Text of the Unit V Review

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1) Identify three reasons for New Imperialism.
nationalism, industrialism, belief in cultural superiority, spread religion
2) In what continent was this new imperialism most evident?
3) What two nations started the colonization of Africa? What part?
GB & France, northern sections
4) What was GB’s goal in Africa?
Cape to Cairo
5) Why was China ripe for forced trade in the 1800s?
internal turmoil
6) What was the worst example of European exploitation in Africa?
King Leopold in the Congo
7) What were the only two parts of Africa not colonized by 1900?
Ethiopia and Liberia
8) What were the two clashes in Africa that fed animosity against GB?
Fashoda Crisis with France and the Boer War with the Dutch Afrikaners
9) Why was trade with China so important to the Europeans?
Chinese goods were in high demand in Europe
10) What was the U.S. policy for trade in China?
Open Door Policy
11) What British settlement came out of this policy?
Hong Kong
12) What was the Chinese rebellion in response to the Open Door Policy?
Boxer Rebellion
13) What were the two examples of economically successful colonies in the 1800s?
Dutch Indonesia and British India
14) How did the British “accidentally” introduce nationalism & liberal ideas in India?
Educating them in English in the Western fashion
15) Why does Germany antagonize GB in the early 1900s?
to make themselves look powerful so GB will want to ally with them
16) What was the cause of the Sepoy Rebellion?
rumors about the animal fat used on rifle cartridges
17) How did the British change the way they ruled India after this rebellion?
they shifted to direct rule, placing the colonies directly under their control
18) What are the two largest religious groups in India? Why is this a problem?
Hindus and Muslims, tension between the two groups
What was the chief impact that Hinduism had on India’s social structure?
divided it into a rigid class structure (castes)
What British educated Hindu goes on to lead the Indian Nationalist Movement?
Mohandas Gandhi
Identify three kinds of raw materials that came out of SE Asia.
teak wood, rubber, tin, spices, tea, coffee
How did France first get involved in Vietnam?
through missionaries who went there to spread Christianity
What were the only two societies in SE Asia ruled by Europeans in 1800?
Spanish Philippines and Dutch East Indies
What nation took over the Philippines from Spain in 1898? Why did they want it?
the U.S., as a jumping off point for trade with China?
What event in Europe weakened the control of Spain & Portugal over their colonies?
Napoleon’s takeover of Europe
Identify the basic class structure of the old Spanish Empire in the Americas.
peninsulars, creoles, mestizos, natives
Which two groups maintained control after the colonies gained their independence?
peninsulars & creoles
Name the three most powerful forces in the new “republics” of Latin America.
army, large land owners, church
What was the large scale goal of Bolivar and San Martin?
the liberation of all of South America from the Europeans
How did intervention by British businessmen keep economic conditions the same?
Latin America was kept as the producer of raw materials and left under the control of the land owning elite
Identify two of the types of raw materials that Latin American nations exported in large quantities.
wheat, beef, coffee, bananas, silver, sugar
What powerful nation started to interfere in the politics of Latin America in the early 1900’s?
the United States
Identify three of the republics formed from the colonies in South America after they gained their independence.
Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile
Who ruled Japan for the 200 years leading up to 1850?
the Tokugawa shogunate
What was the shogunate’s policy towards the rest of the world?
complete isolation
What was the key factor that caused the Japanese to open relations with the U.S. after Perry’s visit?
the threat of military action
How did the new Japanese emperor refer to his reign?  What did this mean?
meiji, enlightened rule
Where did the Japanese emperor look for models for a new government?
the western nations
In the new Meiji government that emerged, who had the most power?
The executive authority, which was the prime minister and the other cabinet ministers
The new government of Japan was modern and democratic in appearance, but in reality, who still held most of the power?
The authoritarian Sat-Cho elite
Name two specific things the gov’t did to support growing industry.
Subsidies, training from foreign advisors, education
What two Japanese groups bore the greatest burden for the transition to a modern industrial nation?
The farmers and the new industrial workers
What dynasty had ruled China for over three hundred years prior to 1912?
the Manchu dynasty
Who were the Manchu overthrown by in 1912?
supporters of Sun Yat Sen
What large group will the Chiang Kai Shek and the nationalists come into conflict with in the struggle for control of China?
Mao Tse Tung and the Communists