /?Upak/.

or nLoc inside, the inner side, interior. Usually in essive-essive constructions. Ex: mor uzao "inside it". Ant: lar.

-or deriv verbalizer; turns nouns into verbs. Ex: endor "go to sleep". Variant: -yor (after palatal consonants). Ex: riuyor "knit".

orsoj n nose, esp. the inner part and the sinuses; nasal cavity. Morph: or soj. See: soj "nose".

osok n [hOsUk] integral, whole; inseparable construct; (Math.) discrete, integer.

osya pron how, in what way, by what means.

oto vi [2/] thrive, prosper, grow, increase in number. Etym: /?Ut_hO/. Ex: Kuchi arotoe rik rik "Walnuts are thriving these days". This verb is almost always used in the continuous aspect. Ant: ghew.

ou- deriv locational prefix, conveying the idea of a low/lower place. Ex: oujid "despise". See: jid "place, hold". Ant: me-.

oujid adj despising, holding in low esteem. Usage: ALL-nphr. See: jid "place, hold".

oukoy n;adj [1/] minimum; bottom; lowest. Etym: /OwkOj/. Ant: taokoy.

ouve nLoc under; below; beneath. Variant: mou (ESS, as happens most times).

owo adv poorly, to a low degree. See: ou-.

pado n [1/] corner; streetcorner; obtuse angle; straight angle (as seen from outside). Etym: /p_hadO/. Cpart: joim "accute angle".

pael adj [1\] splashing; sending out small pieces in the manner of splashing water; (positive connotation) active and messy. Etym: /pE:l/.

pait n [1/] heartbeat; beat, percussive unit; unit of musical rhythm; (fig., DUP) the passing of moments in life, sbdy's way of life. From: Gayat /p_hajir/ 'heart' and fig. 'vital rhythm', from OL /b_hakir/ 'heart'. Variant: paipait (DUP).

pallas n [1/] spider; an eight-legged invertebrate, usu. one who hunts insects using a web and paralyzes/kills them with venom. Etym: /parjas/. Compound: sipallas "spider venom".

pam 1 n [1/] moment, instant, point in time. Etym: /b_ham/.

pam 2 n [1\] queue; a line of people waiting for sthg; (Cyb) a series of items waiting to be processed by a system in order; (DEF) the priorities of life. Etym: /pam/.

paot n [1\] drink; liquid that can be swallowed. Etym: /pO:t/.

peir n [1/] weight; (Phys.) the force exerted by the gravitational field of Earth (or other major body) on an object, equal to its mass times the acceleration of gravity. Etym: /b_hi:r/.

pekh vt [1\] throw; launch; send away violently. Etym: /pEx/.

pekip adj [1\] magnetic; magnetized; suffering or producing the effects of a magnetic field. Etym: /pEk/. See: telpek "magnetism".

pekir n [1/] heart. Restrict: Not to be used in the figurative sense; refers only to the body organ. Etym: /b_hakir/.

peks adj [1\] {pekes, peks-} owing; having a debt with sbdy for sthg. Etym: /pIks/. Usage: ALL-(patient) COM-(object). Ex: Peksade gojo lifiy lalana. "I owe you [the value of] three apples". Ex: Jaokaideri goka wo peksade "We are all indebted to this man".

penghu vt [2/] cut; divide, split, split open. Etym: /b_hIxnu?/ (ML /pex/ from OL /b_hIx/ 'cut' is specified by /nu/ 'piece' to avoid homonymy with ML /pex/ 'attack' from OL /pEx/). Morph: **pekh nu.

peok n [1/] chest; the pectoral area, including women's breasts. Etym: /p_ha:k/. Part: faek "rib".

pin vi [1\] turn, turn one's body or head; rotate, spin around an axis. Etym: /pin/.

pipab nBilat [1\] lung; each of an animal's lungs. Etym: /pib_hap/ (-/ap/ used to be a classifier for containers or hollow things).

pir n [1/] sage, wizard, wise man, knowledgeable elder; master at a certain field; expert. Etym: /bi?r/. Spec: pirvacit "specialist, official expert".

pirvacit n expert in a field, 'wizard', specialist (esp. in charge of a government office). Morph: pir vacit.

pitar n [2/] effort; labour; workings; deeds; achievements gained through hard work. Etym: /p_hit_ar/.

piud n [1\] horse. Etym: /pjod_h/.

piw adj [1/] (1) light, unsubstantial, easy-going, comfortable. Not necessarily derogatory. (2) free of excess material; (Med.) said of a passage, cavity or vessel when it's (properly) not obstructed. Etym: /pe?w/. See: ael.

pot vt [1\] drink, swallow liquid. Etym: /pOt/. nDev: paot "drink".

prad n [1/] chain; a string of joined metal links; (fig.) oppression, prison, subjectment. Etym: /prahd/. vAct: prador "chain, set in chains".

prakur nBilat either of the places where the bone of the lower jaw curves upwards (just below each ear); the area behind and around this where one can feel ganglia. Etym: /prag_hur/.

prann vt [1\] print; leave a fingerprint on; sign (one's name); leave a personal identification mark on. Usage: ~ (surface) GEN-(printed). Etym: /pranj/. Ex: Vesa prannende iteska khu "Occult signs are printed there".

prasav vt {prasv-, forsov-} [1/] trap; engulf; take into a hole; (fig.) oppress. Etym: /p_hras/. See: preos "hole".

prec n [1\] claim; pretense; assumption of legal right. Etym: /plIkj/.

preja adj [1\] finished, exhausted, ended (the supply of sthg); sthg that one has run out of. Etym: /plIdja/.

preos n [1/] hole; enclosed hollow space; oppresive space; trap. Etym: /p_hras/. See: prasav "trap".

pres- deriv [1/] shows an object that is similar in shape and/or function, but smaller, than a certain other. Etym: /p_hrIs/. Ex: prested "pebble". Variant: prie- (euphonic). Ex: priechen "micromanipulator". Ant: ara-.

prinim n teacher; school teacher; lecturer. Restrict: only academic, out-of-the-book, not hands-on teaching. Morph: pir mim.

proz vt [1\] strip (the natural resources from a terrain) without leaving a basis for future recovery; (fig.) plunder, sack, exploit. Etym: /prOsd/.

prur vt [1/] carry, transport (esp. with difficulty). Etym: /b_hlur/.

prut n [1\] blame, fault, responsibility, moral debt. Etym: /plot_h/.

pu n [1\] instrument, tool; physical means. Etym: /p_ho/.

puk vi [1\] avoid a threat, dodge, avert damage. Usage: GEN-nphr. Etym: /pok/. See: chikaw "deflect".

pul 2 n [1\] mass; more-or-less homogeneous mass of matter, usu. not rigid; blob; (Med.) tumor. Etym: /pol/.

pul 1 nLoc [1/] over; above; on. Etym: /b_hol/.

pulay n [1/] grass. Etym: /puhl ?aj/ (from OL /puhl/ 'grass', /?aj/ 'ground', to avoid homonymy with ML /pul/).

pupeir n [2/] weighting machine (scales); any device that can measure weight. Morph: pu peir. See: peir "weight".

pur nBilat [1/] foot; either of the two feet of a human being or biped, or the posterior limbs of a quadruped. Etym: /b_hur/.

purk vi [1\] slide; zigzag smoothly; sidestep. Etym: /pork/ (cf /pok/, ML /puk/ 'dodge'). Variant: purkh (k-stem).

ragh adj [1\] sad, unhappy; let down, depressed. Etym: /raNx/. Ant: was. Abs: telragh "sadness". See: aotos "grief".

railiseke n [2/] evolution (lit. 'generation and change' = 'descent with modification'). Morph: rain [rin*(LEN)] li- seke. See: rin*.

raitaz n strategy, course of action, plan.

ran n [1\] universe, the whole of what is known; the world as an ordered whole; cosmos. Etym: /ran/. See: oine "world, Earth".

rar vt [1/] take, get hold of. Etym: /ra?r/.

rasar n;adj [1\] human; (related to) a human being; belonging to humanity. Etym: /rasar/. See: li "person".

raw n [1/] {rau, rawa, reuch} salt; NaCl (sodium chloride). Etym: /raw/.

ray n;adj [1\] liking; preference; inclination; tendency. Usage: ALL. Etym: /raj/.

reile n darkness, dark environment. Degrad: kiureile "semi-darkness".

reks n worm. Etym: /rEkEs/ (dialectal). Spec: ucireks "woodworm; a harmful species of worm that eats wood and paper".

rem adj [1\] other, another; a different one. Etym: /rIm/.

rer adj [1/] smiling. Etym: /rEr/. Variant: o- (VOL).

rev vi [1\] win; triumph; come out victorious; be the victor; conquer. Etym: /rIsb/.

rey n [1/] air; breath; wind. Etym: /rEhj/.

ribri n top of the head; (Med.) vertex. See: bri "head".

rik n [1\] day. Etym: /rik_h/. Idiom: rik rik "these days; lately".

ril* precategorial amount, quantity; quantitative measure; one-dimensional magnitude; position in a scale. Etym: /ril/.

rilsiu n [1\] half; one half of a given quantity. Morph: ril* siu.

rin* precategorial [-] descent, generation, production; evolution; generate, engender, beget, produce through reproduction. Etym: /ren/. Ex: railiseke "evolution". Ex: farin "generation".

rir n [1\] hall, room, esp. when reserved for some special purpose, such as theater, dancing or debating. Etym: /rer/. Spec: rirzok "theater room". Feel: jerir "institutionalization".

rirkuok n vault; high convex ceiling, usually supported by pillars.

riuc n [1/] mesh, web, network; interconnection. Etym: /re?ujk/.

riuyor vi;vt [1/] knit, spin (a web); connect, interconnect, enmesh. Etym: /re?ujOr/. See: riuc "mesh, network".

riyl n [1\] {riyil, reil-} quantity, amount. Etym: /ri:l/. See: ril*.

rom vi [1/] lie; tell a lie; speak falsehood. Etym: /rU?m/.

ror nLoc [1\] occasion, time, instance. Etym: /rUr/.

rorava adv [1\] once, only once, one time. Etym: /rUr/. Morph: ror as -va.

rorestib adj [1\] (happening, being) for the first time. See: estin "first". Morph: ror estin -ip.

rui n [1/] past, old times; past tense. Etym: /rohi/. See: gorui "ago".

ruirik n [1\] yesterday, last day, the day before this one. Etym: /rohirik_h/.

rum n [1/] gulf, bay. Etym: /rom/.

rumer nBilat [1\] nipple. Etym: /rumI?r/.

rur adj [1\] dead; not living. Etym: /rur/. See: beit "dying".

ruw n [1\] music, the art of playing music or singing in certain ways. Etym: /ru:/. Gen: chakraod "art".

saecha n [1\] dilemma; a couple of choices; lit. 'two possible (things)'. Morph: sase ca (?). See: inica "choice, alternative".

saesach pron both of them, the two of them. Morph: sase sach.

sag n [1/] bag; sack; a flexible container, generally made of vegetal or plastic fibers, with an opening and (sometimes) a handle. Etym: /sa?g/.

sagit n [1/] stomach. Etym: /sa?g/. See: sag "bag".

sakin n [1/] friend, close companion; ally. Etym: /sahkeN/.

saksak adj [1\] abandoned; forsaken; forgotten; left behind. Etym: /tjaka/. From: Gayat /t_sak t_saka/, redup., from OL /tjaka/ 'by itself'. See: caka "by itself".

sal adj [1/] dry; possessing no water or humidity; withered. Etym: /sahl/.

sannum n [1/] petal. Etym: /samjum/.

santu n group of people; (pupils in a) school class. Used of ordered groups, usually set apart for some reason or with some criterion (hence inapropriate as a synonym of 'crowd'). Ex: santu sel "group of children; a school class".

saos n [1\] wood; the material that makes up tree trunks and other hard vegetal structures. Etym: /sO:s/.

sase n;adj [1\] two, 2. Etym: /sasI/.

sasekob n [2\] scissors (a pair of scissors). Morph: sase kob*. See: kob* "blade".

sauy n [1\] pride, arrogance. Etym: /so:j/. See: suy*.

sav vi;vt [1\] pour into; (inceptive) fill. Usage: ~ nphr GEN-nphr. Ex: E save naga iton "I pour water into a cup". Etym: /sasb/.

sawosawo adv alternatively (of two items), first one and then the other.

seber adj [1\] sacred, to be respected and feared; awe-ful; overwhelming. Etym: /stIbIr/.

sega n [1/] story, particular history, account, biography. Etym: /sE?ga/. See: bres "story, detailed display".

segas n [1\] expectation; estimate; rough draft (of a plan to be developed). Implies the future (prices, test results, and other quantifiable outcomes). Etym: /xegas/. From: Gayat /segas/, from OL /xegas/ 'future uncertainty', also yielding Y /xigas/ 'anxiety'.

seke n [1\] change, transformation, movement, transition. Etym: /sIk_hI/.

sekeseke conj;adv [1\] but; but instead; differently; (adversative). Morph: seke (DUP). See: seke "change".

sel n [1\] child; young person, kid. Refers to children who can walk and talk, and to youngsters before puberty. Etym: /sIl/.

selirbir vi;vt [2/] know at the basics intuitively; lit. 'know childly'; fig. show one's innocence and lack of prejudice. Morph: sel -ir- bir. Gen: bir "know".

sen n [1\] tomb; (sometimes redup. sensen) burial ground; graveyard; the land of a cemetery. From: Gayat /sEn/ 'earth'. Etym: /xIn/. See: khen "soil".

senez vt [1\] cover; hide, hide from view. Etym: /sEnEns/.

senu n language, tongue; common speech of a group of people.

seosie adv [1\] two by two; two at a time; in pairs. This is a distributive adverb. Etym: /sa:sI:/. See: eoseo "one by one".

sesar adj [1\] fake; made to look real, though artificial; ersatz. Etym: /t_hIsar/. From: Gayat /TEsar/. See: tesar "sweet".

seseva adv [1\] secondly; in the second place; (generically) next, then, after the first instance. Morph: sase -tib -va ?. See: estiva "firstly".

sib 1 vi [1\] join, unite, gather, come together. Etym: /sib/. See: sivik.

sib 2 n [1\] poison; poisonous substance; poisoned food or drink; spider venom. Etym: /seb/.

sis n;adj [1/] 3600, three thousand and six hundred; sixty squared; 100b60. Etym: /stes/.

siu n [1/] center, middle; central spot. Etym: /si?ho/.

sivik vt join, unite, gather, bring together. See: sib.

so vi {se, su, sos-, oes-} come; get near; come back, return. Etym: /s sO sE/. See: gamso "come back".

soj n nose, esp. the outer part. Etym: /sUdj/. See: orsoj.

sokh adj [1/] mature, ripe; in full, in fullness; appropriately developed; whole. Etym: /sUsk/.

sol* precategorial [-] concede, retire, forgive, retreat; sidestep, backstep; pardon, concession. Etym: /sUl/. Ex: solfall "concede (a discussion, a fight)".

solfall vi [1\] concede (a discussion, a fight), usu. leaving sthg valuable behind or granting an important point; leave the field; abandon the battle. Morph: sol* fall. Usage: GEN.

solsolki adv;interj [1\] sorry; excuse me; regrettably. Morph: sol* (DUP) -ki.

sosoki adv [1\] very well; completely; perfectly. Rather meaningless, mainly used as an intensive. Etym: /sUsUki/ (underlying /sUsk/ 'in full' + /ki/ (adverbial)).

soula adv [1\] though; even if; even considering that. Morph: sol* la.

suaby n [1/] {-biy, -bya, -byach} beast; monster; mythological animal-like entity; (fig.) violent wild animal. Etym: /swEb/. From: Hytsu /sw@bju/ 'destructor', from OL /swEb/ 'destroy, ruin', yielding also Y /bigveb/ 'crush, utterly destroy' and /vebr/ 'remains, spoils'.

suf vi [1\] walk; stride; go on foot. Etym: /sof/.

suk n [1/] half; hemisphere; one half of a physical object. Etym: /t_huk/. From: Gayat /Tuk/ from OL /t_huk/. See: rilsiu "half (an amount)".

sukh n [1\] shape, form, physical configuration. Etym: /sox/. See: lam "contour".

sukhaod n [1\] lit. expressive shape; poetry or prose where metrics and word-shapes play a major part; music (stressing form over content); general name for similar artforms. Morph: sukh ?laod. Gen: chakraod "art".

suy* precategorial pride. Etym: /soj/. Ex: sauy "pride".

suyat adj proud, arrogant. Morph: suy* at. See: suy*.

ta conj (1) or, exclusive or (XOR). Usage: nphr ~ nphr. Ex: Chu ta khu arcire jai "Somebody or something is watching us". (2) (in optative phrases) among, between; one of, either of, either... or.... Usage: (~ nphr)+. Ex: Juku ta beni wo "Choose (one) among these colours".

tab n [1/] surface; water surface; base level; (Math.) floor; the lowest limit ever reached or estimated for a variable. Etym: /tab/.

tab vt [1/] allow; permit; let; grant. Etym: /tam?p/. Usage: [object] GEN-person. Ex: Alcade tabes wao jho "(I) cannot allow this of you".

tabau n [2\] land animal, including everything for rabbits and weasels to cattle, as well as birds, but not insects, frogs or crocodiles. Etym: /tabo:/.

tac n [1/] questioner, investigator, researcher; one who requests data or evidence. Sometimes derogatory (i. e. implying bothersome insistence). See: dac "ask for".

taeb n [1\] god; a supernatural personal entity of great power. Etym: /tE:b/. See: tavi "the Creator".

taebiro n [1\] theology; the study of the essence and personality of a god. Morph: taeb -iro.

tainai n [1\] metal. See: tinin "precious". Etym: /te:ne:/.

takham vt [1/] quench; tune down; suffocate (positive connotation); bring peace to. Etym: /t_haxam/.

tal adj [1\] great (esp. non-physically), important, considerable; sthg that must be taken into account, or produces unescapable and noticeable effects. Etym: /tal/.

tals n [1\] small container for liquids; jug, jar. Variant: talas (CON). Ex: talas geda "a jug of wine". Etym: /d_halas/.

talul n [1\] unableness; incapacity; 'can-not-ness'. Morph: tel- al- ul. Patterns as fein 'will'. Ex: Endaur vewo ye talulde "Going to sleep here is my unableness = I can't sleep here".

tan n;adj [1/] certain; known with certitude; sure thing; certain fact. Etym: /da?n/. See: gak.

tanchen n [1/] power that is delegated on a subject; dominion (not exerted directly but mediately); lit. 'power of the hand' (of a higher ruler). Etym: /tan?xjEn/ (the first element /tan?/ is the root of OL /ta:n?/, ML /teon/ 'power').

taokoy n;adj [1/] maximum; highest; ultimate. Etym: /d_hOkkOj/. Ant: oukoy.

tap vt [1/] break (by hitting); hit and break; split open, esp. with a heavy sharp instrument. Etym: /d_hap/ (cf /d_harp/, ML /tap/ 'carve'). Intens: tutap "smash into flying pieces".

tarp vt [1/] carve; work the surface of; model (rock). Etym: /d_harp/.

tau nLoc [1/] beyond; farther; extra-; ultra-. Etym: /do:?/.

taubeom n;adj [1/] ultraviolet; ultraviolet light; the first part of the electromagnetic spectrum over the frequency of visible light. Etym: /do:?banm/. See: beom "violet".

tauk 2 n [1\] hunch; gut feeling; sensation of imminence; intuition. Etym: /ta?ok/. Folk etymology relates this word to its pitch-conjugate tauk 'liver', much in line with the logic behind English 'gut feeling' and 'feel in one's bones', but these words are not related in any way.

tauk 1 n [1/] liver; the body's largest gland, found beneath the diaphragm in the right-hand side of the upper abdomen. Etym: /d_ho:k/.

taumaid n [1/] passion, unrestrained feeling; extreme feeling, esp. love or hate; emotional unrest. Etym: /me:d/. Morph: tau maid.

taurai n harm, damage, injure.

tavi n maker, creator; Creator God. See: davi "create".

tayeo n [1\] battle; fight; struggle; conflict. Etym: /te:ha:/. See: tia "fight".

taz vi;vt [1/] do, proceed, act. Etym: /d_hasd/. nDev: teoz "action".

te- deriv [1\] negative prefix; un-, in-, dis-. Etym: /tI/.

teb 2 n [1\] 'mile'; a measure of distance equal to 2.126 km. Etym: /t_hIb/.

teb 1 n [1\] board, smooth surface; table; blackboard; work desk; desktop. Probably a once-cultured word meaning 'surface', it now stands for anything that is smooth enough to perform some task on it, such as writing, drawing, polishing, or eating. Etym: /tIb/.

ted n [1/] rock, stone. Etym: /d_hId/. Dim: prested "pebble".

teighae n [1\] challenge; defiance; attitude that induces conflict; aggressive display of opposition that expects an answer. Etym: /te:ha:/. From: Gayat /tejha@/ 'opposition' from OL /te:ha:/ from /teha/ 'fight'. See: tayeo "battle".

teka n sick person, ill person; one who is in pain; one who suffers; (fig.) one who is overwhelmed by physical circumstances. Etym: /dE?ka/ (from /dEka/ with glottalization). Feel: daekeo "pain".

tel- deriv transforms a stem into an abstract noun. Ex: telkak "likelihood". Ex: teldavi "creation". Syn: lau-. Syn: fa-.

telpek n [1/] magnetism; magnetic field. Etym: /pEk/.

temer 2 vt [1\] pull; bring sthg near oneself. Not in the meaning of 'attract'; temer is always volitional. Etym: /tEmIr/.

temer 1 n [1/] system; set of systematic changes; development, visible strategy, big picture, general distribution, observed patterns, observed regularities. Etym: /t_hImIr/.

temud n [1/] crime; delinquency; illegal/unlawful behaviour. Etym: /d_hEmud/.

temusia adj [1\] disturbed; troubled; anxious; unable to relax; lit. 'unseated'. Morph: te- mus PAP.

teon n [1/] power; the ability to control or manipulate; dominance. Etym: /ta:n?/. Ex: Teoni wukakomo, teon bikosoki wuka bikosokvakomo. "Power corrupts, absolute power corrupts absolutely". See: notod "influence, charisma".

tepur adj [1\] happening not by chance; non-random; with a definite cause; intended by sbdy. Morph: te- apur. Adv: tepauva "not by chance". Ant: apur.

tes nBilat arm; either of the upper limbs, from the wrist up to the armpits (thus not including the lateral part of the shoulder).

tesar adj [1/] sweet, having a sweet taste. Etym: /t_hIsar/.

tetoa te- [1\] final stage; end state; result of total exhaustion; (Phys., Cosm.) heat death, thermodynamic equilibrium; lit. 'no more'. Morph: te- toa.

tev vi;vt [1/] supurate; ooze; dribble, drip; flow, flow out. Usage: (vt) COM-[substance]. Etym: /tE?f/ (with dialectal fricative voicing). Ex: Markha arsevu itae kaud toriach "Blood was flowing from the hurt vessels".

tewokel n [1/] meteor, meteorite; lit. 'falling rock from space'. Morph: ted wo kel. Idiom: tewokel aus as "mass-extinction-type meteorite". See: ted "rock".

-ti deriv [-] (aspectual) dynamic action; movement; progression; change. This affix appears in several forms, fused into ancient verb stems; it's not productive in the modern language. Umlaut and regressive vowel echoing is produced sometimes. Etym: /t_hi/. Ex: vipti "loot, sack". Ex: birti "learn". Ex: felci "dismantle".

ti- deriv [1/] dual affix for 'bilateral nouns' (usually body parts). Appended to a 'bilateral noun' it denotes both items (left and right). Ex: ticheni ye "both of my hands". Etym: /d_he/. See: vie-. See: ji-.

tia vt [1\] fight, struggle; oppose resistance and/or attack sbdy. Etym: /teha/.

tiaugh n [1/] army. Morph: tia -ugh.

tikak n [1/] couple; two people, a man and a woman; two items considered as mutually complementary; (Phys.) a pair of coupled forces. Morph: ti- ka ak.

-tin deriv [-] transforms a noun into an adjective. Etym: /tiN/. Ex: estin "primal, original".

tini* precategorial value, worth; precious, valuable; seek, eagerly look for. Etym: /tene/. Ex: tainai "metal". Ex: tinin "precious".

tinin adj precious, valuable, valued; sthg to be cherished or preserved. See: tainai "metal". Etym: /tenIn/.

tipev n knuckle; any of the finger joints joining the finger to the rest of the hand. Whole: eza "finger". Group: zipev "fist".

tir n [1/] gas; gaseous element; any substance that is a gas at typical temperatures. Etym: /tehr/. Spec: tir khak "greenhouse gas".

tirirmim n [1/] atlas; collection of maps, group of maps; a book containing maps of every continent and island in the world. Morph: tir -ir- mim. Unit: tirwud "map".

tirwud n [1/] map; graphical representation of a large territory. Etym: /d_hir/. Morph: tir wud. Group: tirirmim "atlas".

tis adj [1\] still, fixed in a certain condition; unmoving, showing no change in position. Etym: /tis/.

tlaoyom adj kingly/queenly; royal, regal; suitable for a great leader; high-sounding (voice); splendid, wonderful, marvelous, luxurious; showing great power; numinous. See: tlot "king". Etym: /tlot -yom/.

tleriw n [1/] kingdom, the territory ruled by a hereditary king or queen; realm, dominion, country. Etym: /tlOt/ (probably borrowed, with (non-Y) o-Umlaut and what seems to be a suffixed form /iw/ 'place'; the medial /r/ is either from the joiner -ir- or the final /t/ in /tlOt/). See: tlot "kingdom".

tlot n king; formal non-democratic leader, not necessarily hereditary. Variant: itlot (GEN). This word is most probably a loan..

toa n [1/] more; some more (of a given thing). Etym: /t_hOha/.

tok* precategorial [1/] high; top; tall; maximum. Etym: /d_hOk/. Variant: tao (compensatory lengthening). Ex: taokoy "maximum".

tokh n [1/] actual being, actual essence, actuality; the way something is immediately. This is a metaphysical concept that has been adopted into the mainstream, somewhat eroding its original meaning. Etym: /dO?x/. See: dokh.

tolr n;adj [1\] victim; sbdy who shows self as a victim; sbdy who seems to offer self to be harmed; self-victimized one. Etym: /tUr/. Morph: tor -l-. See: tor "harm". See: lautoria "victim, casualty".

tomim n [1/] baby; newborn baby, a few hours or days old. Etym: /d_hUmem/. See: but.

tomom n [1/] shadow; confusing darkness. Etym: /dOhmOm/.

tor 2 n [1/] sand. Etym: /d_hUr/.

tor vt [1\] harm, damage, injure. Etym: /tUr/. nDev: taurai "harm". Prep: nator "threaten".

tor* 1 precategorial harm, vulnerability. Etym: /tUr/.

tra adj [1\] own, one's own; insider; fellow. Etym: /tra/. Variant: tra- (deriv).

tral adj [1\] (1) appropriate, well placed, in the proper place; (of a person) humble and silently good at the appointed task. This word refers to people who know what their place is, and perform well and with the greatest possible ability in it -- i. e. it's a compliment, unlike another possible English translation, 'conformist'. (2) (in the sciences) mathematically elegant; structurally simple and powerful at the same time. Etym: /tlal/.

tre- deriv augmentative prefix and adjective former, with a positive (meliorative) sense; turns a noun into an adjective, like English '-ful'. Etym: /trE/. See: uc-.

treban adj colourful; strong-coloured; healthy (skin colour). Ant: ucao. Morph: tre- ban. See: ban "colour".

tremiyim adj [1\] joyful (situation). See: miyim.

trib n [1\] condition; if; conditional expression; basis, basic term of agreement. Etym: /tlib/.

trid vi;vt [1\] read (a book). Etym: /d_hled/.

trim n;adj [1/] storm; storming. Etym: /tle?n/. Ex: Trimi ubul rumide "The storm is over the gulf".

trom nBilat temple; either of the flat areas on each side of the forehead.

tu n;adj [1/] red; the colour red, esp. that of fire (tending towards yellow/orange). Etym: /t_hu?/.

tug vt [1/] compare; set side by side; (more than one thing) assess at a time. Etym: /t_hukN/. See: tuk "side".

tugal n [1\] administration, government, ruling body. Etym: /togal/. Spec: tugal siuch "central administration".

tuip adj obligatory, inescapable, that must be done. Sometimes carries a moral connotation, but in general it refers to normative or circumstancial obligation. Ex: ematri deu tuipde likai "telling the truth is inescapable for us = we have to tell the truth". Morph: tup -ip.

tuk n [1/] side, esp. in contrast; lateral part; either of the polar opposites in a discussion; either end of a magnet (positive or negative). Etym: /t_huk/. See: tug "compare".

tukvav n year cycle, Great Cycle. A Great Cycle last 3600 years. See: vav "year".

tulu n [2/] destiny; fate; pre-determined future. Etym: /d_holoh/.

tuok n [1\] earthworm. This is one of the archetypical beneficial animals. Etym: /tU:k/. See: reks "worm".

tup vt impose, induce, force. See: tuip "obligatory, inescapable".

tus* precategorial just, justice; law; equal treatment; equanimity; proper; impartial. Etym: /d_hos/. Ex: tretus "just, impartial person". Ex: tugal taus "judicial system".

uc- deriv (attitudinal) pejorative prefix, which transforms good or neutral attributes into bad ones, or suggests a bad implication. This is an 'attitudinal' affix, which was very productive in the past, maybe even part of the adjectival inflection paradigm, but it has become derivative today, and is no longer used innovatively. Ex: sa sel ucaode "this child is pale". See: tre-.

ucao adj pale or whitish, as if fading; dim (light); unhealthily light (skin). Ant: treban. Morph: uc-ao. See: ao "white".

-ud deriv [-] Shows passive/mediopassive/reflexive action; allows a k-stem (-uduk). Not productive in modern times. Usage: vt:vi. Etym: /unt/. Ex: pekhud "fork, divide". Ex: brisud "consider oneself ready".

ufot n [2/] sthg with features opposed to that of some other thing being considered; mirror image; proverbial adversary; the Other; 'them' in 'us and them'. This word may be thought of, in some contexts, as the relationship between yin and yang. Etym: /hospOd_h/. Ex: atlan itatlan wo ufotide "the contrary of a sea is another sea [saying]". Ex: itufot sel me "as opposed to (what) that child (does)". Ant: zun.

-ugh deriv [-] group; set. Etym: /oNx/. Ex: tiaugh "army".

ughaot adj [1/] resisting sleep/somnolency; fighting the urge to sleep; struggling against tiredness. Etym: /hosgO:d_h/ (OL /gO:d_h/ 'somnolency, sleeping urge', formerly just 'sleep', has no cognates in the modern language, though ML /got/ 'soothe, sedate' comes from the same root).

-uik deriv [-] professional; craftsman; sbdy who works with ~; -ist, -er, -or. Etym: /ohik/. Ex: saosuik "carpenter".

ujijit n oxide; a chemical compound containing oxygen plus another element. Ex: ujijit metaun "ferric oxide (Fe2O3)". Oxides are named using the word ujijit plus the compounded valence-element word. Oxygen uses me- for the higher valences, and ou- for the lower valences.

ujir n [1\] oxygen. Etym: /?ogjir/. Res: jeujir "oxygenation".

uk nLoc [1\] near; proximity, vicinity; short distance, short range; close. Etym: /?uk/.

uku vi;vt [1/] choose, select, pick one item from a set. Etym: /hokuh/.

ul adj [1\] able, 'can'. Etym: /?ol/. Ex: Ukue zun wo, zun sa ulde "He can choose either way". Ex: Raitaz me puke yikripagi ulde "That strategy can avoid disaster". Ant: alul "unable".

und vt [1\] kill, cause to die. Etym: /?ond/.

unur adj flying, gliding, self-supporting. Doesn't distinguish between some birds' active flight (with wing flapping) and some others' mere gliding. See: dunur "fly".

up vi;vt [1/] have sex, have sexual intercourse (with each other). Etym: /hop/. nDev: aup "sexual intercourse".

uram adj old, ancient. This word carries a respectful or fearful tone. Ant: ibi. See: droa.

uro n purpose, 'for'. Usage: ALL-~(CON) phr. Ex: Tuipde guro more me nekhide "(It) is needed for those things to happen".

urpiuk n [1\] winter morning; early morning; the time just after dawn/sunrise when the heat of the sun is not yet felt much, esp. in winter. Etym: /?orb_hjuk/. Gen: lerm "morning".

us- deriv [1/] anti-, counter-, opposite, against; reactive against, rejecting. Etym: /hos/. Variant: u- (with fricative mutation). Ex: ufot "contrary".

usal n [1/] phosphorus; the chemical element whose symbol is P. Etym: /hohsal/.

usaz vi [2/] react (against); rebel against the situation; reject. Etym: /hostasd/. See: us-. See: taz. Variant: usakh (k-stem).

ustratia vi;vt [1/] insurrect; rebel against one's own; fight one's own government/regime. Morph: us- tra tia. See: tia "fight".

ut- deriv [1/] (directional) shows movement/direction towards the outside of something; ex-, extra-, extro-, off-, out-; in the same figurative sense as 'ex-' in Eng. 'explain'; also used as an intensive. Etym: /hut_h/. Variant: tu- (euphonic). Ex: utfuk "out-reply = explain". Ex: tudel "exit, go out". Ex: utell "out-help = show the way out". Ant: wa-.

utsol n [1/] pity; absolution; forgiveness; 'looking aside'. Morph: ut- sol*. See: sol* "concede, forgive".

-utu deriv [-] intensifier; shows sudden, quick and generally violent action, movement or change. Produces u-Umlaut. Etym: /otu?/. Variant: -tu (syncoped). Ex: brokhtu "burst, explode violently". Ex: dalkutu "force sbdy to submerge in water with the intention of drowning them".

-uv deriv transforms a noun/adjective into a verb, the grammatical subject of which is usually an undergoer. Usage: n|adj~ : vt. Variant: -tuv (for stems ending in two consonants -- the last one is elided). Ex: guntuv "inherit". See: gund "heir".

uvokat n;adj [1/] xenophobe; opposed to strange or new things; opposed to outsiders. Morph: us- wokat. See: wokat "strange, alien".

uwanor vt [1/] embalm; preserve (a dead body, a piece of organic matter) in formaline; (fig., derog.) freeze in time, keep from change, force to live beyond due time. Etym: /howar/ (with dissimulation). See: uwar "formaline".

uwar n [1/] formaline; a liquid used to preserve organic matter, formed by mixing formaldehyde and water. Etym: /howar/. vAct: uwanor "embalm".

uy n neck (all around, including the back of the neck). See: kiz "back of the neck". See: bri "head".

uym n [1\] home, house. Etym: /?ojm/.

-v deriv (directional) used in erbs that denote attraction, compression, ingestion, etc; into, in-. Etym: /sb/. Ex: gidav "swallow".

-va deriv transforms adjectives into adverbs. Etym: /mp_ha/. From: Gayat /mPa/.

vacit n field of study, field, expertise, (area of) competence. See: pirvacit "expert, specialist, wizard".

vae pron [1\] where, what place. Etym: /sbE:/.

vagum n [1/] bubble; hollow space filled of gas with a thin, fragile wall. Etym: /wahgum/ (-/um/ is probably an ancient classifier for round things).

val n [1/] society; law; the social contract. This word comprises the citizens, their organization, their environment and their law in a holistic way, ecologically so to speak. Usage: -0 = DEF. Etym: /wahl/. See: bo "people".

vam adj [1/] calm, calmed; not frightened or timid in any way. Etym: /smam/.

vaog adj [1\] rotten or rotting, putrid, in a state of (organic) decay. Etym: /wah?Og/.

vav n [1/] year; yearly cycle. Etym: /wahw/. Group: tukvav "Great Cycle".

ve n [1/] sun, the Sun, the primary star of Earth. Etym: /wEh/.

veb* precategorial rest, remains, spoil; crumble, destroy. Etym: /swEb/.

vebr n [1\] rest, remains, spoil; leftovers. Etym: /swEbr/. See: veb*.

vi nLoc [-] direction; sense of movement. Etym: /sbe?/. Does not refer to goal.

vie- infl [1/] left hand side; the item on the left (for 'bilateral nouns'). Etym: /swI:/. Ex: vietromi yin "his left temple". Ant: ji-. See: ti-.

vin n [1/] weapon; offensive means. Etym: /NfeN/.

vipti vt [2/] loot, sack, plunder, pillage; turn to pieces while looking for sthg; destroy in order to analyze. Morph: veb* -ti. See: veb*.

vis adj [1/] remembering; recalling; having memory of (sthg). Etym: /wehst/. nAbs: vais "memory".

vokr adj hard, solid, difficult to break, resistant. Etym: /wOkar/ (dialectal). See: adie "friable".

-wa See: -a.

wa- deriv [1\] (directional) shows movement/direction towards the inside of something; in-, intro-, en-. Etym: /wa/. See: or "inside". Ant: ut-.

wadel vi [2\] enter; get into sthg (willingly); go into sthg; go inside. Morph: wa- del.

wadrau n [1\] lit. empathy; identification or resonance with sbdy else's feeling or pathos (calqued from Gk. empatheia, Ger. Einfühlung, etc.). Morph: wa- drau. Gen: drau "feeling, pathos".

wakhar n [1\] projectile; something this is meant to be shot or launch in order to hit sthg from a distance. Etym: /waxr/ (from OL /wak_h/ 'projectile', /pExr/ 'throwing', to avoid homonymy with ML **/wak/ 'jewel'). vAct: pekh "throw".

wakre n [2/] jewel; luxurious ornament; unique valuable item. Etym: /wa?klIh/ (from OL /wa?k/ 'jewel', /lIhah/ 'value', to avoid homonymy with ML **/wak/ 'projectile').

was adj [1/] happy, glad. Etym: /wa?s/.

wat n [1\] hair of the head. May refer to animal hair (not fur) when it's long, flowing and not hirsute. Etym: /wat_h/. Group: ciewat.

wea n [1\] political authority. Etym: /wEha?/.

wer n [1\] group, party, small assembly (of people). Etym: /wIr/.

wey vi [1\] ascend, go up. Etym: /wIj/. Ant: jhu.

wim adj young, of relatively small age. Etym: /wIm/.

wo n [1\] sky, the firmament, the heavens; space. Etym: /wO/.

wokat n;adj [1\] strange; alien; out of place; outsider. Etym: /?U:k_h/ (the root is /?Uk_h/, cf ML /ok/ 'extract').

wud n [1/] valley; the low lands around the course of a river. Etym: /hu:d/.

wuk 1 adj [1\] corrupt, corrupted (a person); immoral; unethical; vicious; anti-social. Etym: /wok/.

wuk 2 adj [1/] several; some; a few; more than one. Consistently used to mark plural in some dialects. Etym: /hu:k/. See: dir "many".

wut n [1/] continent; great island; a portion of land surrounded by water, that contains enough resources for self-sustaining inhabitation by humans and other large animals. Restrict: geographical, not political division. Etym: /huhut/. See: jinai.

-ya See: -a.

-yab deriv ordered group, set, system, structure. Ex: cutyab "skeleton".

yair n [1\] bonanza; (sthg that is provided) more than enough; overflowing wealth; richness; plenty. Etym: /je:r/. See: yir.

yaol n [1\] country, territory; space unhabitated by people. Etym: /jO:l/.

yaun n [1\] orchid (flower). Etym: /jo:N/. Ex: miba uzun yaun naisa "beautiful like a sticky orchid [insect-eating flower]".

ye pron genitive case of the pronoun e.

yelk adj [1/] waiting, expecting sbdy/sthg to come. Usage: GEN. Etym: /hI:lk/. See: yeyek "latent". See: zatiek "loiter".

yeop adj [1\] very angry; rabid, lit. 'foaming'. From: Gayat /eOp_h/ 'nervous, angry', from OL /?ekOb_h/ 'bubbling'.

yerno adj pregnant; full of resources, wealthy; the state of trees before giving fruit. See: yer.

yes adj [1\] cold, having a low temperature. Etym: /jIs/.

yetie n [1\] silence, the absence of sound or noise; quiet, peace. Etym: /jEd_hI:/. Ant: khab.

yeyek adj [1/] latent; waiting; on hold. Etym: /hI:k/ (DUP). See: yelk "waiting".

yilan vi [1\] urinate, pee, piss. Etym: /jelaN/.

yir vt [1\] (of wealth, resources, or other appreciated things) overflow with, provide more than enough. Etym: /jer/. See: yair "bonanza".

yirat adj [1\] more than enough; in a higher quantity/amount than needed; overflowing. Etym: /jer/.

-yok deriv [-] augmentative; extra-, super-; big, large; larger/greater than usual. Etym: /jOk/. Ex: nniryok "boom, loud noise".

yol vt [1\] assess, evaluate; consider, study, ponder; check, check out. Etym: /jOl/. This word is related to yaol 'country, territory', which was originally 'a place one has checked for habitableness, a territory taken into consideration for a certain purpose'. Ex: Nuo e yole nief deri gomimi "I will check all the stores tomorrow for the books [records?]".

yolod n [1\] testbed; examination room; a place or facility where something is tested for failures, or where someone is assessed; an instance of testing a hypothesis or theory against experimental checks. Etym: /jOlUd/. See: yol "assess".

-yom deriv -like, -y, -ly; similar to, having some features of, comparable to. Usage: n:adj. Etym: /jOm/. Ex: woyom "elevated". See: wo "sky".

yov n place, site, spot. Etym: /jOw/ (dialectal). Spec: ayov "post, job". See: ai-.

yowey n east, the East. See: wey "ascend".

yue n [1\] night, night time; the time between sunset and sunrise. Etym: /juhI/.

yunnun n [1\] verse; a line in a song; a poetic, literary or artistic utterance. Etym: /joNjoN/.

yus n clothes, a piece of clothing to be worn. Etym: /jos/. See: iciyus "costume".

yuy n [1\] caliber; girth; diameter; the transversal length or width of a more or less cylindrical object or of a round hole. Etym: /juj/.

zakat adj [1/] fierce; ferocious; aggressive (esp. of animals). Etym: /swakat/.

zat- deriv [1/] (aspectual/attitudinal) for no visible purpose; useless; time-wasting; mindless. Etym: /snat/. Ex: zatiek "loiter".

zatabakhab n [2/] chatter; babble; noisy confusion; messy gathering, esp. where many speak at once. Imitative, with colloquial-style pre-reduplication. See: zat- "useless, ridiculous". See: khab "mess, noise".

zatimar adj [1\] blind; lit. 'useless both eyes'. Morph: zat- ti- mar. Spec: zadmaras "blind of one eye".

ze- deriv [1/] (directional) forward; forth; shows advancing movement. Etym: /snE/.

zetirdut n [2/] rocket; rocket ship; a missile typically in the shape of a tube that lifts off the ground on chemical fuel, producing visible ignition. The literal meaning of the etymology is 'column of fire'. Morph: neset? -ir- dut*. See: dut*.

zi n [1/] exclusivity, exclusive benefit, 'only'. Etym: /hInsi/. Ex: E zi pirvacitade "I am the only expert". Ex: Aidide gosel wo uzi "(S/he) only loves this child".

zid n;adj [1/] south; the southern part of a territory. Etym: /snid/.

zipev n (closed) fist; the knuckles of a hand as a unit. See: tipev "knuckle".

zol vt put, install, make to wear, invest. Etym: /snOl/. Ex: Zolu gosach dibila gezach yisichen "He put rings in the fingers of her hands".

zun n manner, way, fashion, characteristic features, 'like'. In the essive case, this word shows a simple comparison; in the genitive, it suggests a correlation (see examples). Etym: /gjuN/. From: Hytsu /d_zun/. Ex: Leade uzun yue "It is black like [in the manner of] night". Ex: Yizun bodi ka wukade "He is an immoral man like [after] his father". Ant: ufot.

zur vi;vt [1/] continue, go on, keep on. Etym: /snor/. See: faezur "resume".

zursol vi [1/] forgive; forgive and forget; (fig.) move on with one's life. Usage: GEN-person ESS-issue(nPhrase) | issue(vPhrase)-CNJ. Ex: Talulde zursoles jho michutur ye "I can't forgive you for standing me up". Ex: Talulde zursoles jo sichutus e "I can't forgive that you stood me up". Morph: zur sol*. See: sol*.