2992c AM, 3702 JP, 1012 BC
465. The foundation of the temple was laid in the 480th year after Israel's exodus from Egypt. This was in king Solomon's 4th year of reign on the second day of the second month (called Zif, Monday May 21st). 1Ki 6:1,37 2Ch 3:2
2993b AM, 3703 JP, 1011 BC
466. Three years after he was commanded not to cross the brook Kidron, Shimei returned from Gath to bring back two run-away servants. Solomon commanded that he be executed. 1Ki 2:39-46
3000a AM, 3709 JP, 1005 BC
467. In the 11th year of Solomon's reign, in the eighth month, (called Bul) the temple and its furnishings was finished. It took 7 years 6 months to build. 1Ki 6:38 The dedication of the temple was postponed till the next year because it was a Jubilee year.
3001a AM, 3710 JP, 1004 BC
468. This was the ninth Jubilee which opened the fourth millennium of the world. King Solomon celebrated the dedication of the temple with great pomp and splendour. All Israel was assembled together in the 7th month, called Ethanim. The ark was brought from Zion into the Holy of Holies. The tabernacle and holy vessels from Gibeon went into the temple treasury. God gave a visible and wonderful token of his presence. Solomon was standing on a scaffold made of brass, kneeling down he uttered a set prayer to God. After this he blessed the people. He then offered 22,000 oxen and 120,000 sheep. They celebrated the feast of the dedication of the altar for 7 days and the feast of tabernacles another 7 seven days. On the 15th day the celebrations were completed on the 23rd day of the 7th month when the people were dismissed to their homes. 1Ki 8:1,2,65,66 2Ch 5:3-5 6:1 8:1-11
469. On the eighth day of the seventh month, that is (Friday, October 30th.) it was the first of the seven days of the dedication. According to Levitical law the feast of atonement was held on the tenth day, (Saturday, November 1st.) Lev 25:9 At the sound of the trumpet the jubilee was proclaimed.
470. The feast of tabernacles was held on the 15th day.(Friday, November 6th.) The last day of this feast was always very solemnly kept. This occurred on the 22nd. (Friday, November 13th.) 2Ch 7:9 Le 23:36 Joh 7:37 The following day, (Saturday, November 14th.) after the sabbath the people went home.
3012c AM, 3722 JP, 992 BC
471. In the 13th year after the temple was built, Solomon finished building his own house. He spent 20 years on both of them: 7 years 5 months on the temple and 13 years on his own house. 1Ki 7:1 9:10 2Ch 8:1
472. As a reward for Hiram's good will in helping construct these houses, Solomon offered to Hiram king of Tyre 20 cities of Galilee, or Cabul which were located within the tribe of Asher. Solomon purchased these cities himself. When Hiram refused to take them, Solomon reconstructed them all himself, planting colonies of the Israelites in them.1Ki 9:10 2Ch 8:1,2
473. When Solomon had finished both houses and the wall of Jerusalem, he moved his wife, the daughter of Pharaoh, out of the city of David, into a house which he had built for her. 1Ki 3:1 7:8 2Ch 8:11 He also built Gezer, which Pharaoh his father-in-law took from the Canaanites and gave to Solomon. 1Ki 9:15-17 Gezer was located within the tribe of Ephraim.
3026c AM, 3736 JP, 978 BC
474. Shishak, also called Sefonchis (according to Egyptian Chronology) began to reign. Jeroboam the son of Nebat fled to him and continued with him till after Solomon died. 1Ki 11:40 12:2
3029c AM, 3739 JP, 975 BC
475. Solomon forsook his lusts and vanities to which he was addicted in his later days. He testified of his deep repentance in his book called The Preacher (Ecclesiastes) and made his peace with God. 2Ch 11:17 Solomon died when he had reigned 40 years. 1Ki 11:42 2Ch 9:30
476. Rehoboam, Solomon's son, was made king by all Israel in Sichem. By his harsh approach to his rule he alienated the hearts of ten tribes from him. These tribes sent for Jeroboam the son of Nebat, in Egypt to be their king. Under his leadership, they rebelled from the house of David. They killed Adoram, whom Rehoboam had sent to them, and abandoned the true worship of God. 1Ki 12:1-33 In memorial of this sad disaster, the Jews kept a solemn yearly fast on the 23rd of the third month, called Sivan.
477. From this sad division made in that kingdom, Rehoboam reigned over Judah and Benjamin 17 years. 1Ki 14:21 2Ch 12:1,2 and Jeroboam over Israel i.e. over the other ten tribes, for 22 years. 1Ki 14:20
478. Rehoboam returned to Jerusalem and conscripted 80,100 men to fight against the ten tribes. Through the prophet Shemaiah, he was admonished from God to abandon this plan. 1Ki 12:1-33 Continual war took place between the kings for the rest of their days. 1Ki 14:30
479. In the beginning of his reign, Jeroboam repaired Shechem where he was chosen king by the people. This place was destroyed by king Abimelech, 258 years earlier. Jeroboam lived there until he went over Jordan, and built Penuel. 1Ki 12:25 Finally, he built Tirzah and made that the capital of his kingdom. 1Ki 14:17 He feared that his new subjects would revolt against him if they continued to worship at Jerusalem. So he devised a new religion. He set up two golden calves, the one at Bethel and the other at Dan, for the people to worship. 1Ki 12:25-31
3030a AM, 3739 JP, 975 BC, 1 SK, 1 NK
480. NK - On the 15th day of the 8th month, (Monday, December 6th.) Jeroboam held a feast of his own creation similar to the feast of tabernacles among the Jews. On an idolatrous altar which he had built at Bethel, he offered sacrifices to his calf. 1Ki 12:32,33 At that time, God sent an unnamed prophet from Judah who foretold what judgment God would execute by Josiah on the altar and the priests that served it. This prophecy was confirmed by signs which appeared on that altar and the king himself. 1Ki 13:1-34 2Ki 23:15-20 From the beginning of this idolatrous worship and public demonstration of God's judgment there, we are to reckon the 390 years of the iniquity of Israel as spoken of in Eze 4:5
481. This prophet was deceived by another prophet of Bethel, who lied about a message from God. Contrary to the express commandment of God he ate meat at Bethel. Therefore, in his return homeward, he was met by a lion which killed him. When the news came to the prophet which had deceived him, he took the body and gave it an honourable burial. He assured his sons that what had been foretold by that other prophet, would undoubtedly come to pass. 1Ki 1:3 2Ki 23:17,18
3030b AM, 3740 JP, 974 BC, 1 SK, 1 NK
482. SK - The priests, Levities and other Israelites who feared God did not follow Jeroboam but worshipped with Rehoboam in Jerusalem. This helped maintain the kingdom of Judah for three years. This was the time they walked in the ways of David and Solomon. 2Ch 11:17
483. NK - Jeroboam continued in his revolt and excluded the priests that were of the lineage of Aaron the Levites from his worship. He made priests for the high places from men of the common people. 1Ki 13:33,34 2Ch 11:14,15 13:9 Hence many of the priests and Levites abandoned their possessions in those tribes and settled in Judah. They were followed there by those of every tribe who wanted to worship the true God. They came to Jerusalem to worship and sacrifice to the God of their forefathers. 2Ch 11:13,14,16.
3032d AM, 3742 JP, 972 BC, 3 SK, 3 NK
484. SK - Rehoboam, now settled in his kingdom, forsook the law of the Lord and all Israel and Judah with him.2Ch 12:1 The Jews, who should have stirred up their Israelite brothers to repentance, provoked the Lord with their own sins. They behaved worse than their forefathers. They made high places, images and groves, for themselves on every high hill and under every tree. They did all the wicked things the heathen did in their barbarous worship including those nations whom God had cast out before them. 1Ki 14:22-24
3033c AM, 3743 JP, 971 BC, 5 SK, 5 NK
485. SK - In Rehoboam's 5th year, Shishak, king of Egypt, invited perhaps by Jeroboam, (who had formerly lived with him, noted in the year, 3026 AM) led an army of 120 chariots, 60,000 horses, with innumerable footmen from Egypt. The men were from the Lubims, Sukkiims, and Cushites who entered the land of Judah. They had already captured all the rest of their fortified cites and finally came to Jerusalem. The king and his princes were brought to repentance by the preaching of Shemaiah the prophet. The king received a gracious promise of their deliverance at a high cost. They were to release to the Egyptians all the treasure of the temple and of the king's house. All the shields of gold which Solomon had made which Rehoboam remade using brass. 1Ki 14:26,27 2Ch 12:2-12
3046 AM, 3756 JP, 958 BC, 1 SK, 18 NK
486. SK - Abijah the son of Rehoboam, succeeded his father who died in the beginning of the 18th year of Jeroboam's. He reigned 3 years. 1Ki 15:1,2 2Ch 13:1,2
3047c AM, 3757 JP, 957 BC, 2 SK, 19 NK
487. SK - Abijah and his army of 400,000 men, fought with Jeroboam and his army of 800,000 men. Because Abijah trusted in God, he obtained victory against Jeroboam. He killed 500,000 of Jeroboam's soldiers. This was the highest casualty rate of any battle recorded in the Bible. Abijah captured Bethel where one of the calves was set up and Jeshanah and Ephrain, with all its towns. 2Ch 13:1-22
3049c AM, 3759 JP, 955 BC, 1 SK, 21 NK
488. SK - After Abijam's death, at the very end of the 20th year of Jeroboam's reign, Asa his son succeeded him and reigned 41 years. 1Ki 15:8-10
3050a AM, 3759 JP, 955 BC, 2 SK, 22 NK
489. This was the 10th Jubilee.
3050d AM, 3760 JP, 954 BC, 2 SK, 1 NK
490. NK - Nadab in the 2nd year of Asa, succeeded his dead father Jeroboam in his kingdom and reigned only 2 years. 1Ki 15:25
3051d AM, 3761 JP, 953 BC, 3 SK, 1,2 NK
491. NK - At the siege of Gibbethon of the Philistines, Nadab was slain by Baasha, a man from the tribe of Issachar in the third year of the reign of Asa. In the same year that Baasha made himself king over Israel, he utterly destroyed all the family of Jeroboam. He reigned for 24 years. 1Ki 15:27-29,33
3053c AM, 3763 JP, 951 BC, 5 SK, 3 NK
492. SK - God now gave 10 consecutive years of peace to the land, 2Ch 14:1,6 even to the 15th year of king Asa's reign, or to the 35th year from the rebellion of the northern kingdom. 2Ch 15:10,19 In that year, this godly king Asa put away all public idolatry, reformed his kingdom and fortified the cities of Judah against the invasion of enemies. 2Ch 14:6
3055d AM, 3765 JP, 949 BC, 7 SK, 5 NK
493. Jehoshaphat was born to Asa by his mother Azubah. Later he at the age of 35 succeeded Asa in his kingdom. 1Ki 22:42 2Ch 20:31
3063c AM, 3773 JP, 941 BC, 15 SK, 13 NK
494. In the beginning of Asa's reign, Zerah the Ethiopian mobilised an innumerable army to invade the land of Judah. This force had 1,000,000 men from the Cushites, who as it seemed came from Arabia Petrea and the desert and the Lubims, besides those who fought aloft from the chariots. Asa met this army with 300,000 men from the tribe of Judah and 280,000 from the tribe of Benjamin. He called on the name of the Lord and routed and slew that vast army and took much spoil from them. After this he was encouraged by Azariah the prophet. He assembled all his subjects and also many of the Israelites which were loyal to him. They met at Jerusalem in the third month in which the feast of Pentecost fell. They sacrificed to God from the spoil which they had taken, 700 oxen and 7000 cattle and solemnly renewed their covenant with God. Asa continued reformation of his kingdom and removed Maachah his grandmother, a great patroness of idolatry, from the honour of queen mother. He brought into the temple the things which he and his father had consecrated to God. 2Ch 14:8,9 15:1,10,11,13,16 16:8
3064c AM, 3774 JP, 940 BC, 16 SK, 14 NK
495. NK - Baasha saw Asa actively restoring religion to Judah and that many of his subjects defected to Asa so that they might be partakers in God's covenant blessings. 2Ch 15:9 He never ceased to make war upon Asa all his days. 1Ki 15:16,32 In the 36th year since the division of the kingdom, in Asa's 16th year, Baasha started to build Ramah to prevent more of his subjects from defecting to Asa. 2Ch 16:1
3064d AM, 3774 JP, 940 BC, 16 SK, 14 NK
496. SK - Asa hired Benhadad king of Syria to come and hinder the building of Ramah which he did. Using the stones and timber from the city of Ramah, Asa built Geba and Mizpah. When Hanan the prophet reproved him, for getting help from the king of Syria, he cast him into prison, and at the same time, vexed some of his people. 2Ch 16:1-14
497. NK - At the same time Benhadad king of Syria, marched against the cities of Israel. He destroyed Ijon in the tribe of Asher and Dan in Dan, Abelbethmaachah in the tribe of Manasseh and all the borders of Chinnereth, with all the land of Naphtali. This forced Baasha to stop building Ramah and retire to Tirzah. 1Ki 15:20,21 2Ch 16:4,5 Isa 9:1 Now this Benhadad was son to Tabrimon, the son of Hezion, 1Ki 15:18 or of Rezon the first king of Syria of Damascus from whom the name of Hadad was passed on to his posterity in the kingdom. This is noted by Nicolaus Damascenus as recorded by Josephus l. 7. of his Antiquities, c. 6 ul. 5. where, Nicolaus states:
``The third of that name seeking to wipe away the blot of the overthrow, received in his grandfather's days, marched into Judah and destroyed Samaria,''
498. Josephus understands it to be the invasion made upon Samaria, by Benhadad, in the time of Ahab. See notes on 2960 AM and 3103 AM.
3074d AM, 3784 JP, 930 BC, 26 SK, 24 NK
499. NK - When Baasha died and was buried at Terza, his son Elah succeeded him.
3075d AM, 3785 JP, 929 BC
500. NK - In the 2nd year of Elah and the 27th of Asa, Zimri destroyed Elah and his entire family. He reigned in Tirzah for seven days. But the soldiers at Gibbethon, a town of the Philistines made Omri, the general of the army, king. He came to besiege Tirzah and Zimri set fire to the king's palace and destroyed it and himself. 1Ki 16:15-18
501. The people of Israel split into two factions, one part followed Tibni, the son of Ginath, the other followed Omri. Omri's side prevailed and Omri became king. 1Ki 16:8,21,22
3077 AM, 3787 JP, 927 BC, 29 SK, 3 NK
502. NK - Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab the son of Omri, as it seems was born 42 years before her son Ahaziah reigned over Judah. 1Ki 8:26 2Ch 21:20 22:2 See Gill on "2Ch 22:2"
3079d AM, 3789 JP, 925 BC, 31 SK, 5 NK
503. NK - Omri began to reign in Tirzah over Israel in the 31st year of king Asa. 1Ki 16:23
3080d AM, 3790 JP, 924 BC, 32 SK, 6 NK
504. SK - Jehoram was born to Jehoshaphat 32 years, before his father took him as viceroy of his kingdom. 2Ki 8:17 2Ch 21:20
505. NK - When Omri had now reigned 6 years in Tirzah, he then moved the capital of his kingdom from Tirzah to Samaria. He built Samaria in the hill of Samaria, a place which he had purchased from Shemer. 1Ki 16:23,24
3086 AM, 3796 JP, 918 BC, 38 SK, 1 NK
506. Omri died and was buried at Samaria. He was a poor father but Ahab the son who succeeded him was much worse. Ahab reigned 22 years. 1Ki 16:28,29
3087 AM, 3797 JP, 917 BC, 39 SK, 2 NK
507. SK - In the 39th year of his reign, Asa was diseased in his feet. He sought for help from the physicians and not from God. 2Ch 16:12
3090c AM, 3800 JP, 914 BC, 1 SK, 5 NK
508. SK - In the end of the 41st year of his reign, Asa died and was buried in a sepulchre which he had prepared in the city of David. The tomb was filled with sweet odours and spices. 2Ch 16:13,14 He was a good father and an even better son succeeded him called Jehoshaphat. In the very latter end of the 4th year of Ahab's reign, he started to reign over Judah and ruled for 25 years. 1Ki 22:41,42 2Ch 20:31
3092c AM, 3802 JP, 912 BC, 3 SK, 7 NK
509. SK - When Jehoshaphat was established in his kingdom, he began by removing the high places and the groves. In the 3rd year of his reign, he sent out the Levites and other chief men into all cities to instruct the people. God gave him peace. 2Ch 17:7-10
3097 AM, 3807 JP, 907 BC, 8 SK, 12 NK
510. SK - Athaliah the daughter of Ahab, king of Israel, married Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. This union resulted from the marriage alliance Jehoshaphat made with Ahab. 2Ch 18:1 She had a son named Ahaziah, who at the age of 22 succeeded him in the kingdom. 2Ki 8:18,26,27 2Ch 21:26 22:2
3099a AM, 3808 JP, 906 BC, 9 SK, 13 NK
511. SK - The eleventh Jubilee.
3103c AM, 3813 JP, 901 BC, 14 SK, 18 NK
512. NK - Benhadad, king of Assyria, assembled his army together and with the assistance of 32 petty kings besieged Samaria. He was defeated by Ahab and fled. 1Ki 20:1-43
3104d AM, 3814 JP, 900 BC, 15 SK, 19 NK
513. NK - About a year later, Benhadad came up a second time as far a Aphek to fight with Israel. He was badly defeated and surrendered to Ahab. Ahab received him with all courtesy and honour and after a while let him go in peace. Ahab made a league of friendship with him. For this act, God pronounced judgment upon him by his prophet. 1Ki 20:1-43 However as a result of this league, there was 3 years of peace between the two nations. 1Ki 22:1
3105 AM, 3815 JP, 899 BC, 16 SK, 20 NK
514. NK - When Ahab could not get Naboth to sell him his vineyard, he was depressed. Jezebel his wife, using false witnesses had Naboth condemned to death and stoned. Ahab got possession of the vineyard. For this wicked deed, the prophet Elijah told him of the destruction which was to befall him, Jezebel and all his posterity. When Ahab trembled at this and by a timely repentance, he obtained a respite of this judgment. 1Ki 21:1-29
3106d AM, 3816 JP, 898 BC, 17 SK, 21 NK
515. SK - As Ahab had done, Jehoshaphat made Jehoram his son, viceroy of the kingdom. Jehoram the son of Ahab succeeded his brother Ahaziah 1Ki 1:18 as king over the Israelites in the 18th year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. 2Ki 3:1 He is said to have begun his reign, in the 2nd year of Jehoram, the son of Jehoshaphat. 2Ki 1:17
516. NK - Ahab in the 17th year of the reign of Jehoshaphat, made his son Ahaziah viceroy in the kingdom. 1Ki 22:51
3107d AM, 3817 JP, 897 BC, 18 SK, 22,2 NK
517. SK - Jehoshaphat visited Ahab at the very end of the third year of peace which Ahab had made with the Assyrians. He was invited by Ahab to go with him to the siege of Ramothgilead. After being entreated he went but barely escaped from there with his life. 1Ki 22:1-53 2Ch 18:1-34 When he returned home, the prophet Jehu, the son of Hanani reproved him for helping such a wicked king. 2Ch 19:1,2
518. NK - After Ahab convinced Jehoshaphat to go with him, he went to besiege Ramothgilead. Before he went, he asked what the outcome of the war would be from the 400 false prophets and from Micaiah, the true prophet of God. They all told him he would do well but Micaiah foretold his defeat. Ahab disguised himself but was slain in the fight. He was buried in Samaria. 1Ki 22:1-53 2Ch 18:1-34
519. After he was dead, Moab revolted from the Israelites. 2Ki 1:1 3:5 They had been in subjection to them ever since king David's days. 2Sa 8:2
3108a AM, 3817 JP, 897 BC
520. SK - When Jehoshaphat had built a fleet, he send it to Ophir for gold. Ahaziah the wicked son of Ahab went into partnership with him on this venture. At first Jehoshaphat refused the joint venture 1Ki 22:49 but later agreed to it. For so doing, God destroyed the fleet and reproved him by his prophet Eliezer, the son of Dodavah. 2Ch 20:35-37
3108b AM, 3818 JP, 896 BC
521. NK - Ahaziah king of Israel was injured when he fell through a lattice of his dining room in Samaria. He asked Baalzebub, the god of the Ekronites, if he would recover. The prophet Elijah destroyed with fire from heaven 2 captains and their companies of 50 who were sent to capture and bring him to the king. At last, he went voluntarily with the third captain that came for him. He told the king plainly that he would die. 2Ki 1:1-18 The king did die. He reigned two years, partly with his father, partly by himself. 1Ki 22:51
522. When Ahaziah was dead, his brother Jehoram, the son of Ahab succeeded him in the later end of the 18th year of Jehoshaphat and reigned 12 years. 2Ki 3:1
3108c AM, 3818 JP, 896 BC, 19 SK, 1 NK
523. Elijah was taken up into heaven in a fiery chariot. 2Ki 2:1-25
3109c AM, 3819 JP, 895 BC, 20 SK, 2 NK
524. When Edom was still under the control of Judah, the three kings from Israel, Judah and Edom united to subdue the rebellious Moabites. In this war Elisha the prophet, miraculously furnished the army with water and assured them of the victory over their enemies. Mesha king of the Moabites was besieged in Kirhareseth and tried unsuccessfully to break out with the small forces he had left. He captured the firstborn son who would have succeeded his father the king of Edom and is called king of the Edomites by the prophet Amos. Am 2:1 He offered him for a whole burnt offering upon the wall of the city. 2Ki 3:1-27
3112c AM, 3822 JP, 892 BC, 23,1 SK, 5 NK
525. SK - When Jehoshaphat was old, he desired to settle his estate. He gave the rest of his sons, many gifts and fortified cities in Judah. His oldest son Jehoram (whom he had formerly employed as his viceregent) was made consort with him in the kingdom. This was in the 5th year of Jehoram king of Israel and he reigned for 8 years. 2Ch 21:2,3,5,20 2Ki 8:16,17
3115c AM, 3825 JP, 889 BC, 4 SK, 8 NK
526. Jehoshaphat died and was buried in the city of David. 1Ki 2:50 2Ch 21:5 This good king's wicked son, Jehoram ruled alone for 4 years. When he was established in his kingdom, he slew all his brothers and many of the other princes in Judah. 2Ch 21:1-20 The Edomites revolted. They had been under the control of Judah since king David's time. 2Sa 8:14 Although they had been smitten by Jehoram, yet, according to the prophecy of Isaac, Ge 27:40 they shook off Judah's yoke for ever. Libnah, a city of the priests in the tribe of Judah, Jos 12:13 also revolted at this time. 2Ki 18:20-22 2Ch 21:8-10
3116a AM, 3825 JP, 889 BC
527. SK - Jehoram followed the counsel of his wicked wife Athaliah and set up in Judah and Jerusalem the idolatrous worship of Baal just as Ahab, his father-in-law had done. He forced his subjects to worship Baal and he was reproved by a letter written by the prophet Elijah who foretold what calamities and punishments would happen to him. 2Ch 21:11-15 These events occurred as predicted. 2Ch 21:16-20
3116c AM, 3826 JP, 888 BC
528. SK - First God stirred up against him the Philistines and Arabians. These attacked Judah and took away whatever was found in the king's house, together with his sons and wives. Since all his other sons were slain, he had only Jehoahaz left. 2Ch 21:1-20 He was also called Ahaziah and Azariah and succeeded his father in the kingdom. 2Ch 22:1,6
3117c AM, 3827 JP, 887 BC, 6 SK, 10 NK
529. SK - After this God struck Jehoram with an incurable disease in the bowels, which tormented him for 2 whole years. 2Ch 21:15,18,19
3118d AM, 3828 JP, 886 BC, 7 SK, 11 NK
530. SK - When Jehoram was afflicted with this sickness, he made his son, Ahaziah, his viceroy, in the 11th year of Jorum the son of Ahab. 2Ki 9:29
3119c AM, 3829 JP, 885 BC, 8,1 SK, 12 NK
531. When Jehoram's bowels fell out, he died a miserable death and was buried in the city of David, but without any pomp and not among the kings. 2Ch 25:19,20 After this Ahaziah his son succeeded him in the 12th year of Joram the son of Ahab and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. He followed in the steps of his wicked mother Athaliah and the house of Ahab. He set up and maintained the worship of Baal. 2Ki 8:25,27 2Ch 22:1-4
532. Ahaziah had a son by Zibia of Beersheba, whose name was Joash or Jehoash. He was proclaimed king at the age of 7. 2Ki 11:21 2Ch 24:1
3120b AM, 3830 JP, 884 BC
533. NK - Jehoram king of Israel and Ahaziah king of Judah went out together with their armies to Ramothgilead against Hazael. He had recently succeeded Benhadad in the kingdom of Syria, as Elisha the prophet had foretold him. In that fight Jehoram was grievously wounded by the Syrians and he retired to Jezreel to be healed of his wounds. 2Ki 8:1-29 Meanwhile a certain son of the prophets sent by Elisha came to Ramoth and anointed Jehu the son of Jehoshaphat the son the Nimshi, king over Israel. He told him the will of God for the wiping out of the house of Ahab. As soon as Jehu was proclaimed king by the captains and officers of the army, he marched to Jezreel. There he slew both Jehoram and Jezebel.2Ki 9:1-37 Jehu sent letters to Samaria which were responsible for the death of the seventy sons of Ahab as foretold by Elisha. He took with him Jehonadab, the son of Rechab and came to Samaria. There he destroyed all the family of Ahab with all the priests of Baal. Although he destroyed Baal worship, he still maintained the worship of Jeroboam's golden calves and the associated idolatry by the Israelites for all of his 28 year reign. 2Ki 10:28,29,39
3120c AM, 3830 JP, 884 BC
534. SK - Ahaziah returned from the battle at Ramothgilead against Hazael. Later he went to Jezreel to see Jehoram the king of Israel who was recovering from his wounds. When Jehu found many of his family attending him there and various princes of Judah, he slew them all. Then he searched for Ahaziah himself who had escaped and fled to Megiddo. When he caught up with him on the way to Gur which is in Ibleam, in the tribe of Manasseh, he killed him in his chariot. Ahaziah was carried from there by his servants and was buried with his fathers in the city of David. 2Ki 9:2 2Ch 22:1-9 When Jehu was on his way back to Samaria, he met 42 men of Ahaziah's relatives heading to Jezreel. There they intended to greet the king's children but Jehu had them all killed. 2Ki 10:13,14
535. When Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab, saw that her own son Ahaziah was dead, she killed all the royal family of the house of Judah and took control of the kingdom. Jehosheba, the daughter of king Joram, and wife to Jehoiada, the high priest, took the infant Joash who was the son of her brother Ahaziah. Joash and his nurse were hid for 6 years in the temple while Athaliah ruled. Thus she spared him from the slaughter of the rest of the royal family. 2Ki 11:1-3 2Ch 22:10-12
3126c AM, 3836 JP, 878 BC, 1 SK, 7 NK
536. Jehoiada the high priest, brought out Joash at the age of 7 and anointed him king. After he had Athaliah killed, he restored the worship of the true God, destroyed the house of Baal and commanded Baal's high priest Mattan to be killed before his altars. 2Ki 11:4,21 2Ch 23:4,21 Joash began his reign in the 7th year of Jehu and reigned 40 years in Jerusalem. 2Ki 12:1 2Ch 24:1
3140c AM, 3850 JP, 864 BC, 15 SK, 21 NK
537. Amasiah the son of Joash and Jehoaddan, was born in Jerusalem because he was 25 years old when he began to reign. 2Ki 14:2 2Ch 25:1
3147d AM, 3857 JP, 857 BC, 22 SK, 28 NK
538. Joash commanded the priests to repair the temple of God using the poll tax that was gathered for that purpose. 2Ki 12:4-16 2Ch 24:4-14
3148a AM, 3857 JP, 857 BC
539. The twelfth Jubilee.
3148c AM, 3858 JP, 856 BC, 23 SK, 1 NK
540. In the 23rd year of his reign, Joash saw that the priests were quite slow in repairing the temple. Therefore he assigned the task to Jehoiada the chief priest and to others to complete that work. 2Ki 12:6-16
541. NK - Jehoahaz succeeded his father Jehu as king over Israel in the 23rd year of Joash the son of Ahaziah. He reigned 17 years 2Ki 13:1 and Hazael king of Syria cruelly oppressed the Israelites for his entire reign. 2Ki 13:3-7,22 as foretold by Elisha. 2Ki 8:12
3163c AM, 3873 JP, 841 BC 38 SK, 16 NK
542. Joash the son of Jehoahaz, was made viceroy with his father in the latter end of the 37th year of Joash king of Judah. He reigned 16 years. 2Ki 13:10
3164c AM, 3874 JP, 840 BC, 39 SK, 17,2 NK
543. After Jehoiada died, his son Zechariah the priest was stoned to death for reproving the Israelites for backsliding into idolatry. This was done by the king's command in the court of God's house. 2Ch 24:17-22
3165 AM, 3875 JP, 839 BC, 40,1 SK, 3 NK
544. SK - The next year some small bands of Hazael, king of Syria attacked Judah and Jerusalem and killed all the chief of the people. They took away all their spoil to their king. When they were gone, Joash was left very sick. His servants conspired against him and killed him in his bed in revenge for Jehoiada's death at the beginning of the 40th year of his reign. 2Ch 24:1,23-27 2Ki 12:17-21 His successor, Amasiah in the latter end of the 2nd year of Joash king of Israel, reigned 29 years. 2Ki 14:1,2 When he was established in his kingdom he killed the servants who murdered his father. However he spared their children according to the law of God as delivered by Moses. 2Ki 14:5,6 2Ch 25:3,4
545. NK - When Jehoahaz the son of Jehu had reigned 17 years, he died and was buried in Samaria. 2Ki 13:1-9 Shortly after his father's funeral, Joash visited Elisha the prophet who was lying on his death bed. Tearfully he asked counsel of him concerning the state of the kingdom. Elisha foretold that he should have 3 victories over the Syrians. 2Ki 13:14-20
3168c AM, 3878 JP, 836 BC, 4 SK, 6 NK
546. NK - Jeroboam the second, seems to have been made viceroy of the kingdom by his father Joash. He went to war and in three battles overthrew Benhadad, who succeeded his father Hazael in the kingdom of Syria. He recovered from Benhadad the cities which Jehoahaz his father had lost. Hence we may gather, that Azariah king of Judah began his reign in the 27th year of this Jeroboam. 2Ki 13:25 15:1
3178 AM, 3888 JP, 826 BC 14 SK, 16 NK
547. SK - Uzziah was born to Amasiah by Jecholiah of Jerusalem. He was also called Azariah and was 16 years old when he succeeded his father in the kingdom. 2Ki 15:2 2Ch 26:2
548. Amasiah became proud of his recent victory over the Edomites. In this fourteenth year of his reign, as Josephus, lib 9. Antiquit. ca. 10. states, he provoked Joash king of the Israelites to battle. In the battle at Bethshemesh he was defeated and taken prisoner. He was released when a payment of a large ransom including hostages was made. 2Ki 14:8-14 2Ch 25:17-24
549. NK - When Joash defeated Amasiah, king of Judah he took him prisoner. Joash broke down 400 cubits of the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim to the corner gate. When he had taken all the treasure from both the temple and the king's house, he returned to Samaria. 2Ki 14:13,14 2Ch 25:23,24
3179c AM, 3889 JP, 825 BC, 15 SK, 1 NK
550. Joash died 15 years before the death of Amaziah. Jeroboam his son succeeded him and reigned in Samaria 41 years. 2Ki 14:23
551. God used Jeroboam to deliver Israel. He recaptured Damascus and Hamath which rightly belonged to the tribe of Judah. 2Sa 8:6 2Ch 8:3 He restored the former borders Nu 13:21 from the entrance into Hamath to the sea of the plain. This fulfilled the prophecy of the Lord which was spoken by Jonah the prophet, the son of Amittai. 2Ki 14:25,27,28
3194c AM, 3904 JP, 810 BC, 29 SK, 15 NK
552. SK - When Amaziah discovered a conspiracy against him at Jerusalem, he fled to Lachish where he was murdered. From there he was carried to the city of David and buried. 2Ki 14:19,20 2Ch 25:27,28 Uzziah, or Azariah succeeded him in the 27th year of Jeroboam, king of Israel as reckoning from the time that he began to reign as co-regent with his father as noted in 3168 A.M. He reigned 52 years in Jerusalem 2Ki 15:1,2 and under him the kingdom of Judah prospered as much as Israel did under Jeroboam the second. As long as he followed the advice of the prophet Zechariah, he applied his heart to religious matters. God prospered him and he subdued the Philistines and his neighbouring enemies. He became mighty in his kingdom. 2Ch 26:2-16
3197a AM, 3906 JP, 808 BC 4, SK, 19 NK
553. SK - Now was the 13th Jubilee held under two most prosperous kings, under whom also lived various great prophets in either kingdom. In Judah, lived that evangelical prophet, Isaiah, the son of Amoz, Isa 1:1 and Joel, the son of Pethuel. He prophesied before Amos, as Codamanus observes because in Joe 1:20 he predicted a coming drought which Amos in Am 4:1-13 said had happened. Amos lived in Judah, among the herdsmen of Tekoa and was called to be a prophet to the kingdom of Israel two years before the earthquake which happened in the days of these two kings Uzziah and Jeroboam the second. Am 1:1 Zec 11:5
554. NK - At the same time, Jonah the son of Amittai and Hosea the son of Beeri prophesied in Israel.
555. Jonah was from Gathhepher, 2Ki 14:25 a town of the tribe of Zebulun,Joh 7:52 in Galilee of the Gentiles. Isa 9:1 This is referred to by the Pharisees who spoke with Nicodemus. Joh 7:52 "Search and know that out of Galilee, never arose any prophet." It seems that at the time the Syrians oppressed Israel, and all were vulnerable to their invasion, that they took great spoil, and no one was able to deliver them. He foretold that Joash his son Jeroboam, would deliver Israel out of their hands and avenge them of the wrong they had endured. 2Ki 14:25,26 Jonah was later sent to Nineveh, the capital city of Assyria. By his preaching he brought both the king and people to repentance .Jon 3:1-10 Mt 12:41
556. When Jeroboam was successfully ruling Israel, Hosea foretold the ruin and desolation of it. He also lived to see its ruin as he continued as a prophet to the time of Hezekiah. Ho 1:1 In the 6th year of his reign came the desolation of Israel. 2Ki 18:10
557. Amos was a third prophet taken from Judah as he kept his flocks. He was sent to prophesy to the people of Israel. Am 1:1,7,14,15 He was accused by Amasai the priest at Bethel, before Jeroboam, who commanded him to return into Judah. Amos pronounced judgment against Amasai saying
``Thy wife, shall play the harlot in the city and thy sons, and thy daughters shall fall by the sword. Thy land shall by divided by line; and thou shalt die in a polluted land. (viz. of Assyria)''
558. when Israel shall be carried away out of her own land.Am 7:10,12,13,17
3207 AM, 3917 JP, 797 BC, 14 SK, 29 NK
559. In Lydia, Ardysus of the clan of the Heraclidae, reigned 36 years (Euseb. Chron.)
3210 AM, 3920 JP, 794 BC, 17 SK, 32 NK
560. The kingdom of Macedonia, was set up by Caranus, a man of the clan of the Heraclidae.
3213 AM, 3923 JP, 791 BC, 20 SK, 35 NK
561. SK - There was an eclipse of the sun, of about 10 digits this year on the 24th day of June, during the feast of Pentecost. (12 digits indicates a total eclipse, 10 digits would be 10/12 of the sun's disk was covered.) Another eclipse occurred of almost 12 digits, 11 years later, on November 8th 3933 JP, during the Feast of Tabernacles. A third eclipse of over 11 digits happened the next year on May 5th, 3934 JP during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. (3943 and 3944 in original document) The prophesy of Amos, Am 8:8-10 is referenced as he states:
``the sun shall set at noonday and I will bring darkness upon the earth in a clear day. I will turn your festivals into mourning and all your solemn songs into lamentations.''
562. Up to this time, the early church fathers took this prophecy to refer to that darkness which came during the Feast of the Passover at the passion of our Saviour. In these three dark eclipses which came during each of these feasts, in which all the males were in Jerusalem before the Lord, that prophesy was thought to have been literally fulfilled. Among the Greeks, Thales the astronomer thought Amos was the first to predict eclipses of the sun.
(June 24, 791 BC, JD=1432685.1171, middle of the eclipse in Jerusalem - 18.89
hours GMT (for Babylon - 19.13), maximum - 0.92
Babylon - 0.63. Data taken from "Solar and Lunar Eclipses of the Ancient Near East from 3000 B.C. to 0 with Maps" by Manfred Kudlek and Erich Mickler, published in Neukirchen in 1971. Unable to confirm data using Canon of Lunar Eclipses", (-2002 - 2526), Jean Meeus, Herman Muche, 1979. Editor.)
3220 AM, 3930 JP, 784 BC, 26 SK, 41 NK
563. NK - When Jeroboam died, the kingdom seriously declined. Tumults arose which headed them toward their ultimate destruction beginning first with Jeroboam's own family and then the whole kingdom. This was foretold in Am 7:1-8:14. All was reduced to anarchy among the Israelites for eleven and an half years and there was no king during this time. This is deduced when the times of these two kingdoms are compared. In Israel we understand that the 6 month reign of Zachariah the son of Jeroboam occurred in the last 6 months of the 38th year of Uzziah. The one month that Shallum reigned was the first month of the 39th year of Uzziah. 2Ki 15:8-13
3221c AM, 3931 JP, 783 BC
564. SK - Uzziah, king of Judah and his wife Jerusha the daughter of Zadok had a son named Jotham. When Uzziah was quarantined because of his leprosy, Jotham ruled in the king's house and judged the people. When Uzziah died Jotham succeeded him as king when he was 25 years old. 2Ki 15:5,33 2Ch 26:21 27:1,8 From this we can deduce that a short time later when Menahem, took over the kingdom of Israel, that Uzziah was an old man. It was at this time as he aspired to take the office of a priest that he was stricken with leprosy. This is contrary to what the Jews and Procopius Gaseus affirm, from Isa 7:1-25 that this overtook him about the 25th year of his reign. The earthquake occurred in the days of Uzziah and Jeroboam, Am 1:1 Zec 11:5 It is clear that when Jeroboam died, Jotham had not yet been born.
3224a AM, 3933 JP, 781 BC
565. SK - Eclipse of the sun, see note on 3213 AM
3224c AM, 3934 JP, 780 BC
566. SK - Eclipse of the sun, see note on 3213 AM
3228c AM, 3938 JP, 776 BC, 35 SK, 9 NK
567. In the summer of the year 3228, the first olympiad took place (according to Greek chronologers). Choraebus of Elis won the race. The Iphitean account dates it the 28th. As Julius Africanus shows out of the writings of Aristodemus Eleus and Polybius (as in the Greek edition of Eusebius by Scaliger, p.13 & p.216) states: And here ends that interval of time which by the learned Varro (as in Censorinus' book, "de die natali", reports is termed mythological because many mythological things are said to have happened. From this time on Greek history begins.
3232a AM, 3941 JP, 773 BC, 38 SK, 1 NK
568. NK - Zachariah the son of Jeroboam, began his reign in the 38th year of Uzziah king of Judah. He was the fourth and last of the family of Jehu as was foretold by God. He reigned for 6 months. 2Ki 15:8,12,10,30
569. At the end of those 6 months, he was murdered by Shallum the son of Jabesh, in the sight of the people. 2Ki 15:10 At this time the calamities foretold by Amos the prophet took place. Am 7:1-17 9:1-15
``The high places of Isaac shall be desolate and the sanctuaries of Israel made a wilderness, when I shall arise with a sword against the house of Jeroboam.''
570. Shallum the son of Jabesh, reigned one month in the 39th year of Uzziah king of Judah. 2Ki 15:13
571. When Menahem the son of Gad, was going from Tirzah to Samaria, he killed Shallum and destroyed Tiphsah with its borders. He also violently slaughtered all the pregnant women. 2Ki 15:14-16
572. This Menahem, is by Supitius Severus in his 1st book of "Histo. Sacra", goes by the name of Manes. This person is also called Manichaus later known as the heretic, in that his name means "a comforter"
3233c AM, 3943 JP, 771 BC
573. Boccaris Saites, reigned in Egypt for 40 years. (African.)
574. NK - While Menahem spent 11 months fighting to take over the kingdom, God stirred up Pul king of Assyria to invade the land of Israel. 1Ch 5:26 2Ki 15:19
575. Pul seems to have been the father of Sardanapalus, from whose name he called himself Sardan-pul just as Merodach king of Babylon, from Baladan his father, was called Merodach Baladan. Isa 39:1 The following chronologers agree that he is the same person, but call him by different names. Jul. African. calls him "Acracarnes". Eusebius, calls him "Oceazapes". Stephanus Bysantinus calls him "Cindaraxes". Strabo, Arrian and Suidas, call him "Anacyndaraxes". By others, (as we find in Atheneus, l. 2. Deiphosoph.) he is called "Anabaxares". Furthermore, I considered the number of years assigned by Africanus and Eusebius, to the reigns of him and his son. I then counted the years backwards from the beginning of Nabonassar to the end of Sardanapalus' reign. I believe both lived at the same time. This man named Pul seems to have been the same man who was converted and brought to repentance by the preaching of the prophet Jonah. This means that the men of Nineveh may have risen in judgment against this nation. God here raised up a repentant, heathen man to take vengeance on the unrepentent Israel.
576. Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver to help settle and confirm him in his kingdom. 2Ki 15:19,20 In reference to this, some refer to Ho 5:13
``When Ephraim saw his sickness and Judah saw his wound, then Ephraim went to the Assyrian and sent to king Jareb, who should defend or uphold him.''
577. When Menahem was thus confirmed in the kingdom, he was established in the latter end of the 39th year of the reign of Uzziah. He held the kingdom for 10 years. 2Ki 15:17
3237 AM, 3947 JP, 767 BC, 44 SK, 5 NK
578. Sardanapalus held the kingdom of the Assyrians for 20 years, according to Jul. Africanus. and Euseb. In his Epitaph (which is contained in Atheneus l. 12 out of Clirarchus and in Strabo, l.14 and in Arrian, 1.3. of the acts of Alexander) he is said to have built two cities in Cilicia in one day. These cities were Anchialus and Tarsus.
3242 AM, 3952 JP, 762 BC, 49 SK, 10 NK
579. SK - Ahaz the son of Jotham, was born in this year. He was 20 years old, when he started to reign 2Ki 16:2 2Ch 28:1 and reigned for 16 years. After his death, his son Hezekiah, is said to have been 25 years old, when he began to reign. Otherwise, Ahaz would only be 11 years old when his son was born. Hence, Tremelius understands that Ahaz was 20 years old not when he himself reigned, but when his father Jotham began his reign.
3243c AM, 3953 JP, 761 BC, 50 SK, 1 NK
580. NK - Pekahiah succeeded his father Menahem, who died in the 50th year of Uzziah, king of Judah and he reigned for 2 years.2Ki 15:22
3245c AM, 3955 JP, 759 BC, 51 SK, 2 NK
581. SK - Habyattes the elder, reigned in Lydia 14 years, (Euseb. Chron.)
582. NK - Pekah, the son of Remaliah, killed Pekahiah in his own palace in Samaria. He then reigned in Pekahiah's place for 20 years reckoning from the 52 years of Uzziah king of Judah. 2Ki 15:25,27
3246a AM, 3955 JP, 759 BC
583. SK - It was during the 14th Jubilee when Isaiah saw the glory of the Lord sitting on his throne. God was surrounded with a guard of angels singing, "Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth." The Jewish people grew more and more obstinate and blind every day lest they should understand the words of the prophets sent to them and be converted and healed. Isa 6:1-13 Joh 12:40,41
584. Isaiah's vision came in the last year of king Uzziah. Isa 6:1 He was buried in the city of David in the burying place of the kings, but apart from the rest because of his leprosy. Jotham his son succeeded him in the 20th year of Pekah, king of Israel. He reigned 16 years in Jerusalem, 2Ki 15:7,32,33 2Ch 26:23 27:1,8
585. Jotham fought a battle against the Ammonites and overthrew them. They became his tributaries for three years. 2Ch 27:5 He had two successors, Micah the Morasthite and Isaiah. Hosea executed the prophetic function. Mic 1:1 In his time also, as Josephus l. 9. Antiq. c. 11. or 12. affirms, Nahum the prophet foretold the subversion of the Assyrians and of Nineveh. This came to pass 115 years later. By that reckoning, Josephus understands that Nahum prophesied in the time of Ahaz, the son of Jotham.
3252c AM, 3962 JP, 752 BC, 7 SK, 7 NK
586. In this year Hezekiah the son of Ahaz, was born by his mother Abi, the daughter of Zachariah. He was 25 years old when he began to reign. 2Ki 18:2 2Ch 29:1
3254c AM, 3964 JP, 750 BC, 9 SK, 10 NK
587. Two towns were built in this year. Ardus was one of them. It was constructed on a very small island as Mela notes. The whole circumference of this island was taken up with this one town. Cyzicum was the second town located in Propontis.
588. Arbaces the governor of Media, scorned the effeminate ways of Sardinapalus. He conspired with Belesus the governor of Babylon by sending a battalion of 400,000 men of Medes, Persia, Babylon and Arabia. He was overthrown in three battles, but in the fourth the Bactrian soldiers defected over to him. He attacked his enemies by night and unawares and drove them from their camp. When Sardanapalus put all the command of the army into the hands of Salaemenus, his wife's brother, he was also defeated twice by the conspirators. As a result he was almost killed and all his army. When Nineveh was besieged, Sardanapalus sent three of his sons and two daughters into Paphlagonia with a great treasure. They gave it to Cotta, governor of that province. With this treasure Cotta dispatched messengers and commissioners throughout the land to conscript soldiers and provide all the necessities needed to endure a siege. (Diod. Sic. l. 2.)
3256c AM, 3966 JP, 748 BC, 11 SK, 12 NK
589. SK - Rome was founded by Romulus according to the reckoning of Fabius Pictor, the most ancient of all Roman writers. This date is confirmed according to the account of the secular games held by the ancient Romans most religiously. This happened shortly before the beginning of the 8th Olympiad, on the feast of their goddess Pales, on the 10th day of April. However the feast of Pales, according to Varro's account, was a full 5 years earlier than it is according to Fabius. The poet Ovid said of this day:
``Urbs oritur (quis tunc hoc ulli credere posses?) Victorem torris impositura pedem.'' Fal. 4.
590. That is:
A city is born,
(which who then would have thought)
That since the world
Has in subjection brought.
3257 AM, 3967 JP, 747 BC
591. In the 3rd year of the siege of Nineveh the river overflowed with continual rains. It flooded a part of the city and undermined two and one half miles of the wall. When Sardanapalus knew this, he made a huge pile of wood in his palace court and set it on fire, which burned himself, his concubines, his eunuchs and all his riches. The palace itself was also burned to ashes.
592. The conspirators entered by the breach in the wall made by the water, and took the city. They proclaimed Arbaces as their king. (Diod. l. 2. and Athena. l. 12 from Ctesias.) Therefore the kingdom of the Assyrians was destroyed. From the beginning of the reign of Ninus, they held all of upper Asia for 520 years as Herodus (l. 1. c. 95.) affirms.
593. After the kingdom fell, it was divided. Arbaces, whom Strabo calls "Orbacus" and Velleius Paterculus named "Pharnaces" freed his countrymen the Medes from the Assyrian yoke. Later, he enabled them to live according to their own laws. Herodotus, in the book previously mentioned, affirms this. Belesis, is called Baladan in the scriptures. Isa 39:1 2Ki 20:12 Agathias (l. 2. Histo. from Bion & Alex. Polyhist.) calls him "Belessas" or "Beleussus". Nicol. Damascennus, in his Eclogs, set forth by Hen. Valesius, Naminybrus. By Hipparchus, he is called "Ptolomaus". Censorinus is called "Nabonassarus." He held the kingdom of Babylon for 14 years.
3257b AM, 3967 JP, 747 BC
594. From twelve o'clock, on the first day of the Egyptian month Thoth, from Wednesday, February 26th, in the evening, in the year 747 BC, all astronomers unanimously start the calender of Nabonassar.
595. Meles in Lydia reigned 12 years, (Euseb. Chron.) of whom more is to be read about in Herodotus. (l. 1. c. 84.)
596. Ninus the younger, held the kingdom of the Assyrians (reduced now to the old boundaries). The empire was quite diminished in Sardanapalus' 19 years. Eusebius explained the errors in Chronology in many large volumes of his Greek Chron. out of Castor the Rhodian. This Ninus, for good luck, seemed to have assumed the name of the first founder of the Assyrian kingdom. His own original name was Eliam, as l. 12. Histor. Annal. and Thilgamus tell us. In the scriptures he is known as "Tilgathpilneser" 1Ch 28:20 or "Tiglathpileser". 2Ki 15:29 16:7,10
3262c AM, 3972 JP, 742 BC, 17 SK, 18 NK
597. Ahaz succeeded his father Jotham at the very end of the 17th year of Pekah, the son of Remaliah and reigned 16 years in Jerusalem, 2Ki 16:1,2 2Ch 28:1
598. Towards the end of the reign of Jotham, God began to stir up Resin the king of Syria and Pekah the son of Remaliah against Judah. 2Ki 15:37 Judah was terrified at the approach of these enemies and expected a quick defeat at their hands. God sent a gracious message to Ahaz by Isaiah the prophet with a promise of his deliverance and the destruction of his enemies. For a sign of his deliverance (when the incredulous king was asked what sign he wanted, he said none), God made him a promise that a virgin would bear Immanuel. He would be both God and man, or God with us, or dwelling in our flesh. With regard to his office, he is the only Mediator between God and man. 1Ti 2:5 He would bring to pass that God would "be with us" Isa 8:10 gracious and propitious to us and a very present help in trouble. Ps 46:1,2,7 Ro 8:31,32 This message was most befitting the present situation in that all promises of God in Christ, are "Yea and Amen", 2Co 1:20 to be fulfilled generally in him and for him. Besides this the land of Judah was to be privileged to be Immanuel's land. Isa 8:8 Pertaining to the flesh, he was to be born not only of the Jews but also of the very house of David. According to the prophecy of Jacob. Ge 49:10 This would happen before the sceptre would depart from Judah. That is, before Judah would cease to be a nation ruled by kings. Therefore at that time Judah need not fear the destruction of the house of David or the nation of the Jews. However, 65 years later this happened to the Northern Kingdom as predicted by Isaiah. Isa 7:1-8:22
599. For a sign of the destruction of those kings who came against Ahaz, the prophet was commanded to bring out Ahaz's son, Shearjashub. He told Ahaz that his son would eat butter and honey until he was old enough to know right from wrong. Before this happened both these kings would be dead. Isa 7:3,15,16 At the same time Isaiah's wife, a prophetess, bore him another son. God named him Mahershalalhashbaz signifying that the Assyrian would hurry and take away the spoil. They would plunder both Syrians and Israelites before the child would be able plainly to pronounce, "My father", or "My mother." So the sons of the prophets were made to serve for signs from God to the Israelites. Isa 8:3,4,18 After these prophecies Rezin and Pekah came up together to besiege Jerusalem where Ahaz was. They could not take it as was predicted by Isaiah. Isa 7:1-7 2Ki 16:5 This wicked Ahaz was no sooner delivered out of this imminent danger, but he forsook God his deliverer and walked in the ways of the kings of Israel. He set up the idolatrous worship of Baal and offered incense in the valley of Benhanan. He made his own son to pass through the fire. He offered sacrifices in the high places, upon the hills and under every green tree. 2Ch 28:2-4 2Ki 16,3,4
3263c AM, 3973 JP, 741 BC, 2 SK, 19 NK
600. SK - When Ahaz forsook God, God also forsook him. When Rezin and Pekah divided their forces, they overcame him. This they could not do when their forces were united. God gave him over into the hands of the Syrians who defeated him and carried away a great multitude of his people captive to Damascus. Also the king of Israel defeated him and slaughtered a great number of his people. 2Ch 28:5
601. At the same time, Rezin conquered Elath, which Uzziah had recovered for Judah. Rezin rebuilt it and repopulated it with Syrians. 2Ki 14:22 2Ch 26:2 2Ki 16:2
602. NK - Pekah killed 120,000 valiant men of Judah in one day. Zichri, a mighty man of the tribe of Ephraim, slew Maaseiah the king's son, Azrikam, the steward of the king's house and Elkanah who was next to the king in authority. The Israelites also carried away captive from Judah and Jerusalem 200,000 women, boys and maids. They plundered their goods and carried all away to Samaria. When warned by Hadlai a prophet of God, they released all of the prisoners and restored their goods to them in the presence of their princes and the whole congregation of Samaria. They treated them kindly and escorted them safely to Jericho. 2Ch 28:6-15
3264c AM, 3974 JP, 740 BC, 3 SK, 20 NK
603. SK - The Edomites invaded Judah and carried away many captives. The Philistines whom king Uzziah had conquered, 2Ch 26,6,7 now attacked the cities of Judah in the low countries and southern parts and dwelt there. God gave Judah over to their enemies because of Ahaz's sin and because he had led Judah into sin. 2Ch 28:17-19
604. Ahaz took all the gold and silver that was found in the Lord's house and in the treasury of the king's house. He sent it for a present to Tiglathpileser king of Assyria wishing him to come and deliver him from the kings of Syria and Israel. He came and took Damascus, and carried away all its inhabitants to Kir and killed Rezin the king of Syria. 2Ki 16:7-9 This fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah, 2Ki 7:16 8:4 9:11 as well as of Amos who long before had foretold the ruin of the king of Damascus, in these words.
``I will send a fire upon the house of Hazael, which shall consume the palaces of Benhadad and I will break in pieces the bars of Damascus and root out the inhabitants of the valley of Aven, and him that beareth the sceptre out of the house of Eden and the people of Syria shall be carried away into Assyria, saith the Lord,'' Am 1:4,5
605. So the kingdom of Damascus, of Hamath came to an end. (Am 6:2 and of Arpad, Jer 49:23 Isa 10:9 36:19 37:12,13) This kingdom began with a man called Rezon, 1Ki 11:23,24 and ended with one of the same name. It lasted for 10 generations, as Nicol. Damascenes, cited by Josephus, l. 7. Antiquit. c. 6. affirms. See note 2960 A.M.
606. When Ahaz went to meet Tiglathpileser at Damascus, he congratulated him for his great victory. He saw there an altar and he sent the pattern of it to Uriah, the priest, so that he might make one like it in Jerusalem. When he returned, he and the people offered their sacrifices on it. He moved the brazen altar far from the front of the house so that it would not stand between his altar and the house of the Lord. 2Ki 16:1-20
607. NK - When Ahaz implored the aid of the kings of Assyria, (as it is said in 2Ch 28:16 "kings" in the plural, by a usual analogy, or change of the number, Ps 105:30 Jer 19:3 25:22 Isa 1:52) against Pekah, Tiglathpileser came. He led away the people of Gilead or Peraea, to wit, the Reubenites and the Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh, to Habor and Hara and the river Gozan. When he then passed over Jordan, he occupied Galilee and carried away all the inhabitants of Naphtali, who Benhadad had left, together with the men of Galilee into Assyria. 1Ch 5:26 2Ki 15:29 1Ki 15:20 Isa 9:1
3265c AM, 3975 JP, 739 BC, 4 SK, 1 NK
608. SK - When Ahaz had now made himself a servant to the king of Assyria, then he found that he had received more harm than help from him. 2Ch 28:20,21 Isaiah had previously intimated to him of this using the allegory:
``The Lord shall shave off the hair of thy head and feet with an hired razor, from beyond the river, even the king of Assyria, and it shall also consume the beard.'' Isa 7:20
609. Therefore Ahaz built a secret passage between the king's house to the house of the Lord because he feared the king of Assyria. 2Ki 16:18 Tremelius understands this to mean that for fear lest the king of Assyria would assault him from that way and break into his palace. In the midst of all of his afflictions, he sinned still more and more against the Lord. 2Ch 28:22
610. NK - When Hoshea, the son of Elah, murdered Pekah the son of Remaliah, he took over the kingdom 20 years after Jotham started to reign over Judah, 2Ki 15:30-38 or the 4th year of the reign of Ahaz. See Gill on "2Ki 15:30" However the kingdom was in civil disorder and anarchy for nine years and Hoshea had a troubled reign.
3269 AM, 3979 JP, 735 BC, 8 SK, 5 NK
611. Candaules, whom the Greek authors call, as Herodotus said, Myrsylus, the son of Myrsus was the last of the family of the Heraclydae. He reigned in Lydia for 17 years. (Euseb. Chron.)
3271 AM, 3981 JP, 733 BC, 10 SK, 7 NK
612. Nadius, or Nabius reigned over the Babylonians for 2 years. (Ptol. in Reg. Canone.)
3273c AM, 3983 JP, 731 BC, 12 SK, 9 NK
613. Chinzirus and Porus, reigned over the Babylonians, 5 years. (Ptol. in Reg. Canone.)
3274c AM, 3984 JP, 730 BC, 13 SK, 1 NK
614. NK - When Hoshea restored order in Israel, he began a peaceful reign in the latter end of the 12th year of Ahaz king of Judah. 2Ki 17:1
3276b AM, 3986 JP, 728 BC, 14 SK, 2 NK
615. NK - Tiglathpileser or Ninus the younger reigned for 19 years according to Castor and died. After him came Shalmaneser, called Evemassar as in the Greek copy of Tobias. This man seems to be that Shalman, who in the prophesy of Ho 10:14 is said to have laid waste Betharbel. The place was famous later for the defeat of Darius the Persian. This is the country of Arbella, in the land of Assyria, beneath Arpad. Against Hoshea, king of Israel, Shalmaneser came up. He made him to serve and pay him tribute. 2Ki 17:3
3277c AM, 3987 JP, 727 BC, 1,16 SK, 4 NK
616. After Sabacon, an Ethiopian, had taken Boccoris king of Egypt alive, he burnt him in the fire and reigned in his place 8 years. (Affica.)
617. SK - In the last year of his reign, Ahaz made his son Hezekiah viceroy with him in the kingdom. This was in the latter end of the third year of Hoshea king of Israel. Hezekiah reigned 29 years in Jerusalem. 2Ki 18:1,2
3278a AM, 3987 JP, 727 BC
618. Jugaeus or Julaeus, reigned over the Babylonians 5 years, (Ptol. reg. Canon.)
3278b AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC
619. SK - Ahaz died in this year. The prophet Isaiah foretold the destruction of the Philistines (who at that time, unjustly held a part of Judah, as was shown before, in the 3264th AM.) Isa 14:28-32 Likewise he predicted a great disaster to happen to the Moabites within three years. Isa 15:1-16:14 For fulfilment of these prophesies, see 3280 AM and 3284 AM.
3278c AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC, 1 SK
620. SK - After Ahaz died, Hezekiah, toward the latter end of the first year of his reign in the first month Abib, opened the doors of the Lord's house which his father had shut up. 2Ch 28:24 He commanded the priests and Levites to sanctify themselves and then to clean up the temple. 2Ch 29:3,4
621. They were encouraged by Hezekiah and on the first day of the first month, (Sunday, April 21st) they sanctified themselves. According to the king's command, came to cleanse the house of the Lord. On the 8th day of the some month, (Sunday, April 28th.) they entered into the porch of the temple and sanctified the house of the Lord for 8 days. On the 16th day of the first month, (Sunday, May 6th.) they finished that work. 2Ch 29:15-17
622. Early next morning (Monday, May 6th.), king Hezekiah called together all the rulers of the city. He went up into the house of the Lord together with the people. With the ministry of the priests and Levites, he offered many sacrifices upon the altar of the Lord with great joy and gladness. 2Ch 29:20-36
623. According to the law in Nu 9:10,11, the passover was delayed until the second month for the following reasons. The passover could not be kept at the same time when that meeting and the cleansing of the temple was being done. The number of sanctified priests was not enough. All the people were not gathered together from all the country to Jerusalem. Notice was sent to all the people from Beersheba even to Dan. Not only the Jews, but some also out of the tribes of Asher, Manasseh and Zebulun, came together in Jerusalem. The rest of the tribes laughed at the notice. 2Ch 30:1-12 The altars for idols and of incense were destroyed first and then thrown into the brook Kidron. They killed the Pascal lambs on the 14th day of the second month, (Sunday, June 3rd.) They kept the feast of unleavened bread for 7 days. They offered their sacrifices of thanksgiving and sang praises to the God of their fathers. 2Ch 30:13-22 As further testimony of their thankfulness to God, they continued 7 more days. This time was kept and celebrated with great glee and joy of heart. 2Ch 30:23
624. When they had finished these activities, then all the Israelites, who were present there, about the end of the second month, went out into all the cities of Judah. They broke down the images and cut down the groves and destroyed the high places and altars throughout Ephraim and Manasseh until they had finished the work. When this was done, the Israelites returned home. 2Ch 31:1
625. Hezekiah went further. He broke in pieces the very brazen serpent that Moses had set up Nu 21:9 because in those days the Israelites burnt incense to it. In contempt of it, he called it by a diminutive term, "Nehushtan", "a little piece of brass." 2Ki 18:4 He appointed the priests and Levites to their duties. He provided for them food and maintenance by establishing again the law of first fruits and tithes. 2Ch 31:1-21
626. On the 3rd month, every man brought in their first fruits and tithes and gave them to the priests. 2Ch 31:5-7
3279a AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC
627. SK - In the 7th month after the harvest of the fruits of the whole year was completed, Ex 29:16 the collection of the first fruits and tithes was completed. 2Ch 31:7 Hezekiah appointed officers for the proper distribution of them. 2Ch 31:1-21
3279b AM, 3989 JP, 725 BC, 3 SK, 6 NK
628. NK - Hoshea the king of Israel, consulted beforehand with So king of Egypt and refused to pay tribute any longer to Shalmaneser. 2Ki 17:4
629. This So or Sua, as Jerome calls him, seems to be none other then Sabacon the Ethiopian.
630. Chrysostome, in his 30th Homile on John, says that this Hoshea made an alliance with the Ethiopians. Severus Sulpicius, in his sacred History l.1 says
``that he allied with the kings of the Ethiopians, who at that time, held the kingdoms of Egypt.''
3280b AM, 3990 JP, 724 BC, 4 SK, 7 NK
631. NK - When Shalmaneser knew that Hoshea had allied himself with the king of Egypt, he first secured all the land of the Moabites. So that he might have no enemy at his rear to annoy his army, he razed to the ground their two chief cities, Arnon and Kirhareseth. This fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah foretold three years earlier. Isa 16:7-11 See Tremellius on this. Then he went through and wasted all the land of Israel and marched toward Samaria in the 4th year of Hezekiah. In the 7th year of Hoshea, he besieged Samaria for 3 years, 2Ki 17:4-6 18:9
3283 AM, 3993 JP, 721 BC, 6 SK, 9 NK
632. After Nabonasser's 26 year reign, Mardocempadus began to reign in Babylon for 12 years according to Ptolemy's Reg. Canon. By the prophet Isaiah, Merodach Baladan, is called the son of Baladan, Isa 39:1 as being Belesis, or the son, or according to a most usual Hebrewism, nephew of Nabonasar. In Mardocempadus' first year the moon was eclipsed at Babylon, according to Ptolemy in his 4th book of his great Syntaxis, c. 6. This was in the 27th of Nabonasar, 29th of the month Thoth, as the Egyptians call it, (that is toward the end of our March 19th) two and an half hours before midnight.
633. NK - Toward the end of the 3rd year of the siege of Samaria, in the 6th year of the reign of Hezekiah and 9th of Hoshea, Shalmaneser took Samaria. He carried away the Israelites into his own country and settled them in Halah, Habor and the river Gozan and in the cities of the Medes. Tiglathpileser had formerly transported to this place the inhabitants of Perea, or the two tribes and a half living on the other side Jordan. 1Ch 5:26 2Ki 17:6 8:10,11 Anarchy was in Media before the kingdom of Media was taken by "Deioces". This gave occasion to the Assyrians to invade and take over that whole country. This was the place where Tobit or Tobias the elder states that he at this time with Anna his wife and his country men, the Nepthalites, were carried away into the land of the Assyrians. There they provided grain and other food for Shalmaneser's household. Also he was carried into Media and there placed in a principal city of Media called Rages. There he deposited ten talents of silver in the hand and trust of Gabael his near kinsman and one that was carried away captive with him to the same place. /APC Tob 1:22 This was the end of the kingdom of Israel after if revolted from the kingdom of Judah 254 years earlier.
3284b AM, 3994 JP, 720 BC
634. In the second year of Merodach's reign, there was another eclipse of the moon in Babylon. This happened in the 28th year of Nabonasar, on the 18th day of the month of Thoth, at midnight. The Julian calendar dates it on Saturday, March 9th. Exactly 176 days and 20 and an half hours later, a third eclipse of the moon took place. This occurred on the 15th day of the month Phamenoth Sunday, September 1st. three hours and an half before midnight. (Ptolemy l. 4. Magn. Syntax, c. 6, and 7.)
3285 AM, 3995 JP, 719 BC
635. Seuechus the Ethiopian, Sabacon's son, reigned in Egypt for 14 years. (African,) He seems to also be called Sethos, priest to Vulcan who is mentioned by Herodotus in his second book c. 141.
3286 AM, 3996 JP, 718 BC
636. When Candaules indecently exposed his wife to his courtier named Gyges the son of Dascylus, his wife ordered Gyges to murder him. As a result he married the wife of the murdered king and took over the kingdom of Lydia. This is mentioned in a poem by Archilocus from the Isle of Paros, who lived at the same time. So the kingdom of Lydia went from the clan of the Heraclidae into the clan of Merduades. This clan ruled it for 170 years. Gyges himself reigned 18 years. (Herod. l.1.) Gyges was but a bondslave as appears by that saying of Cresus his grandchild in Xenophon, (Justit.Cyri. l. 7.)
``I understand that the first of my ancestors that here reigned, was made a king and a free man both at the same time.''
637. Plato in his 2 de Repub. states that he was master of the king's cattle and his name was Gyges. In the eastern dialect this seems to have been Gug, or Gog.
3287 AM, 3997 JP, 717 BC
638. When Gyges took over the kingdom, he sent various large offerings to Delphi. He made war upon Miletus and Smyrna and took the city of Colophos by force. (Herod. l. 1. c. 17.)
639. When the Gitteans revolted, Eluleus king of Tyre, sailed there and subjected them again. Shalmaneser the king of Assyria marched with his army and invaded all Phoenicia and came against Tyre. Shortly after he made peace with them and returned home again. Not long after, Sidon and Ace (called later Ptolomais) and Poletyrus or old Tyrus, with various other cities defected from the Tyrians to the Assyrians. When only the Tyrians now stood against him, he returned a second time. In this action the Phoenicians furnished him with 60 ships, and 800 sailors. The Tyrians attacked this fleet with only 12 ships, routed all the navy and took 500 prisoners. By this the Tyrians obtained a good reputation as a naval force. Shalmaneser returned to besiege Tyre. He set guards by the river and conduits which served the city and cut them off. This hindered them from getting water. They held out for five years and at last were forced to dig wells within their city walls to get water. This is from Menander of Ephesus, in his Chronicles, translated into Greek, from the Tyrian Annals, cited by Joseph. 9. Antiq. c. ult. Eluleus is called Ayluleus by Rufinus an ancient Latin historian. Hence Scaliger calls him Eliseus. I disagree with him in this that he here says that the Cyprians were by Menander called Kitteans. However he by the name of Gitteans, understood indeed the inhabitants of Gitta, or Gath well known by that name in the Bible. 2Sa 15:18 21:19 1Sa 17:4 These were also added to Judah by Hezekiah in the very time of this Eluleus or Eliseus, as may be gathered from Josephus. He says that Hezekiah made war on the Philistines and defeated them. He added all their cities (except one) and country from Gath to Gaza to the kingdom of Judah. (9. Antiq. cap ult.) Also from 2Ki 15:18 18:8 Hezekiah smote the Philistines as far as Gaza and its territories. Isaiah prophesied against the Tyrians who at this time were grown proud and insolent by reason of their wealth and success in wars. Isa 23:1
640. When Shalmaneser died, his son Sennacherib reigned in his stead. /APC Tob 1:18 Herodotus in l. 2. calls him the king both of Assyria and Arabia too. It could be at that time that the Assyrians ruled over Peraea, or the land of Gilead and Hamath, or Ituraea and held also a part of Arabia, either Petraea, or Deserta. For that Ivah, or Ava, which Sennacherib boasted much of seems to have been conquered by him or his ancestors. 2Ki 18:34 19:13 Isa 37:13 This was a country lying in the desert of Arabia, Fram. Junius affirms based on 2Ki 17:24. The prophet Isaiah foretold the calamity which was to fall upon the Moabites by Shalmaneser, (of which I spoke in 3278 AM. and 3280 AM.). This is taken from Bersus' History of the Chaldeans as cited by Josephus. (lib. 10. c. 1.) He says that Sennacherib reigned in Assyria and also that he waged a fierce war on all Asia and Egypt.
3291c AM, 4001 JP, 713 BC
641. This war of his upon Egypt lasted 3 whole years and Palestina also joined with him in the war. This is deduced from Isa 20:1-6. Isaiah is told to take off his coat of hairy cloth (belonging to his prophetic function, as in Zec 13:4) from his loins and his shoes from his feet. He was commanded to walk up and down naked and bare foot for 3 years for a sign to the Egyptians and Ethiopians. This intimated that when that time expired, they likewise would be stripped of their clothes and go bare foot into captivity and bondage by the king of Assyria. This command the prophet is said to have received in the year when Tartan was sent by Sargon king of Assyria and besieged Ashdod and took it. Isa 20:1 Sargon is also called Sennacherib. Taran was one of his commanders. 2Ki 18:17 By Ashdod, that famous city Azotus, a city of the Philistines, we showed before from Josephus that it was conquered by king Hezekiah.
642. Hezekiah had shaken off the king of Assyria's yoke (which his father Ahaz had taken) and would no longer serve him. 2Ki 17:7 In the 14th year of his reign, toward the end of it, Sennacherib, came up against the kingdom of Judah. He besieged their fortified cities and took many of them. Isa 36:1 2Ki 18:13 2Ch 32:2 When Hezekiah perceived that he intended also to attack Jerusalem, he consulted with his princes. He plugged up all the fountains that were around the city and diverted the brook Kidron which ran through the region. Then he built up all that part of the wall which Joash the king of Israel had demolished in the time of Amaziah. He fortified the house of David, and provided arrows and shields in great abundance and set captains and colonels over the people. He called them together and he made a very short speech to them. He persuaded them to be of good courage and not to have any fear of the king of Assyria nor of his army. 2Ch 32:2-8,30
643. In those days when Hezekiah was very sick he was told by Isaiah that he would die. He poured out his tears and prayers to God and he was healed. Another 15 years were added to his life. Isa 38:1,5,21 2Ki 2:1,7 2Ch 32:24 He composed a song. First he showed the seriousness of his illness and the anxiety he had. He told of his prayer to God and then acknowledged the great benefit of his recovery received from God. Lastly he testified his faith in God, and promised to be everlastingly thankful to him.
644. It is true that in the scripture this is recorded after the story of the slaughter of Sennacherib and his army. However not precisely but with a general annotation only of the time, "In those days." For this happened before his sickness, these scriptures plainly show.
``I will add unto thy days fifteen years and will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Assyria and I will defend this city.''
645. Isa 38:5,6 2Ki 20:6 Now if we subtract from the 29 years which Hezekiah reigned, these 15 years, we shall find that the slaughter of Sennacherib and his army happened in the latter end of the 14th year of his reign.
646. The sign of Hezekiah's recovery which God at his request gave to him, was that miraculous going back of the shadow of the sun, upon the dial of Ahaz as recorded in Isa 38:8
``Behold I will bring again the shadow of the degrees, which is gone down in the sundial of Ahaz, 10 degrees backward, so the sun returned ten degrees, by which degrees it was gone down.''
647. As Jonathan the Chaldee Paraphraser interprets, "the stone of the hours" and renders it by the hours of the clock. Yet in his commentary on this passage he observes that the Hebrew word signifies degrees. Also in 2Ki 20:9 he states:
``wilt thou that the shadow ascend 10 degrees, or that it return back 10 degrees?''
648. Nor may we ignore the Greek LXX interpretation of this passage since it is more ancient than any of these writings. It states that by these words used here, no other thing is meant in this history but the degrees of those scales or stairs which were made by Ahaz. Since it cannot be shown that until after their return from the captivity of Babylon, there was any observation or use at all of hours among the Jews. Others also attribute the invention of the Gnomon in the dial among the Greeks to men of a later date as Anaximadder or Anaximener. This I shall show later in the note on 3457 AM. However it seems that they received it originally from the Babylonians as noted by Herodotus, when he says, (lib. 2. c. 109.)
``The pole and the dial and the dividing of the day into twelve hours, all these the Greeks learned from the Babylonians.''
649. As concerning the retrograde motion of the Sun as mentioned in, Isa 38:8 /APC Sir 48:23 it is when the sun stood still at the prayer of Joshua the moon also stood still at the same time. Jos 10:12,13 It is apparent that with the sun the moon also, and all the frame of heaven went backward and that there was as much subtracted from the night, as there was added to the day. There was a miraculous alteration in the parts of the normal day. By divine providence things were so ordered that no harm or hinderance did happen to the constant and ever self-like motion and harmony of the heavenly bodies. This is evident by those three solar eclipses, of which I spoke earlier, from Ptolemy. The account of these if calculated from our times backward yields the same result of the times as was formerly observed by the Chaldeans and in the same manner as if no such retrogradation or going back of the sun had ever happened.
650. Now in the beginning of the 15th year of Hezekiah's reign, Merodach, or Berodach Baladan, the son Baladan, the king of Babylon, sent messengers with presents to him. They wanted to know the reason for the miraculous retrogradation of the sun which happened in the world. Hezekiah from pride and vain ostentation showed them all his treasures and pomp of riches. God presently foretold him of the captivity of Babylon which was to happen:
``Behold the days come, that all that is in thine house and that which thy fathers have laid up in store until this day, shall be carried away into Babylon; nothing shall be left, saith the Lord.''
651. He added further that his sons which were not yet born should also be carried into captivity.
``Thy sons also, that shall issue from thee and which thou shalt beget, shall they take away and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon,''Isa 39:1-8 2Ki 20:12-19
652. Nevertheless when Hezekiah with the inhabitants of Jerusalem, had humbled himself for his former pride, the fierce wrath of the Lord fell not upon them in the days of Hezekiah. 2Ch 32:25,26,31
653. Micah also the Morasthite, prophesied to the people in Hezekiah's days:
``That Zion should be plowed and Jerusalem laid in heaps and the mountain itself of the house of the Lord, as the high places in a forest'' Mic 3:12 Jer 26:18,19
(The important thing to note is that the earlier eclipse data was not disturbed by the events in Hezekiah's day. Whatever happened, effected at the very least the sun, earth and moon system. God made time go backward not just have the earth rotate backward. Otherwise the eclipse data would be thrown off for eclipses that occurred before Hezekiah's event happened. An undesigned coincidence in the sciptures verifies their authority. Of all the people in the world, it is only recorded that the Chaldeans visited Hezekiah. They were very careful in noting astronomical events and had noticed something strange as far away as Babylon. They no doubt heard that Hezekiah had something to do with it and hence they went to him to learn more of this event. In 331 BC they turned over 1903 years of astronomical observations to Callisthenes when Alexander the Great was in Babylon. Editor)
3292 AM, 4002 JP, 712 BC
654. Memnon writes that Astacum in Bithynia, was built by the Megarenses, in the beginning of the 17th Olympiad. (Biblioth Photii. p. 347.)
655. Herodotus, (lib. 2. c. 141.) tells us, that Sennacherib invaded Egypt, with a vast army and made war upon Sethon, the priest of Vulcan. This man was a weak king and famous for nothing except for being devoutly or rather superstitiously addicted to the worship of his petty god, Vulcan. Herodotus also adds that even in his time, there remained a stone image of Sethon holding a mouse in his hand. These words were engraved on the statue.
``Let every man that looks on me, Learn godly and devout to be.''
656. For his and their countries and their own priesthood's honour, the priests in that area expound it this way. Sethon who was both king and priest, had by virtue of his piety and prayers to his god Vulcan prevailed with the god. For when Pelussum, which stands in the very entrance of Egypt was besieged by the enemy, their horse bridles, and buckles of their buckler, were so gnawn to pieces by mice that the next day they fled with the loss of many of their men. However, whatever the matter was at Pelusium, the undoubted word of the prophet assures us, that the Assyrians marched far into the very heart of Egypt and led away a great many captives.
657. Nahum's prophecy against No was likely fulfilled by this expedition of Sennacherib's. No was a large and strong city in Egypt. The prophecy was:
``yet was she carried away; she went into captivity, her young children also were dashed in pieces in the top of every street, and they cast lots for their honourable men and all her great men were bound in chains'' Na 3:10
3294c AM, 4004 JP, 710 BC
658. The prophecy made by Isaiah 3 years earlier concerning the rest of Egypt was fulfilled at this time. Isa 24:1-23
``The king of Assyria shall carry away a great multitude of the Egyptians captive; and of the Ethiopians young and old prisoners, naked and barefoot'':
659. I do not see why the next two verses should not refer to the Jews.
``And they shall be ashamed of Ethiopia their expectation and of Egypt their glory: and the inhabitants of this country shall say in that day: Behold such is our expectation, whither we flee for help to be delivered from the king of Assyria and how shall we escape?'' Isa 20:5,6
660. The Assyrian messenger had a good reason to remind them of Egypt when he said:
``Now behold, you trust in the staff of this bruised reed Egypt, on which if a man lean, it will go into his hand and pierce it; for even so is Pharaoh, to all such as trust upon him,'' 2Ki 18:27
661. For we find the same simile used by God of the Egyptians and Israelites, in Eze 29:6,7 and in Isa 30:1-31:9. Here many things were spoken against the vain hope which the Jews had of help from Egypt.
``Therefore, saith he, shall the strength of Pharaoh be your shame, and your trust in the shadow of Egypt your confusion, for the Egyptians shall help in vain and to no purpose: therefore have I cried concerning this, Their strength is to stay at home.'' Isa 30:3,7
662. When Sennacherib returned from Egypt into Palestine, he besieged Lachish with all his forces. 2Ch 32:9 Hezekiah sent to him at Lachish to buy his peace and agreed with him for peace at a certain price. Therefore he drained all his own treasure of which he had formerly been so proud as well as the treasury of the temple. He paid him 300 talents of silver and 30 talents of gold. When he took the money, he broke his agreement and sent from Lachish to Jerusalem Tartan, who had now taken Azotus and Rabsaris and Rabshakeh with a large army. 2Ki 18:14-17
663. When these came to Jerusalem, they stood at the conduit of the upper pool by the highway of the fullers field. After they called out to speak with the king, Eliakim, the son of Hilkiah and Shebna the recorder went out to them. When they would not surrender the city, Rabshakeh then cried out that Hezekiah did vainly rely on God for help and that he himself was sent by God. After he reviled the God of Israel and Hezekiah his servant with many reproachful sayings, he tried to make the people rebel and defect to the king of Assyria. This they spoke loudly in the Hebrew language so that the people who stood on the wall might hear and understand what they said. This they did to frighten and cause them anxiety so that in the resulting tumult they might easily assault and take the city. Isa 36:1-22 2Ki 18:17-37 2Ch 32:9-18
664. When Hezekiah heard of this, he tore his clothes, put on sackcloth and went into the house of the Lord. He sent Eliakim, Shebna and the elders of the priests, clothed likewise in sackcloth, to Isaiah the prophet. They asked him to seek counsel of God for this sad situation and to pray to God for help. The prophet encouraged them. He said that after the king of Assyria heard a rumour, he would lift his siege and return to his country and be murdered. This all came to pass. Isa 37:1-7 2Ki 19:1-7
665. When Rabshakeh could not take Jerusalem, he returned to Sennacherib. He left Lachish and besieged Libnah. Isa 37:8 2Ki 19:8
666. Tirhakah king of Ethiopia did not invade Egypt and Syria as Scaliger groundlessly asserts in his notes on Eusibius (p. 72.) and in his Isagogical Canons, page 311. Rather he sent forces to assist and help the Egyptians and Jews. For the Scripture is clear, that he came to fight against Sennacherib. Isa 37:9 2Ki 19:9 This Tirhakah, Strabo (lib. 1. and 15.) calls, Tearcon the Ethiopian and further notes from Megasthenes, a writer of the history of India, that he passed over into Europe and went as far as the pillars of Hercules.
667. When Sennacherib at Libnah heard a report of Tirhakah coming, he sent his commander with railing letters to Hezekiah. He spoke of the God of Israel as if he were like one of the gods of the nations, mere works of men's hands. Hezekiah took it before the Lord in his temple and with many tears sought help and deliverance from God against the Assyrians. God answered him by Isaiah the prophet. He said that God would defend that city and that the king of Assyria should not so much as come there, but should return by the way he came. Isa 37:9-35 2Ki 19:9-34 2Ch 32:17,19,20
668. The very same night after these things happened at Jerusalem and a few days after his victory over the Ethiopians which happened about this time as some gather from, Isa 18:1-19:25 God sent his angel to their camp. He destroyed every man of valour, every commander, and chief man in the Assyrian army. The next morning there were found 185,000 dead men. After this Sennacherib shamefully broke camp and returned into his own land to rest at Nineveh. It came to pass that as he was worshipping before his god Nisroch, Adrammelech and Sharezer slew him with the sword. They fled immediately into the land of Ararat, or Armenia. and Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead. Isa 37:36-38 2Ki 19:35-37 2Ch 32:21 All this was foretold by the prophet. Isa 38:1-22 31:8,9
669. In the first chapter of the book of Tobit, there are these things found which belong to this story. When Sennacherib fled from Judah, he slew many of the Jews for the hatred he had toward the Israelites. Tobit, or Tobia the elder, stole away the dead bodies and gave them a proper burial. When he was accused of this to the king of Nineveh, he fled into hiding for a time. They plundered and spoiled of all his goods leaving him only Anne his wife and Tobias his son. After 45 days, or as the Greek copy has it, before 55 days, Sennacherib was murdered by his sons. When they fled into the mountains of Ararat, Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead. Some copies incorrectly call him Achirdon or Sarchedon. The new king set Achiacarus, the son of Hananeel, Tobit's brother, over all his father's affairs and his own. He was his steward and keeper of his accounts and the cupbearer having the privy seal and was the second man after the king.
670. Hezekiah had his son Manasseh, by Hephzibah, 3 years after his life was lengthened and 12 years before his death.
671. The Medes had up until now lived without a king. After Dejoces would not judge their causes and controversies any longer, civil disorder ensued. The Assyrians used this occasion to take possession of many cities and places in Media as I noted before on 3283 AM. The people did not like the resulting anarchy and they submitted unanimously to Dejoces. This was 150 years before Cyrus began his reign as Herodotus in his first book states quoting from Ctesias on this point. Both Dionysius, Halicarnasseus and Appianus Alexandrinus, in the beginning of his Roman Histories agree. Though Diodorus Siculus, in his second book, whether through faulty memory or poor copying puts Cyazaris for Dejoces. He is said to have been elected king over the Medes, about the second year of the 17th Olympiad according to Herodotus. For subtracting 150 years from the beginning of the reign of Cyrus which he supposed happened in the beginning of the 55th Olympiad results in the middle of the year 4154 JP or 560 BC. It follows that the 1st year of Dejoces the first king of the Medes must be in the 3rd year of the 17th Olympiad in the middle of the year 4004 JP. This allowed the latter end of the second year of the same Olympiad to have been spent in the transaction of this business and election of the new king. This is the first epoch or point of the beginning of this new kingdom of the Medes. Herodotus correctly determined and recorded this fact. The precise times of every king's reign when compared with the eclipse of the sun, which happened in the reign of Cyaxares described later in the 3403 AM. will be shown as we proceed.
3295a AM, 4004 JP, 710 BC
672. The 15th Jubilee which was the middle most of all the jubilees, was the most joyful except for the one at Solomon's dedication of the temple. The fresh memory of so great a deliverance and for the prosperity that happened made this one of the best jubilees ever. Many brought offerings and gifts to the Lord at Jerusalem and rich presents for the king. He was magnified later among all nations, and prospered in whatever he undertook to do. 2Ch 32:23,27,30
673. After this great deliverance God prospered Judah greatly. 2Ch 32:22 Isa 37:31,32 That this was a jubilee is necessary to understand the sign of God's mercy given the year before to Hezekiah:
``You shall eat saith God, this year, that which groweth of itself, the second year, that which springeth of the same; and in the third year, sow ye and reap ye and plant vineyards and eat of the fruit thereof, Isa 37:30 2Ki 19:29
674. The previous year's harvest was either gathered by the enemy which roved all over the country, (according to God's threatening, Le 27:16 De 28:33 Jer 5:17) or spoiled and trodden underfoot by them. It would be necessary for the people to live that year upon that which grew by itself. Because this year was a Jubilee, it was not lawful either to sow or reap. Otherwise, if no Sabbatical year intervened, they might have done this. Since the Assyrian army was destroyed by the angel, there was nothing to hinder them from planting a crop. But the following year when there was neither enemy to frighten them, nor Sabbatical year to prevent them, they might legally resume farming as at other times.
3295b AM, 4005 JP, 709 BC
675. After Mardosempadus, or Merodach Baladan had reigned 12 years in Babylon, he was succeeded by Arkianus in the 29th year of Nabonaser and reigned 5 years (Ptol. in Reg. Can.)
676. According to Eusub. Chron., Parion in the coast of Hellespont, near to Lampsacus was built or rather re-established by the Milesians and Erythreans who sent a colony there at this time.