Table of Contents and Chapter Excerpt

TABLE of CONTENTS

Preface ... 1

PART I The Major Virtues / Values

1. An Introduction to the Foundations for Value Ethics 3
2. The Virtues, Values, and Ideals .....13
3. The Behavioural Foundations for the Virtuous Realm ...... 21
4. The Personal Ideals / Cardinal Virtues .... 35
5. The Civil Liberties / Theological Virtues ........ 45
6. The Ecumenical Ideals / Greek Values ..... 55
7. The Humanistic / Mystical Values ..... 63
8. The Accessory Virtues, Values, and Ideals ..... 73
9. The General Themes for the Virtues and Values . 89

PART II The Lesser Virtues

10. An Introduction to the Transitional Power Maneuvers .. 101
11. The Individual Lesser Virtues (I) .... 107
12. The Lesser Virtues (II) .... 125

PART III The Vices of Defect

13. An Introduction to the Vices of Defect ...... 143
14. The Past-Directed Domain of Defect .. 155
15. The Future-Directed Vices of Defect ...... 161
16. The Humanitarian Domain of Defect ...... 167
17. The Transcendental Realm of Defect ..... 173
18. The Accessory Counterparts for the Vices of Defect .. 179
19. The Transitional Foundations for Criminality .. 197

PART IV Applications to Information Technology

20. Applications to Artificial Intelligence .. 209
21. Ethical Safeguards for the AI Agent .. 215

PART V The Vices of Excess

22. An Introduction to the Vices of Excess .. 221
23. The Individual Vices of Excess ..... 231

PART VI The Realm of Mental Illness

24. The Communicational Factors for Mental Illness .. 243
25. The Personality Disorders and Neuroses (Part-A) .... 253
26. A General Overview of the Psychoses ..... 259
27. The Past-Directed Realm of the Mood Disorders .... 265
28. The Future-Directed Realm of the Mood Disorders ... 271
29. The Past-Directed Realm of Systematic Schizophrenia ... 277
30. The Future-Directed Realm of Schizophrenia . 285
31. The Classifications of Mental Illness (Type B) ..... 293
32. The Cycloid Forms of the Mood Disorders .. 307
33. The Unsystematic Forms of Schizophrenia . 313
34. Applications to Clinical Diagnosis & Psychotherapy ..... 319

PART VII Hyperviolence / Hypercriminality

35. Hyperviolence: The Realm of Excessive Defect .... 325
36. The Extremes Associated with Hypercriminality ..... 335

PART VIII An Overview of the Ethical Hierarchy

37. Modifications to the Three-Digit Coding System . 345
38. Global Perspectives for the Master Ethical System .355
Index of the Virtues, Values, and Ideals ..... 363
Index of the Vices & the Mental Disorders .. 365
Index of Classical Mythology ... 367
Bibliographic
Index .... 369

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Excerpt

Chapter -- Introduction

Copyright 2005 by John E. LaMuth

See Also AI excerpt - (To Follow)

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... The key to the proposed ethical innovation resides in viewing the individual as the rightful product of his diverse range of social environments. In addition to the most basic one-to-one style of personal interaction, the individual is typically incorporated into a wide range of group contexts (e.g., family, work, school, etc.), as well as some all-encompassing style of spiritual environment. These various contexts, in turn, merge together as a unified social hierarchy, in keeping with the theoretical principles governing the school of Set Theory. Set Theory is clearly in agreement with this three-way specialization, the unit set, the group set, and universal set corresponding to the personal, group, and spiritual levels, respectively.

This concept of a three-level style of set hierarchy is actually nothing new, proposed centuries earlier by the great German philosopher, Emmanuel Kant. In his masterpiece, The Critique of Pure Reason Kant outlines an elaborate system of conceptual categories that he considers crucial to the formation of the human intellect: the most notable being the relevant category of quantity, divided, in turn, into the notions of unity, plurality, and totality. In general terms, these equate to the notions of the one, the many, and the absolute; equivalent in the human social sense to the personal, group, and spiritual levels of the power hierarchy.

This three-level style of conceptual hierarchy, although appealing in its simplicity; differs from Set Theory in that complex interactions between individuals do not exist in a vacuum, but rather are dually specialized into either authority or follower roles, respectively. In the personal realm, this amounts to the personal authority and personal follower roles; extending to the group realm as the dual complement of group authority and group representative roles, followed up by the spiritual authority and spiritual disciple roles of the spiritual realm. A brief description of each of these basic styles of authority/follower interaction is definitely in order, for they collectively serve to outline the proposed grand unification of virtues, values, and ideals initially proposed.

The most basic personal style of interaction refers to the one-to-one style of relationship between individuals, such as seen in one's personal friendships. This interplay is typically specialized into either authority or follower roles; exemplified in the case of the master craftsman (who critically depends upon the faithful services of his willing apprentice). A similar scenario further holds true in the case of the hero and his sidekick, or the celebrity and his straightman. Flexibility is certainly the key factor here, the authority and follower roles reciprocating one another, allowing for an equitable style of relationship. Indeed, the authority figure depends upon the attentions of his follower (as much as the other way around), leading to an effective balance of power within the personal power realm.

This elementary style of personal relationship, in turn, gives way to the equally pervasive notion of group authority. As previously described, the group set surpasses the unit set in its expansion to a multitude of elements (or class members) within a group context. Personal concerns now become subordinate to this group sense of authority, plenty of followers remaining to continue group authority regardless of whether any individual chooses to defect. In a single stroke the group authority sets himself well above any personal power struggles, a strategy exploited since ancient times as the established tradition of tribal-based authority.

Group authority, in turn, is susceptible to its own unique form of follower maneuver, in this case that of the group representative. Indeed, the strike potential of the group representative is most fully realized at this level, witnessed in the modern-day trend towards collective bargaining. By organizing as a union collective, the rank and file picks a shop steward to represent them in their dealings with management. The union representative, in essence, informs the group authority that the cooperation and cohesiveness of the labor pool is crucial for maintaining the group status quo. Here again, the group authority and group representative effectively share an equal balance of power in the group power realm.

A similar scenario necessarily holds true for the next higher spiritual level of authority, although this sense of "spiritual" refers to the restricted sense of the term implicit in set theory. Indeed, this universal set surpasses the multiplicity of the group domain for the sum-totality of all such groups within its domain. This universal set is unique in representing the group of all possible group sets, a third-order style of set hierarchy (equivalent to the domain of all of mankind). Just as group authority surpassed the influence of any of its individual members, so this universal sense of spiritual authority overrules the strike power of any of its constituent groups; hence, claiming supremacy over all mankind. It is true, in practice, that each of the world's religions competes for the preferences of the world's faithful. In theory, however, each religion vigilantly strives to convert all others, lending credence to the ideal (universal) sense of the term. This claim to universality is traditionally made binding through an appeal to a god or a messiah figure. Indeed, this mystical style of sanction dates at least to classical times, when a king could inspire loyalty from his troops in the name of a god of war, far in excess of what he could hope to claim as a mere mortal.

Taking this trend to the limit, even a realm as abstract as the spiritual must (by definition) be susceptible to its own unique form of follower countermaneuver, this time in the role of the spiritual disciple. As a spokesman for the spiritual congregation, the spiritual disciple reminds his authority figure, that without the blessings of the faithful, he (as spiritual authority) will have no one left to minister over. Indeed, witness the power of the apostate or the heretic for influencing such diverse historical events as the Protestant Reformation, and indeed the very founding of Christianity itself.

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THE MASTER SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF ETHICAL GROUPINGS

In summary, this basic three-level hierarchy of personal, group, and spiritual realms; when viewed in terms of both authority and follower roles, finally provides the fundamental conceptual framework for proposing the grand unification of virtues, values, and ideals, as schematically illustrated in Figure one. This master diagram, tentatively termed the "power pyramid," incorporates all of the major ethical groupings described so far, plus an equivalent number of new ones, for a grand total of ten; serving as the basic foundation for the remainder of this book: as shown in the diagram below.

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                                                              Hero-            
          Nostalgia    Guilt                               Worship      Blame

Desire Worry Approval Concern EGO STATES ALTER EGO STATES (Personal Authority) (Personal Follower) Glory Honor Prudence Justice

Dignity Integrity Temperance Fortitude PERSONAL IDEALS CARDINAL VIRTUES (Group Authority) (Group Representative) Providence Liberty Faith Hope

Civility Austerity Charity Decency CIVIL LIBERTIES THEOLOGICAL VIRTUES (Spiritual Authority) (Spiritual Disciple) Grace Free Will Beauty Truth

Magnanimity Equanimity Goodness Wisdom ECUMENICAL IDEALS CLASSICAL GREEK VALUES (Humanitarian Authority) (Humanitarian Follower) Tranquility Equality Ecstasy Bliss

Love Peace Joy Harmony HUMANISTIC VALUES MYSTICAL VALUES (Transcendental Authority) (Transcendental Follower)

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As the captions serve to indicate, the first three levels of this diagram are designated according to the personal, group, and spiritual levels of the power realm, accounting for the most basic groupings of virtues and ideals. The remaining lowermost two levels, however, bring in two hitherto unmentioned categories; namely, the humanitarian and transcendental realms, respectively. Indeed, it is fitting to distinguish this additional complement of levels as uniquely abstract styles of power maneuvers; surpassing the organizational style of structure previously described. A brief description of these latter two levels is definitely in order, for some of the most abstract listings of virtues and values fall under these final two headings.

Although the spiritual realm is clearly the maximum level of organization, in keeping with the traditions of Set Theory; this very sense of chronological time permits the introduction of the even more advanced notion of humanitarian authority into the mix. Indeed, the great theoretical physicist, Albert Einstein defined time as the fourth dimension of the universe, making it seem only fitting that this humanitarian theme would enter into consideration precisely at this fourth-order level of the power hierarchy. Humanitarian authority transcends the spiritual variety by claiming to speak for all generations of mankind, not just the current one; experienced as past traditionalism and/or future potentiality. Its extreme degree of generality precludes its identification with any particular social institution; rather its themes are incorporated into the spiritual (and sometimes political) framework of society as a whole, as relating to ritualism/conservation.

This extreme sense of the pure power of abstraction, when considered in its own right, serves as the basis for one final innovation in the power hierarchy; namely, the crowning transcendental power realm. Transcendental authority regains the upper hand by transcending the routine sense of concreteness shared in common by all of the lower levels, an innovation which proves essential for accounting for the most abstract listings of values in the power hierarchy. This authority perspective freely enters into the esoteric realm of pure intuition and imagination, forsaking the constraints of ordinary reality for the supreme and incontrovertible realm of pure abstraction. Indeed, this transcendental realm (along with the humanitarian variety) is further specialized into the familiar authority and follower roles (for a grand total of four), which together with the six roles specified for the personal, group, and spiritual levels collectively comprise the master ten-level hierarchy depicted in Figure one.

Although basically only an introductory chapter, a few general observations may be made with respect to the distinguishing features of this schematic format. First, the ten listings of virtues, values, and ideals are organized into dual descending columns of five groupings each; the left column representing the hierarchy of authority roles, whereas the right describes the corresponding follower roles. This dual style of schematic format represents the sum-totality of reciprocating interactions between the authority and follower figures, as the directional arrows serve to indicate. This ten-level hierarchy begins with the most elementary personal realm, followed in turn by the group and spiritual levels, respectively. The lowermost two levels represent the most abstract levels of the power hierarchy; namely, the humanitarian/transcendental levels, respectively, as the underlying captions serve to indicate.

The distinctive groupings of virtues and values listed for each individual level exhibit their own distinctive range of distinguishing characteristics; namely, each is represented as a quartet style of schematic format (depicted as quadrants in a pseudo-Cartesian system). Some of the more traditional groupings (such as the cardinal virtues) are already represented as four-part listings, fitting quite nicely into such a quadrant-style of format. Others (such as the theological virtues) have been supplemented beyond their traditional number in order to achieve this quartet-style of status. Still other groupings are entirely new to the philosophical tradition, yet these too respect this quartet-style organization of the power hierarchy.

Just as the distinctive authority levels are seen to build in a hierarchial fashion, so the associated groupings of virtues and values further respect this abstract pattern of organization. These are seen to build from the most elementary (e.g., the ego and alter ego states of the personal level) clear on up to the most abstract listings of the transcendental level (i.e., the humanistic and mystical values). Here the power hierarchy can be seen to run the entire gamut of human experience, from the instinctual to the sublime, and everything in between. A brief description of each of these basic ethical listings is certainly in order here, serving as a basic overview of the more detailed treatment in the chapters to follow.

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THE ELEMENTARY FOUNDATIONS OF THE POWER HIERARCHY

The most basic personal level of power hierarchy is certainly the most rational jumping off point here, making it seem only fitting that the associated motivational terms would share such similar elementary characteristics. According to level one of Figure one, these are respectively designated as the ego states of the personal authority (guilt-worry-nostalgia-desire) and the alter ego states of the personal follower (hero worship-blame-approval-concern). These groupings appear tailor-made for incorporation into the power hierarchy, graciously adapted from the field of self-help psychology; most notably, the best seller Your Erroneous Zones by Dr. Wayne Dyer. Indeed, the intensely personal nature of this self-help field makes its associated terminology particularly effective for specifying the intimate dynamics of this personal power realm. The logical rationale behind their particular assignment, as well as the basic distinction between authority and follower roles, is an undertaking best left for a more detailed treatment in an upcoming chapter.

Although only briefly described, these basic groupings of ego and alter ego states, in turn, serve as the basic foundation for each of the remaining listings of virtues, values, and ideals outlined in Figure one. Indeed, a basic pattern clearly emerges from this diagram; namely, the left-hand column of authority roles is characterized by what are termed the authority ideals: read downwards as the personal ideals, the civil liberties, the ecumenical ideals, and the humanistic values.

The right hand column of follower roles, in turn, specifies a parallel trend based in the realm of the virtues; namely, the cardinal virtues, theological virtues, the classical Greek values, and the mystical values. For consistency's sake, the basic authority trend will be examined in its entirety first, followed by an equally comprehensive description of the remaining sequence of follower roles.

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THE AUTHORITY IDEALS

The first mentioned sequence of authority ideals begins with the most basic "group" level of authority, as represented by the provisionally termed class of "personal ideals" (glory-honor-dignity-integrity). The personal designation of this grouping might appear to represent somewhat of a misnomer, although more properly viewed as ideals in a group sense (according to such a group authority perspective). Indeed, these personal ideals are seen to build in a direct fashion upon the ego states of the personal authority. For instance, the group authority might gloriously act in a nostalgic fashion, or honorably act in a guilty fashion. Similarly, he might also dignifiedly act in a desirous fashion, or worrisomely act with integrity. Indeed, it becomes abundantly clear that this elementary listing of ego states effectively serves to support and modify the more abstract listing of group ideals.

These four personal ideals are all seen to derive from classical Latin roots, highlighting the ancient Romans enduring fascination with the heroic tradition of group leadership. This classical tradition of group authority invokes many symbolisms of royalty and nobility, as particularly reflected in the medieval traditions of the knightly coats of arms; i.e., the circle of glory, the honor point, the cap of dignity, and the animal symbolisms of integrity. Guided by these lofty heraldic symbolisms, the noble knight rightfully aspired to such regal themes (befitting such a leader among men.

The next higher spiritual level of authority rates a similar ethical treatment, designated for the original class of terms provisionally termed the "civil liberties" (providence-liberty-civility-austerity). Each of these themes was prominently featured in the founding of the United States, collectively celebrated in the precepts of the Declaration of Independence. Indeed, this revolutionary document invoked Divine authority as one of its central premises, proposing the universal rights of man in order to overrule the tyrannical edicts of King George III of England. Although this designation of civil liberties suggests more of a political context, further analysis clearly demonstrates the deep spiritual underpinnings of these themes, each of which was worshipped as a classical deity in their own right; e.g., Providentia, Libertas, Civitas, and Auster. In this more advanced context, providence is viewed as the spiritual counterpart of glory, whereas liberty exhibits a similar correspondence to honor. Furthermore, civility amounts to a spiritual refinement of dignity, whereas austerity makes a similar correspondence to integrity.

This universal theme of spiritual authority, in turn, serves as the basic foundation for the even more abstract realm of humanitarian authority (rooted in the novel concept of historical time). This enduring quality of humanitarian authority is clearly represented in its respective listing of motivational terms, provisionally termed the "ecumenical ideals" (grace-free will-magnanimity-equanimity). The traditional significance of these ecumenical ideals certainly fits a common stereotype; namely, timeless themes consistent with such a grand humanitarian perspective. Although somewhat loosely associated with spiritual concerns, a careful examination clearly reveals their true humanitarian significance, as highlighted in the long tradition of ecumenical councils down through the ages (when generational issues were alternately brought into focus).

This grouping enjoyed particular prominence during the Protestant Reformation, when according to the basic tenets of Martin Luther: "For it is by grace ye are saved, through faith." Indeed, these ecumenical ideals clearly add a more enduring historical dimension to the more limited focus of the civil liberties of the spiritual tradition. For instance, grace imparts a more enduring humanitarian significance to providence, whereas free will assigns more of a historical perspective to liberty. Similarly, the remaining themes of magnanimity and equanimity extend a similar traditionalist mindset to the more elementary spiritual qualities of civility and austerity.

The crowning transcendental level of the power hierarchy effectively rounds out this stepwise description of the authority roles. As stated earlier, the transcendental authority perspective formally appeals to the idealized realm of pure abstraction, overruling the power leverage of any of its subordinate authority levels. The crowning transcendental grouping of humanistic values (peace-love-tranquility-equality) rightfully enters into consideration here, ideal abstractions befitting such a lofty transcendental focus. Each of these terms fits the grand traditions of this supreme level; ideals tuned to realms wholly transcending ordinary experience. The humanistic designation was deliberately selected to signify the universal and free form nature of this grouping, alluding to the abstract style of Romanticism born of the Renaissance era.

In keeping with their supreme level of abstraction, the humanistic values traditionally date at least to classical times, each worshipped as an abstract deity in its own right; e.g., Pax (peace), Cupid (love), Quies (tranquillity), and Aequitas (equality). These classical considerations eventually carried over into the Christian era, in turn, serving as the supreme inspiration for many popular modern movements, such as the New England Transcendentalists and the war protest generation of the 60's.

This unprecedented description of the hierarchy of authority ideals, although clearly unprecedented in scope, in turn, sets the stage for the description of the parallel trend based upon the follower roles: a sequence proving equally formidable in both extent and tradition. Just as the authority trend was seen to build in a direct fashion upon the ego states, so the follower sequence takes its origins from the alter ego states, beginning with the well-established tradition of the cardinal/theological virtues.

These two basic categories of virtue have collectively enjoyed a long and distinguished place of honor in the Western ethical tradition. As their names imply, the theological virtues (faith-hope-charity-decency) are restricted to the spiritual disciple role, whereas the cardinal virtues (prudence-justice-temperance-fortitude) by default, represent the group representative role. Indeed, this latter listing of cardinal virtues, directly serves to initiate this higher order style of follower trend; their name deriving from the Latin "cardos" (hinge), based upon the profound belief that all higher virtues hinge upon these basic four. The cardinal virtues, in turn, exhibit direct parallels to the more basic alter ego states, as seen in the strict correspondence between these two basic listings; e.g., prudent-worship, just-blame, temperate-approval, and fortitudinous-concern.

This tradition of the cardinal virtues was first prominently described by the Greek classical philosopher Plato in his fanciful dialogue The Republic. Indeed, these cardinal virtues were the major focal point for this early work, promoted as the proper rules of conduct governing the behavior of constituent groups within Plato's ideal concept of the Greek city-state.

The even more abstract listing of theological virtues (faith-hope-charity-decency) build in a hierarchial fashion upon this basic foundation in the cardinal virtues. The great church theologian, St. Thomas Aquinas viewed the theological virtues as divinely inspired, in direct contrast to the more elementary character of the cardinal virtues (which he considered natural predispositions within the social realm). Befitting their exalted status, the theological virtues are recurrent themes in New Testament scripture; particularly acknowledged by St. Paul (1 Co:13) as the ideal moral principles governing the virtuous conduct of a true disciple of Christ. Although this designation "theological" originally applied only to the first basic three, the addition of the fourth related theme of decency effectively modifies this grouping into a form compatible with its rightful entry into the power hierarchy. This traditional shortfall in the full complement of theological virtues accounts for the great insight missed across the ages; namely, the theological virtues represent the higher spiritual analogues of the cardinal virtues, just as the latter were initially based upon the alter ego states. Here we see the prudent-faith or the blameful-hope for justice professed by the spiritual disciple; along with the temperate sense of the charitableness or fortitudinous sense of decency germane to the discussion.

This convincing style of spiritual disciple perspective, in turn, extends to a realm even as abstract as the humanitarian; in the guise of a role that must respectively termed be "the representative member of humanity." More properly termed the philosopher's maneuver, it favors the prestige involved in speaking for all generations of humanity (not just the current one). In essence, the representative member of humanity reminds the humanitarian authority of his formal sanction from humanity, lest the latter lose his authority in such matters. Indeed, the humanitarian authority perspective was seen to be more of a policy-making strategy than any immediate style of power maneuver. The humanitarian follower, accordingly, maintains the option of rejecting humanitarian policy; hence, maintaining a reciprocal balance of power in the power realm.

The traditionally revered listing of classical Greek values (beauty-truth-goodness-wisdom) rightfully enters into consideration here (the major groupings of virtues already accounted for at the lower levels). Indeed, this notion of value invokes precisely such a humanitarian focus, the immediate sense of virtue now supplanted by the timeless quality of value. Indeed, the classical Greek values date to most ancient of times, celebrated by Plato as the pure forms (or essences) that endure beyond the inherent variability of the physical world. Each of these values was accordingly worshiped as an abstract deity in its own right; e.g., Venus (beauty), Veritas (truth), Bonus Eventus (goodness), and Sapientia (wisdom). Indeed, this classical sense of value represents the supreme fulfillment of the trend previously begun with respect to the hierarchy of cardinal and theological virtues. Here we see the humanitarian perspectives of a beauteous-faith, a just-hope for the truth, a charitable sense of goodness, or a decent sense of wisdom.

Even a level as abstract as the transcendental, must (by definition) be invested with its own unique form of follower countermaneuver; in this case that of the transcendental follower. Despite this extreme level of abstraction, it still proves possible to distinguish a corresponding listing of ethical terms, provisionally termed the "mystical values" (ecstasy-bliss-joy-harmony). Although the particulars of this grouping are scarcely warranted at this juncture, suffice it to say they encompass the enigmatic realm of religious mysticism (tuned to realms wholly transcending ordinary experience).

Indeed, this crowning level of terms effectively closes out this nameable region of the power hierarchy, although it even proves possible to speculate upon the existence of an even broader, supernatural extension to the power hierarchy: an issue best left to a more detailed analysis of the mystical realm in Chapter 10.

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THE POWER PYRAMID HIERARCHY

In summary, this purely introductory description of the ten level hierarchy of authority roles, aimed to provide a suitably comprehensive overview, a mere glimpse of the more detailed analysis to follow. At the heart of this system lies the unified power hierarchy depicted in Figure one, a confluence of reciprocating authority and follower roles spanning the entire ten level hierarchy of personal, group, spiritual, humanitarian, and transcendental power roles. In tribute to this dramatic scope, I take the liberty of designating this cohesive power hierarchy the "power pyramid," in allusion to the exponential expansion of total membership at each succeeding level. This term is purposely suggestive of the pyramid money schemes of the late 1970's, when profits were realized by recruiting from an ever broadening base of prospective investors. This figurative metaphor (perhaps more than any other) reflects such a reciprocating sense of struggle within the perpetual power realm.

Although this hierarchy of authority levels emerged as a direct outcome of Set Theory, the true elegance of this system is seen in the respective listings of motivational terms, intriguing in their formal, four-part pattern of organization. Each of these respective listings of virtues and values shows an intimate degree of reciprocity with its respective authority or follower role across the board. Of even further significance is the high degree of cohesiveness seen for hierarchically linked sequences of motivational terms, such as seen in the case of the cardinal virtues, the theological virtues, and the Classical Greek values. This pattern scarcely appears to be an isolated phenomenon, for it further repeats across the entire ten-level span of the power hierarchy.

For instance (returning to Figure one), within the left descending column (representing the authority roles), the upper left quadrant of motivational terms (read in descending order) yields the sequence of nostalgia-glory-providence-grace-tranquility. All five terms share a similar positive style of focus, stressing the theme of past notable achievements. The same quadrant in the right-hand column of follower roles yields the related sequence of hero worship-prudence-faith-beauty-ecstasy; themes all reciprocating the authority role through a reinforcement of such past-directed (nostalgic) perspectives.

This scenario further holds true in the case of the adjacent (upper right-hand) quadrant of Figure one. The respective authority roles yield the related sequence of guilt-honor-liberty-freewill-equality: themes all sharing a similar past-directed focus (although now designating a more submissive sense). The corresponding follower roles further cement this observation (e.g., blame-justice-hope-truth-bliss): a hierarchy mirroring that for hero worship with the exception that negative reinforcement is now called into focus.

The remaining lower two quadrants of the power hierarchy are further amenable to such an ingenious style of analysis, an undertaking scarcely warranted at this juncture (in light of the purely introductory nature of this chapter). The reader is currently encouraged to defer judgement, these additional trends dealt with in greater detail in the main body of the book.

It indeed proves particularly amazing that these motivational trends should exist at all, each lining up so perfectly within its respective quadrant of the power hierarchy. Certain of these sequences appear somewhat more convincing than others, although these discrepancies can be explained in terms of the variations in their commonly held meanings. This grand scale organization of the power hierarchy is certainly its major selling point, its perfect symmetry and cohesiveness far too intricate to have risen solely by accident. Indeed, these ten main motivational groupings turn out to be the skeleton framework for an even broader system of terms, covering virtually the entire range of emotionally charged language. In this expanded sense, the power pyramid aims fulfill the dreams of so many philosophers that have gone before; namely, the long sought after Rosetta stone to the complexities of the human mind. Stay tuned for many exciting sequels and future releases to come!

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THE BEHAVIORAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE POWER HIERARCHY

In conclusion, this cursory style of introductory chapter endeavored to provide a brief (yet convincing) overview of the entire power hierarchy (certainly warranting further detailed investigation). Each individual level of the power hierarchy will be assigned to its own unique chapter, with the exception of the following chapter (which examines the personal authority and personal follower levels together). Indeed, it is at this most basic (personal) level that the rationale behind the quartet-style organization of the power hierarchy is finally addressed, fully explained in terms of the behavioral terminology of conditioning theory.

The psychological discipline of Behaviorism has consistently been devoted to the study of such instinctual styles of goal-seeking behaviors, an undertaking uncannily suggestive of the more abstract focus of the virtues, values, and ideals. The father of modern Behaviorism, the late B. F. Skinner, attempted a similar correlation of ethical and behavioral principles, in his quest for an all-encompassing technology of behavior. In his masterpiece, Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971) Skinner examines the behavioral correlates of a wide range of motivational terms (such as freedom and dignity) although with somewhat limited success. With the aid of the power pyramid hierarchy, however, this motivational style of the analysis can be carried to its logical conclusion, incorporating virtually every major term espoused within the Western ethical tradition.

Indeed, it proves particularly effective to view this ethical hierarchy as rooted directly in behavioral principles and terminology, as suggested in the elementary nature of the ego and alter ego states. The science of Behaviorism accordingly serves as the rational jumping off point for such a grand undertaking, as outlined in the detailed chapter to follow. A brief history of the behavioral movement is definitely in order, for herein lies the keys to understanding the instinctual foundations of the entire unified power hierarchy.

End Chapter One

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A MOTIVATIONAL SIMULATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Excerpt from Chapter 20
Character Values:
Tradition vs. Technology
Copyright 2005 by John E. LaMuth - All Rights Reserved

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The concept of artificial intelligence (AI) has been predicted in theory since virtually the dawning of the Computer Age. As its name implies, this term refers to the artificial simulation of language using a computer. The great English logician, A. M. Turing first proposed a standard test for identifying artificial intelligence, based upon his innovative concept of the "imitation game." According to Turing, a computer being tested for "true" AI status would be sequestered in a sealed room, connected to the outside solely by means of a ticker-tape machine (or another "more current" output device). A similarly equipped room containing a human subject would then be pitted against the computer set-up, employing the judgement of an external third party. Through an alternating ticker-tape dialogue with the two rooms, this neutral observer would attempt to distinguish the "artificial intelligence" from the human variety. An ambiguous test result would effectively serve to indicate that artificial intelligence had, indeed, been simulated under such controlled conditions.

No serious contenders for Turing's test have yet come to light, undoubtedly due to the enormous logistics involved in programming a human language into the computer. Although such an ambitious achievement is clearly decades into the future, significant inroads have already been made towards these ends. In fact the Japanese appear to have amassed the greatest lead in this respect, as seen with their ongoing development of the "deductive inference" machine. As its name implies, this innovative form of data processing machine employs "deductive reasoning" to establish original conclusions (from a standard battery of logical premises). The product of years of research by ICOT (Institute of New Generation Computer Technology) the "deductive inference" machine uses information stored in a regional database to draw fresh conclusions not literally contained within the original data.

The major shortcoming to this "deductive" format, however, is the basic restriction limiting conclusions to premises immediately on hand. Indeed, such a deductive inference machine must be closely monitored, whereby carefully remaining within the scope of its regional database. This machine is certainly destined to remain an academic curiosity, scarcely general purpose enough to pass the rigors of Turing's test. Such an "artificial" set-up further experiences difficulties simulating affect and emotion, a fatal flaw in any convincing AI simulation.

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INDUCTIVE INFERENCE IN COMPUTER AI DESIGN

Fortunately, an alternate form of rational inquiry proves infinitely better suited for simulating human intelligence on the computer. Traditionally known as "inductive" reasoning, it gathers together the best available evidence, inferring the most probable conclusion from the sum total of facts. A general example of inductive reasoning is seen in the courtroom trial, where various shreds of evidence are systematically presented (whereby finally arriving at a verdict). In contrast to deductive reasoning, however, the conclusions achieved through inductive reasoning are never absolutely certain; in that there always remains the nagging doubt that the verdict was made in error.

In the sphere of artificial intelligence, however, such a drawback actually amounts to a prerequisite (for humans almost invariably make mistakes). Indeed, the uncertainties of the "real world" give inductive reasoning the clear advantage in such a problem-solving mode. Through such an inductive model, each of us builds a "mental model" of reality over a lifetime, forming a master template for all of our current experiences. When our expectations match our surroundings, we achieve a general sense of security. A mismatch, however, leads to a surprised reaction (followed by investigative behavior). Although this sense of security is sometimes ill founded (as in faulty induction), it is actually a small price to pay for maintaining flexibility within a changeable environment.

In the realm of artificial intelligence, the computer would similarly be equipped with its own formal map of reality (employed in an analogous detection and matching mode). Any final conclusions would ultimately rely upon probability, although statistics are one of the computer's computational strong-points. Indeed, it is here that the logistics of the "power hierarchy" rightfully enter the picture, serving as the foundation for the first "inductive system" dealing with motivational logic. According to this modified format, the logical attributes of the power hierarchy are programmed directly into the computer, providing a formal model of motivational behavior, in general. The computer then uses this programming to infer the precise "power level" for given verbal interchange. On the basis of this determination, the computer then calculates the appropriate power countermaneuver: effectively simulating a given sense of motivation.

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THE POWER PYRAMID DEFINITIONS

The basic question still remains; namely, what form of data input is most appropriate for such an AI processing system? Although the complete power hierarchy of individual terms proves entirely convincing (on an intuitive level), the AI implications call for an even higher degree of precision than has currently been demonstrated. Indeed, the systematic organization of the "power hierarchy" conveniently allows the construction of what must respectively be termed the "schematic definitions of the power pyramid hierarchy." This crucial innovation spells out (in longhand) the precise location of each virtue or vice within the linguistic matrix, while further preserving the correct orientation of the corresponding authority and follower roles. Indeed, each such definition is formally constructed along the lines of a two-stage sequential format; namely, (A) the formal recognition of the preliminary power maneuver, and (B) the current countermaneuver now being employed (and hence, labeled). Take, for example, the representative power pyramid definition for "justice" reproduced here from the comprehensive collection of definitions (schematically depicted in Tables A-1 to 4).

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Previously, I (as your group
authority) have honorably acted
in a guilty fashion towards you:
countering your (as PF) blameful
treatment of me.

But now, you, (as group rep-
resentative) will justly-blame me:
overruling my (as GA) honorable
sense of guilt.

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According to this particular "justice" example, the honorable sense of guilt expressed by the group authority represents the preliminary power maneuver, countered by the just-blaming tactic employed by the group representative. Note further how the respective placement of authority and follower roles is effectively preserved (equivalent to their original depiction in Figure 1A. According to this formalized schematic format, the preliminary power perspective represents the "one-down" power maneuver, whereas the immediate power maneuver designates the "one-up" variety. Power leverage is accordingly achieved by rising to the "one-up" power status; namely, ascending to the next higher (metaperspectival) level. Indeed, this cohesive hierarchy of schematic definitions can further be viewed as a "motivational calculus," providing the formal rules of transformation governing how each level meshes with those above (or below) it. In agreement with the principles of "numerical calculus," the integral can be viewed as the "one-up" power maneuver, whereas the differential is seen as the "one-down" variety.

According to Tables A-1 to A-4, the forty-part listing of definitions spans the entire ten-level, hierarchy of the virtuous realm. Indeed, the instinctual terminology of "operant conditioning" initially dominates the preliminary levels, replaced (in due fashion) by the virtues, values, and ideals of the higher levels. At each succeeding level, a new term (distinguished by italics) is introduced into format (representing the current power maneuver under consideration). In fact, beginning with the group level, the preliminary terms begin to drop out of the equation, necessarily freeing-up space for the current terms under consideration (maintaining a stable buffer terms in the definitions).

The respective authority and follower roles, in turn, remain essentially fixed throughout the entire ten-level span, although systematically abbreviated (for sake of brevity) in non-critical positions. In this latter respect, PA stands for the "personal authority," PF represents the "personal follower," etc. Two of the more atypical abbreviations are GR (group representative) and RH (representative member of humanity).

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TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS

It still remains to be determined, however, the best means towards programming these definitions into the AI format: particularly in light of the current trends involved in computer design. In terms of hardware design, many experts concur that computer development has currently span-ned roughly five stages of technological innova-tion. Vacuum tube technology characterized the first-generation of computer design, giving way to the "transistor" designs of the second-generation. The integrated "computer chip" ushered in the third-generation, refined in the fourth-generation as the Very-Large-Scale-Integrated chip (VLSI). Many experts currently agree that a fifth-generation design component is now underway: characterized by the expanded use of "logic circuits," and the increased use of "parallel processing." Indeed, according to earlier design generations, calculation speed was limited by the Von Neuman bottleneck; namely, programming instructions were painstakingly executed (one step at a time). Parallel processing, however, allows various aspects of a complex problem to be handled simultaneously, whereby eliminating the bottleneck plaguing "sequential processing."
The practical applications of such "parallel processing" are particularly relevant to the AI field of computer design. Indeed, the number of parallel AI processors should ideally equal the sum-total of virtuous terms within the power hierarchy (for a grand total of 40): a modest figure, even by today's design standards. In fact, this processor array would further be structured in a hierarchial fashion, effectively mirroring the "stepwise" organization of the power hierarchy. This "stratified" computer architecture would take full advantage of the strict (transformational) logic of the power hierarchy, eliminating much of the redundancy bound to occur in any convincing language simulation. Indeed, the greatest degree of complexity would involve programming at the most basic (personal) level of the power hierarchy, the remaining higher levels following from this basic foundation.

With all things considered, the most basic unit of input for the AI computer must necessarily be the sentence, for the "power pyramid definitions" are similarly given in the form of a "dual sentence structure." The AI computer would then employ parallel processing to determine the precise degree of correlation between the inputted (target) sentence, and its matching, "power pyramid definition" template. This matching procedure would scrutinize all of the grammatical elements of a given sentence, attempting a statistical correlation with the specifics for a given "power pyramid definition." For instance, the tense of the verb, the plurality (or person) of the noun/pronoun etc., would all be scrutinized according to a pre-set formula. Each processor would then determine the sum-total of correct matches, whereby yielding the relative probability that a given sentence matches a particular "power pyramid definition." The processor yielding the highest (overall) rating would be uniquely singled-out as the best solution-match by the "master control unit."

The master control unit, accordingly, would achieve such a result through the aid of a "feedback loop," the priority of the individual microprocessors reciprocally weighted on the basis of preceding determinations. Indeed, each "power pyramid definition" is composed of both past (as well as a present) design components, establishing context as yet a further consideration in the "matching procedure." In fact, a suitably advanced AI model would retain (in a long-term storage) the content of virtually every relevant interaction within a given context. On this contextual basis, the master control unit would selectively "weight" the individual processors (according to a preset formula), taking full advantage of both past (as well as present) behavior patterns. In this respect, the computer would become exquisitely sensitive to variations in human personality (just as humans are instinctively so), effectively satisfying a further prerequisite of Turing's test.

This "first-generation" AI computer would excel mostly in routine (monitoring) types of applications; namely, security guard, night watchman, babysitter, etc., where a simple "sound the alarm" response would be sufficient. This fairly modest range of duties would further allow response characteristics to be tailored to the particular applications.

For instance, in a screening/interview mode, maximum disclosure would be encouraged, keeping computer responses to an absolute minimum. Here a basic, stock repertoire would be sufficient, featuring brief inquiries; namely, who, what, when, where, why, elaborate further? Indeed, several such elementary programs have already been implemented to date, using key words in conversation to cue stock rejoinders. This basic class of programs, however, is further susceptible to logical and/or contextual blunders, a circumstance surely remedied by more advanced AI versions.

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FURTHER POTENTIAL DESIGN INNOVATIONS

Situations requiring a more creative response repertoire would necessarily specify the implementation of a "true" AI simulation mode: aimed at permitting "original" sentence synthesis. Indeed, as any public speaker will testify, it is infinitely more difficult to deliver a speech, than to simply sit and listen to one. This additional design complexity necessarily specifies the addition of a more sophisticated style of response mechanism: the stock repertoire no longer adequate due to its insensitivity to underlying context. The "master control unit" necessarily assumes such a critical function, employing its determination of the current level of communication (presupposition), in order to activate the processor at the next higher level (entailment). This basic determination (along with the particulars of the interaction) is then routed to a separate sentence generator; fully equipped with the formal rules governing grammar, syntax, and phraseology. Since there is usually a broad range of ways to express a given sentence meaning, a large number of potential sentences would necessarily be generated (not all equally suited to the task). Each, however, is, accordingly, slated for subsequent feedback through the detection process, rated for the ability to best express the desired shade of meaning. The extraordinary computational speed predicted for the AI computer, would effectively ensure an adequate response selection (within the relatively leisurely limits governing human response time). Only the sentence with the highest (overall) rating would be selected for subsequent delivery to the speech output unit, resulting in a convincing simulation of motivational language in general.

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