World History Spring Semester Review

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Identify at least two of the big trends leading to WWI.
industrial arms race, colonial rivalry, nationalism, alliances
Why was China ripe for forced trade in the 1800s?
internal turmoil
What was the U.S. policy for trade in China?
Open Door Policy
Why was trade with China so important to the Europeans?
Chinese goods were in high demand in Europe
What was the Chinese rebellion in response to the Open Door Policy?
Boxer Rebellion
What was the shogunate’s policy towards the rest of the world?
complete isolation
What was the key factor that caused the Japanese to open relations with the U.S. after Perry’s visit?
the threat of military action
How did the new Japanese emperor refer to his reign?  What did this mean?
meiji, enlightened rule
Where did the Japanese emperor look for models for a new government?
the western nations
What was the root of the tension between A-H & Russia?
territorial interests in the Balkans
In 1914, who belonged to the Triple Alliance?
Italy, Germany, A-H
In 1914, Who belonged to the Triple Entente?
GB, France & Russia
What event triggered war between these two alliances?
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
What were the two major actions on the Western Front in 1916?
German attack on Verdun, Allied offensive at Somme
What were the Allies trying to accomplish at Gallipoli?
break through & reestablish connection with Russia
Identify three weapons that were used first in WWI.
machine guns, tanks, airplanes, submarines, poison gas
Identify at least 4 causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917.
reform-revolt-repress, industrialism, Nicholas II is a weak ruler , Rev. of 1905, Crimea, R-J War, Duma-Duma-Duma
Who snuck Lenin back into Russia?
What brought the U.S. into the WWI?
Zimmerman Telegram & sinking of the Lusitania
What did the Germans do after the Bolsheviks surrendered?
Launched an all out attack on the Western Front
What allowed the British and French to hold off this assault?
help from the U.S.
How did the Germans try to counter the British blockade?
with the U-Boat (unterseebooten)
What was Kerensky (and the provisional gov’t of Russia)’s biggest mistake?
staying in the war vs. Germany
When did the Bolsheviks take control of Russia?
October/November of 1917
What did the treaty of Brest-Litovsk give the Germans?
lots of land & an indemnity
Why did the Bolsheviks have to sign this treaty?
needed to get out of war & focus on keeping control
Who was the political leader of the Bolsheviks? Military Leader?
Lenin, Trotsky
Why did Ludendorff surrender before the Allies reached Germany?
wanted mild peace according to 14 Points
Identify three of Wilson’s 14 Points.
free seas, self determination, open diplomacy, League of Nations, “Peace Without Victory”
Identify 2 ways that the Treaty of Versailles was hard on Germany.
blame for war, huge reparations, Alsace-Lorraine, small army, dictated, demil-Rhineland
Why did trench warfare suck? (list at least three reasons)
machine guns, trench foot, boredom, shell shock, rats, barbed wire
Who most wanted the Treaty of Versailles enforced? Why?
France, most damaged & all alone vs. Ger.
Name two specific things the gov’t did to support growing industry.
Subsidies, training from foreign advisors, education
What two Japanese groups bore the greatest burden for the transition to a modern industrial nation?
The farmers and the new industrial workers
What dynasty had ruled China for over three hundred years prior to 1912?
the Manchu dynasty
Who were the Manchu overthrown by in 1912?
supporters of Sun Yat Sen
What large group will the Chiang Kai Shek and the nationalists come into conflict with in the struggle for control of China?
Mao Tse Tung and the Communists
What was Lenin’s solution to the economic problems the Communists faced after the Russian Civil War?
New Economic Policy (NEP)
Lenin's death led to a power struggle between whom? Who was the victor?
Stalin & Trotsky, Stalin
What was the main threat that fascist regimes responded to?
spread of communism
What do fascist rulers insist the individual must put before everything?
the State
How did Mussolini become Prime Minister of Italy?
appointed by king after Black Shirts march on Rome
What did France do in 1923 when Germany fell behind on reparations?
occupied Ruhr Valley
How did this impact the Ger. economy?
huge inflation, some unemployment
Name 2 parts of the Nazi Party Platform.
repudiation of T of V, unification of Austria & Germany, eradication of Jews, agrarian reform, confiscation of war profits, etc.
What was the first attempted takeover by the Nazi Party?
Beer Hall Putsch (Munich, 1923)
Name 2 of the key causes of the Great Depression.
Crisis in currency & investments, commodities crisis, lack of leadership
How did the crash of ‘29 affect U.S. investment in Europe?
stopped it
Why couldn’t farmers pay their debts in the ‘20s?
glut of agricultural goods in market
Who rose to power in response to the Great Depression in Germany? Who did they use as scapegoats?
Nazis, Jews and Communists
What did Hitler blame on the Communists & use as an excuse to expand his power?
Reichstag Fire
What act of terror made the Nazi anti-Semitic program a clear reality?
What kinds of propaganda were used by the Nazis? Who was their minister of propaganda?
marches, rallies, radio, print; Joseph Goebbels
What was the Nazis’ economic policy?
Gear all production toward strong military state
What instrument guided the Soviet economy between 1927 & 1942?
the Five Year Plans
What did these plans call for?
rapid industrialization w/ specific goals for production
How did the plans expect to pay for these increases?
grain exports from collectivized farms
What class strongly opposed collectivized farming?
What was done to those who opposed collectivization?
death or imprisonment
What was the cost of this industrialization?
millions of deaths, lack of economic equality, years of self denial
What was Stalin’s goal in the great Purges?
eliminate all opposition w/in the Party (old Bolsheviks)
What old empire had controlled the Middle East for hundreds of years prior to 1900? What event brought the collapse of this empire?
The Ottoman Empire, WWI
How did the Ottoman gov’t respond to the uprising of Armenian Christians in 1915?
They killed 600,000 Armenians and sent 500,000 more into exile
What leader took over Turkey at the end of WWI and allowed for the official end of the end of the Empire? What was his biggest reform?
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, make Turkey a secular state, free from connections with Islam
What resource was discovered in Persia that served to increase foreign interest?
Name at least two of the new “states” created in the Middle East after WWI?
Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan
What was the first new kingdom created by Arabs in the Middle East? What specific industry brought great wealth to this kingdom in the 1930’s?
Saudi Arabia, the American oil industry
In what part of the former Ottoman empire is there a great deal of tension today? Who is the tension between?
Former Palestine; Arab Palestinians and the Israelis
Who took over leadership of the Nationalists after Sun Yat Sen’s death?
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai Shek)
Who did Jiang Jieshi identify as the two major enemies to Chinese unification in the late 1920’s ?
the Communists and Japan
What was Mao’s “Long March”?
when Mao and the communists broke the nationalist siege and marched north to their only remaining base
Why did Jiang feel the peasants were not ready for a republic?
They were very poor and illiterate
Why did Jiang suppress all opposition and censor free expression?
he feared Communist influence
Sum it all up by identifying 3 of the major problems China faced during the 1930’s.
the Great Depression, Japanese aggression, internal conflict (comms vs. nats)
Where did Gandhi receive an education that emphasized nationalism and self-reliance?
Great Britain
Where was Gandhi when his eyes were opened to racial injustice?
South Africa (and its policy of Apartheid)
How did Gandhi respond to the massacre at Amritsar?
Launched his first major campaign of non-violent passive resistance
What kind of things did Gandhi encourage the Indians to do in their resistance of the British?
Boycott, refuse to pay taxes, refuse to work for the British
What event exposed the British to a great deal of outrage from the rest of the world?
The march on the slat mine
When did India finally get it’s independence?
In 1947, after WWII
What act of terror made the Nazi anti-Semitic program a clear reality?
What was appeasement?
Britain & France’s policy of giving Hitler small pieces of territory to keep him happy
What kinds of propaganda were used by the Nazis? Who was their minister of propaganda?
marches, rallies, radio, print; Joseph Goebbels
What was the Nazis’ economic policy?
Gear all production toward strong military state
At what point before WWII did Hitler say he was “done” adding territory?
after Sudetenland
Where did Hitler look for territory after Czechoslovakia?
What treaty guaranteed his security on the eastern front?
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Why did the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor?
the U.S cut off shipments of oil
What was the Vichy government?
controlled non-occupied France during WWII
What event led to hardships on the German homefront?
failure of Soviet Invasion
Name two places Hitler took territory before the war started.
Czechoslovakia, Austria, Rhineland
What event started the war in Europe?
Germany’s invasion of Poland
How long did it take Germany to conquer Western Europe at the start of the war?
9 months (9/39-6/40)
What was the Battle of Britain (or Blitz)?
massive German air raids over a period of months in 1940
What law allowed us to provide supplies for Great Britain while remaining neutral?
Lend-Lease Act
What was the Atlantic Charter?
An agreement on war goals between Churchill and Roosevelt signed in 8/41 (before we entered the war
Where did the U.S. enter the fighting in the war against Germany?
North Africa
What offensive operation by the Germans eventually helped lead to their downfall?
invasion of the USSR
What was the Allied invasion of Normandy called?
D-Day/Operation Overlord
How long did it take the Japanese to establish control of the entire Western Pacific?
5 months (12/41-4/42)
What two kinds of fighting were most common in the Pacific?
naval air battles & amphibious assaults (island hopping)
What battle was considered the turning point in the Pacific?
Where did the Japanese resort to the greatest amount of kamikaze activity? Why was this island geographically significant?
Okinawa, less than 500 miles from Japan
What was the name of the program to create the A-Bomb? Where did many of it’s scientists come from?
Manhattan Project, Europe – which they left because of anti-Semitism
What were Truman’s two main options to defeat Japan?
invasion or A-Bomb
On what two cities was the A-Bomb dropped?
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
Identify two things that were controversial about the use of the A-Bomb.
used on civilians, radiation, start arms race, unknown effects
Where was the next major campaign after winning in North Africa? Why was it difficult to fight there?
Sicily (Italy), rugged mountainous terrain
What did we use to attack German manufacturing and military centers from 1942 until the end of the war?
Long range Bombers
What was so difficult about attacking Omaha beach on D-Day?
Faced a big cliff and a shallow beach
What invasion marked the beginning of the end for the Germans in Europe?
D-Day/Operation Overlord
What was the last major German counter attack?
Battle of the Bulge
Name two places where the Big 3 met to discuss post war plans.
Tehran, Yalta, & Potsdam
Name two things the U.S. wanted from the Soviets at Yalta.
in the U.N., out of Eastern Europe, help vs, Japan
Name two things the Soviets wanted out of us and the British at Yalta.
Friendly satellite states in Eastern Europe, reparations and forced labor from the Germans
How did WWII solve the problems of the Great Depression?
boosted production & wages, created full employment
How did the governments raise money for the war effort?
Selling war bonds
Name two goods that were rationed during WWII.
rubber, gasoline, sugar, flour, meat products
Identify three uses for propaganda in WWII.
recruit for war effort, conserve/ration, don’t blab, hate the enemy, believe in our cause, stay united

What international organization was formed after WWII to try & solve problems that might lead to WWIII? Identify three main components of this org..
United Nations; Security Council, General Assembly, International Court, Economic and Social Council
What economic plan was supposed to keep Western European Nations free from Comm. after WWII? What country sponsored it?
Marshall Plan, the United States
Which side did the U.S. (and the U.N.) support in the Korean War? Who supported the other side?
the South, the USSR
What was the end result of the Korean War?
N. Korea stays Comm., S. Korea free, DMZ in middle (along the 38th parallel)
What were the two main treaty organizations of the Cold War?
NATO (U.S. led) & Warsaw Pact (USSR led)
What U.S. doctrine vowed to support all resistors of communism wherever they may be?
Truman Doctrine
How did the U.S. respond to the Soviets cutting off access to West Berlin in 1948?
Berlin Airlift (carrying in supplies to West )
What officially started the arms race in 1949?
The soviets tested an atomic bomb
What made it possible for the U.S. to avoid a major post-war economic slump?
Marshall Plan and people spent what they had saved during the war
Who finally comes to power in China in 1949? What type of government did he set up?
Mao Zedong, Communist Dictatorship
Where did Mao’s opponents, the nationalist Koumintang, flee? Are they still in power there?
Taiwan, Yes
Name two things Khrushchev did to lessen Stalin’s influence.
some freedoms, agricultural reform, more consumer goods, Secret Speech
How did some of the satellite states respond to Khrushchev’s reforms? How did the soviets respond to this?
Tried to break away from the Soviet Union, sent in the military to squash the uprisings
What did the U.S. response to the European crises of 1956 demonstrate?
We were unwilling to intervene behind the Iron Curtain
What communist dictator rose to power in Cuba in the late 1950’s? What did he do that angered Americans?
Fidel Castro, seized American properties and favored the Soviets
What is the name for the doctrine that says your enemy won’t attack you if he knows you can retaliate?
Mutually Assured Destruction
At the peak of the arms race, how many times over could the U.S. & the USSR have blown up the world?
What 1963 movie made a farce of everyone’s deep seeded fear of Nuclear Holocaust?
Dr. Strangelove (…or how I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb)
What was the U-2 incident? How did it affect relations between the superpowers?
The Soviets shot down and American spy plane and captured the pilot, relations took a turn for the worse
What step did the U.S. take to try and remove Castro from power in 1961?
the invasion at the Bay of Pigs
Why did the Soviets put up the Berlin Wall in 1961?
Embarrassed by the flow of immigrants fleeing East Germany
Where did the Soviets attempt to set up missiles in October of 1962? How did the U.S. respond?
Cuba, naval blockade (this is the Cuban Missile Crisis)
What was the outcome of this crisis?
U.S. promises not to invade Cuba again, USSR takes back its missiles
How did the Soviets respond to the 1968 uprising in Czechoslovakia?
sent in troops
Who led Vietnamese resistance to French control?
Ho Chi Minh
What Soviet leader helped hasten their collapse by pushing for an arms buildup in the late 70s & early 80s?
Leonid Brezhnev
What was Détente? What did it allow to happen?
A lessening of tension between the superpowers, new treaties (on arms buildup, etc.)
What important commodity did the U.S. start selling to the Soviets during Détente?
Who’s set of major reforms brought an end to the USSR?
What were the two parts of Gorbachev’s reforms?
perestroika and glasnost
How did the satellite states respond to the weakness of the USSR in 1989?
“revolted” for independence
Identify four areas that “revolted” in 1989.
Poland, E Ger., Czech., Romania, Hungary,
What movement led to independence for Poland in 1989?
How did the U.S. respond to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1980?
By boycotting the 1980 Moscow Olympics and putting an embargo on grain
Who was the unlikely ally in the Vatican for the Solidarity movement?
Pope John Paul II
How did Czechs respond when the gov’t tried to crack down on the first wave of demonstrations in 1989?
Even larger demonstrations
Who became the first president in Czechoslovakia after the Revolution of 1989? What was he before he was president?
Vaclav Havel, a dissident playwright
What was the major issue in Czech after 1989? How was it resolved?
Ethnic tension between Czechs & Slovaks, split nation into Czech Republic and Slovakia
What incident sparked revolution in Romania? What happened to their repressive leader?
The murder of thousands of demonstrators by the Secret Police, he was captured and executed
What contributed to the collapse of the communist dictatorship in East Germany?
economic slump and repressive government
What symbol of the Cold War was torn down by demonstrators when the German border was opened?
the Berlin Wall
What is the basic nature of the problem in the former Yugoslavia?
many different ethnic/religious groups, discrimination outside common areas