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Below are the basic formulas involved game mechanics where dice rolling is concerned. Bear in mind that all the formulas below can also have various miscellaneous bonuses factored in based on Feats, Racial Bonuses, Magic Bonuses, etc. When rolling, a 20 is always a Critical Success (what that translates to depends on the type of roll), and a 1 is always a Critical Failure (again, what that translates to depends on the type of roll).

First off, here's a brief terminology listing:
BAB = Base Attack Bonus; BSB = Base Save Bonus; Mod = Modifier

There will also be a small section dedicated to various subjects which Skip Williams, the Great Sage of WotC, has been touching up on, such as Sneak Attacks and Movement, all neatly compiled from the original articles. Very useful to answer any questions you may have on the mechanics of certain topics. Worth a look. If you interested please check this Article Listings

I'll be adding in various basic combat options, such as Feint, Disarm, and the like to this page later.


  • Initiative = 1d20 + DEX Mod

  • Melee Attack Roll = 1d20 + BAB + STR Mod + Size Mod

  • Ranged Attack Roll = 1d20 + BAB + DEX Mod + Size Mod + Range Penalty


  • Armor Class = 10 + Armor Bonus + Shield Bonus + DEX Mod + Size Mod

  • Touch Armor Class = 10 + DEX Mod + Size Mod

  • Flat-Footed Armor Class = 10 + Armor Bonus + Shield Bonus + Size Mod


  • FORT Save = 1d20 + BSB + CON Mod

  • REF Save = 1d20 + BSB + DEX Mod

  • WILL Save = 1d20 + BSB + WIS Mod


  • Spell Save DC = 10 + Spell Level + Caster's Relevant Ability Mod

  • Caster Level Check (vs. Spell Resistance) = 1d20 + Caster Level

Page Last Updated Feburary 13th, 2005


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