Text of the World War II Review

Name two places Hitler took territory before the war started.
Czechoslovakia, Austria, Rhineland
What event started the war in Europe?
Germany’s invasion of Poland
How long did it take Germany to conquer Western Europe at the start of the war?
9 months (9/39-6/40)
What was the Battle of Britain?
massive German air raids over a period of months in 1940
How did most Americans feel about joining the war in 1939?  What law demonstrated this?
Wanted to remain neutral (isolationist), Neutrality Act of 1939
What law allowed us to provide supplies for Great Britain while remaining neutral?
Lend-Lease Act
What was the Atlantic Charter?
An agreement on war goals between Churchill and Roosevelt signed in 8/41 (before we entered the war
What were two ways the Germans tried to sink U.S. ships in the Atlantic?
mines and U-Boats
What group was becoming increasingly powerful in Japan throughout the 1930’s?  What did they do with their power?
Militarists, who began taking territory throughout Asia in search of raw materials
What event brought the United States into the war? How?
Bombing of Pearl Harbor, provided cause for war  - galvanized public
Name one piece of evidence that suggests the government knew the Japanese were going to attack Pearl Harbor.
Tension with Japan over trade embargoes, no carriers in port
Why were more than 100,000 Japanese Americans placed in internment camps during WWII?
Considered a threat to security (especially if Japan invaded)
What kind of things were Japanese-Americans forced to leave behind when they were interned?
homes, businesses, most of personal possessions
How much did federal spending increase between 1939 and 1945?  Why?
approximately $86 billion (900%), massive spending in support of the war effort
How did WWII solve the problems of the Great Depression?
boosted production & wages (up 27% during war), created full employment
How did American industry respond to the war effort?  The American workforce?
Industry was totally retooled for defense (cars to tanks, clothing to uniforms, etc.), with 15m men going off to war -19m women went to work
Identify three key themes of American propaganda during WWII.
Fear/Hate the enemy, conserve resources, ration, join the armed forces, buy war bonds, work in the defense industry
Name one problem faced by Rosie the Riveter (women who worked in defense industries).
wage gap, fired for flirting, sexual harassment, little day care
Name a military organization that women joined to support the war effort.
How did our army handle soldiers of different races?
placed them in segregated units
What civil rights issue did A. Phillip Randolph get FDR to address?
segregation in the defense industry
What was the most clear example of racial tension in Southern California during WWII?
Zoot Suit Riots – American sailors attacked Mexican American youths they considered unpatriotic
Why were soldiers called GIs?
everything they had was “Government Issue”
What specialized skill did many Native Americans (especially Navajos) provide to the military during WWII?
Used their language to serve as “code talkers”
How did many young Japanese-American men demonstrate their loyalty and get out of the camps?
Served bravely in 442nd combat regiment in the European Theater
How did the federal government raise money for the war effort?
Selling war bonds
Name two goods that were rationed during WWII.
rubber, gasoline, sugar, flour, meat products
What offensive operation by the Germans (started in 1941) eventually helped lead to their downfall?
invasion of the USSR
Where did we enter the fighting in the war against Germany in 1942?
North Africa (where the British were fighting the Germans)
Where was our next major campaign after winning in North Africa?  Why was it difficult to fight there?
Sicily (Italy), rugged mountainous terrain
What did we use to attack German manufacturing and military centers from 1942 until the end of the war?
Long range Bombers (like B-17s, usually staged out of England)
What invasion marked the beginning of the end for the Germans in Europe?  Why?
D-Day/Operation Overlord, true second front was more than Germany could handle
Identify three of the various phases/elements of the Normandy invasion.
Fake army, double agents, paratroopers, artillery barrage, beach landings
What was so difficult about attacking Omaha beach on D-Day?
Faced a big cliff and a shallow beach, Germans had a lot of time to prepare defenses
Name a hazard faced by U.S. troops after they invaded Normandy and were headed into Germany.
land mines, hedgerows, sniper fire
What was the last major German counter attack? Was it successful?
Battle of the Bulge. no
Name the general in charge of U.S. and Allied forces in Europe.
How long did it take the Japanese to establish control of the entire Western Pacific?
5 months (12/41-4/42)
What happened to most of the U.S. troops  that were forced to surrender on the Philippines in April of 1942?
Bataan Death March (10,000+ casualties)
What two kinds of fighting were most common in the Pacific?
naval air battles & amphibious assaults (island hopping)
What battle was considered the turning point in the Pacific? Why?
Midway, United States carrier groups routed larger Japanese forces
Name the admiral in charge of U.S. naval forces in and the general in charge of army forces in the pacific.
Nimitz and MacArthur
Where did Douglas MacArthur successfully “return” in 8/44?  Why was this symbolic?
the Philippines, they were our closest base to Japan before the war & we left prisoners behind there in 1942
On which island did the Marines raise the flag over Mt. Surabachi?  Why was this a key victory?
Iwo Jima, important island close to Japan
Where did the Japanese resort to the greatest amount of kamikaze activity?  Why was this island geographically significant?
Okinawa, less than 500 miles from Japan
What was the name of the program to create the A-Bomb?  Where did many of it’s scientists come from?
Manhattan Project, Europe – which they left because of anti-Semitism
What was Truman’s alternative to dropping the Bomb?
massive land invasion – fighting Japanese civilians on the beaches
On what two cities was the A-Bomb dropped?
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
Identify two things that were controversial about the use of the A-Bomb.
used on civilians, radiation, start arms race, unknown effects
Name two places where the Big 3 met to discuss post war plans.
Casablanca, Tehran, & Yalta
Name two things the U.S. wanted from the Soviets at Yalta.
in the U.N., out of Eastern Europe, help vs. Japan
Name two things the Soviets wanted out from the United States and the British at Yalta.
Friendly satellite states in Eastern Europe, reparations and forced labor from the Germans