Text of the Unit III Review

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Name one factor that may have led to the population boom that started in the mid-1700’s.
End of the plague, less warfare, improved health
What were Jethro Tull’s two main contributions to the Ag. Rev.?
iron plow and seed drill
Name the two crops that were introduced from the New World. How did these help?
potatoes & corn, more variety in diet and helped replenish the soil
Why did landlords want to enclose their lands?
higher bread prices, wanted to force the use of new methods to increase productivity
What happened to many peasants as a result of enclosure?
cut loose from the land, forced to look for other employment
In which industry did the Industrial Revolution start? Why?
textiles, the larger population needed to be clothed
What did the flying shuttle create a demand for? What invention helped solve this?
thread/yarn, spinning jenny
Name two reasons the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain.
coal & iron, individual liberties, roads & waterways, relatively mobile social structure
Name 2 benefits of the steam engine.
Move factories away from rivers, constant source of power, leads to development of cities
What did many “new” cities lack that would have helped them handle the influx of people?
infrastructure (roads, sewers, housing, etc.)
In what kinds of places did the “new cities” spring up?
waterways, road hubs, sea ports
Why did the Bourgeoisie resent the nobility?
inherited legal rights & privileges
What system was replaced by the factory system?
cottage or “putting-out”
How did GB try to address the massive war debt they were left with after the 7 Years War? What was the response to this?
Taxing their colonists, the colonists hated it
What were the American colonists originally trying to protect when they revolted against GB?
Rights as Englishmen
How did the new gov’t the Americans created differ from all previous gov’ts?
Equality of all white men, no aristocracy or social classes by birth, no king
Name three causes of the French Rev..
Food shortages & prices, heavy taxation of poor, little taxation of nobles & clergy, bourgeoisie vs. nobles, nobles vs. monarchy
What group did the 3rd Estate form when they left the Estates General? What did they promise in the Tennis Court Oath?
National Assembly, keep meeting until they wrote a constitution
What did Louis XVI do to cause the poor to storm the Bastille?
muster troops around Paris which made them think he was going to stop the revolution
How did French nobles react to the Great Fear?
renounced their rights, cleared the way for a Constitution
Identify a way in which Louis XVI demonstrated his anti-revolutionary sentiment.
muster troops, stall on Dec. of Rights, flee to Varennes, refractory clergy
Why did the women of Paris march on Versailles?
food, make Louis agree to Dec. of Rights
Despite their active participation in the revolution, which two groups were consistently left out of the benefits?
poor (esp. urban) & women
What kind of reaction did the invasion by Austria & Prussia produce?
panic, fear, “invasion mentality”
What tool did the Convention use to mobilize France for war? name two components of this tool.
levee en masse; conscription of all males, price ceilings, war production
What two places did the Dec. of Rights of Man and Citizen get its ideas from?
Declaration of Independence & Enlightenment
What radical member of the third estate led the Reign of Terror? What eventually happened to him?
Robespierre, he was guillotined
Name two parts of the Napoleonic Code.
civic equality, no guilds, promotion based on merit, end to social hierarchy, religious tolerance
What two groups supported Napoleon’s rise to power?
bourgeoisie & land owning peasants
Name two things Napoleon did to squash his people who opposed him.
Centralize government, execution, give them high government posts (with little power), secret police
Who formed the Quadruple Alliance against him?
GB, Austria, Prussia, Russia
Who supported the Spanish Guerillas against Napoleon?
RC Church & GB (Wellington)
What strategy did the Russians use to defeat Napoleon after his invasion in 1812?
Scorched earth (destroy everything useful & back up) & starve him out
Who rallied to attack Napoleon from the east in 1813-14? From the west?
East: Austria, Prussia & Russia; West: Great Britain
How did he bring an end to the Ancien Regime (the Old Regime)?
spread ideals of French Rev. across Europe
What was the goal of the Continental System?
Economic defeat of GB
What effect does Napoleon have on the political power of the Church?
greatly diminishes it because of religious toleration