Text of the U.S. History Unit III Review
What new type of building allowed for greater population density in the late 1800s?
The skyscraper (e.g. Flatiron Building)
What new transportation method fueled the growth of suburbs in the late 1800s?
Electric trolley cars and commuter RR lines
What movement sought to help recent immigrants fit in to American society by working with them to improve everything from their hygiene to language skills?
What group started a major political movement focused on reducing the power of monopolies (especially the RRs) and increasing the monetary supply?
What allowed for development of parks, efficient transportation, and more even distribution of population and services?
What two developments fueled the growth of the modern press?
New printing techniques (high speed presses) and the revolution in Photography (Eastman's flexible film)
Between 1865 & 1895, what did most states begin requiring for children between the ages of 8-14?
12-16 weeks of school annually
What type of education grew as business demanded greater technical and managerial expertise? What happened to college enrollment between 1880-1920?
High schools, It quadrupled
How much access did Blacks and recent immigrants have to public education?
Very little for blacks (segregation), plenty for immigrants (Americanization)
What two approaches were taken by Washington and DuBois to try and provide higher education for Blacks?
Washington: Tuskegee Institute to try and build economic prosperity, DuBois: Niagara Movement pushing Blacks toward liberal arts degrees
Name two methods used to keep Blacks from voting in the South between 1865-1965.
Poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses
What Supreme Court case established the doctrine of “separate but equal” legal segregation?
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
How did Southern whites often respond when Blacks refused to follow the racial norms?
Violence, especially lynching
What group provided a great deal of the difficult manual labor in the Southwest? How were they treated?
Immigrants from Mexico, paid less – sometimes wound up in debt peonage
What ethnic group was often segregated and restricted on the west coast?
Chinese Immigrants (Chinese Exclusion Act)
What economic development allowed for the development of leisure activities in the U.S.?
The growth of the middle class, and the eight hour work day
Name two types of new leisure activities. What quickly became one of America’s most popular spectator sports in the late 1800s?
Spectator sports, amusement parks, sports like bicycling and tennis; Baseball
How did Hearst and Pulitzer contribute to the growth of mass culture in the late 1800s?
Building huge networks of major daily newspapers
Identify three new ways of selling goods that emerged in the late 1800s.
Shopping centers, department stores, chain stores, modern advertising, catalog sales (and RFD)
Generally speaking, what kind of people were Progressives?
Members of the middle class who wanted to solve society’s problems because they feared revolution from below and the massive power of the small wealthy elite
What was the “square deal?”
Teddy Roosevelt’s efforts to protect rights of workers & common people
How was the 1902 Coal Strike a favorable turn for organized labor?
Roosevelt forced the two sides to come together & negotiate instead of siding with management (Government intervention when strike threatens public interest)
What is the NAWSA? What was its goal?
National Americans Women Suffrage Association, the vote for women
Which amendment gave woman the right to vote? When was it passed?
19th amendment, 1920
Who was the leader of the work for labor reform?
Identify two ways progressives tried to help working people.
10 hour work day, end child labor, improved workplace safety
What racist terrorist group formed in Tennessee after the Civil War?
the Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
What was the purpose of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act? Which 1914 law strengthened Sherman and extended protection to workers and farm organizations?
regulate trusts and monopolies, Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Who founded the NAACP? What was it’s purpose?
W.E.B. DuBois, to gain greater political/social equality for blacks
Which amendment outlawed the use of alcohol? What movement pushed for this?
The 18th amendment, temperance
Which amendment provided direct election of Senators?
The 17th amendment
Name two things the Muckrakers exposed.
the Corruption in politicians, poor working/living conditions, unsafe food/drugs, trusts/monopolies
What was the purpose of the Meat Inspections Act?
It insured that meats were prepared under proper sanitary conditions
What party ran Teddy Roosevelt as its candidate & pushed for the 8 hour day, workmen’s comp-ensation, and women’s suffrage?
Bull Moose Party (election of 1912)
What group wanted to set aside large pieces of land for national parks?
Conservationists (John Muir)
Who started the “settlement house” movement to help care for poor women and children?
Name two steps taken by progressives to eliminate political corruption.
recall, referendum, initiative, primaries
What kinds of steps did “reform mayors” take to clean up their communities?
Works programs, government control of transportation & utilities, open meetings
Identify two of President Wilson’s big financial reforms.
Income Tax (16th Amendment), Federal Reserve System, lower tariffs
Name two reasons why the U.S. was interested in expanding it’s imperial power in the late 1800’s.
ports for naval ships, markets for manufactured goods, cultural/religious superiority
What was the U.S.’ chief economic interest in Hawaii?
Sugar cane and fruit plantations
Why was Queen Liliuokalani a threat? How was she handled by the U.S.?
She wanted Hawaii for Hawaiians, business groups staged a revolution - Cleveland put her back in power
What was the purpose of Hays’ Open Door Notes?
Prevent the European powers from carving China into colonies (we feared being left out)
What did the Open Door Policy give us free reign to do? What military action did the United States take to make sure this Policy stayed in place?
force China to trade with us, used US troops to squash the Boxer Rebellion
Why did Spanish activities in Cuba attract American attention? What media group increased public excitement over a possible war with Spain?
Spanish General Weyler was brutally suppressing the Cuban revolt led by Marti, Yellow journalists
What “manufactured” event drew the U.S. into the Spanish American War?
the sinking of the USS Maine, an American battleship
In what two places did most of the fighting take place in the Spanish American War? Who won?
Cuba and the Philippines, the U.S.
What debate started immediately after the Spanish American War?
Whether it was appropriate for the U.S. to annex other territories (such as Cuba and the Philippines)
How did the US eventually gain control of the Philippines?
Annexed it, then used troops to put down a rebellion of native Filipinos
How did the construction of Panama Canal affect our relationship with Panama? How did the U.S. gain control of the land?
made Panama a U.S. territory, staged a revolution to free territory from Colombian control
What were two of the obstacles faced in constructing the Panama Canal?
Disease, difficult engineering conditions, 5,000 worker deaths
What were the primary benefits of the Panama Canal?
Decreased shipping times and costs, greater access from our East coast to our west coast and on to Asia (China & Japan)
What is the name for imperialism that is based on economic influence? Which President is most closely associated with this?
Dollar Diplomacy, Taft
What was the point of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine? What kind of Diplomacy is this?
We will intervene when necessary in the western hemisphere, Big Stick Diplomacy
Name two factors that led to WWI.
Alliances, military build up (industrialism), tension in the Balkans, growing imperialism
What group of countries did the U.S. fight alongside in WWI?
the Allies (GB, France, Russia)
What group formed the opposition to the Allies during WWI?
Central Powers (Germany & A-H)
What was the purpose of the Selective Service Act?
help raise nearly 2 million troops for the American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
What weapon did the Germans use to attack allied ships and the British blockade?
U-Boat (first effective military use of submarine)
What two factors led to trench warfare during WWI?
old tactics (Napoleonic) combined with new weapons (esp. machine gun, gas, barbed wire, etc.)
Name three of the conditions that made trench warfare so miserable.
rats, high casualty rates, disease, stagnant water & mud (trench foot), shellshock (PTSD), etc.
Name two new weapons that were used extensively in trench warfare.
machine gun, poison gas, flamethrower, new high powered artillery
Name two other new weapons used for the first time in World War I.
submarine, tank, airplane
Why was it only a matter of time before the U.S. was drawn into WWI?
we had become an imperial power, we were shipping war materials to Europe (esp. GB & France)
Name the two events that helped pull the U.S. into the WWI.
Lusitania (U-Boat Warfare) & Zimmerman Telegram (Germany encouraged Mexico to attack US)
What event allowed Germany to launch an all-out final offensive on the Western Front in 1918?
the Russian Revolution, which took Russia out of the war
What was the primary contribution of the AEF toward Allied victory?
helped hold off last big German attack, helped with big allied counter-attack that led to German surrender
What was Wilson’s stated reason for entering WWI? What kind of diplomacy was this an example of?
“Make the world safe for democracy.”; Moral Diplomacy
Name 2 kinds of people who might have opposed U.S. involvement in WWI.
pacifists, socialists, German immigrants, Irish immigrants
What law prevented “disloyal utterances” and speaking out against the war?
How did the Supreme Court rule on the Espionage and Sedition acts?
they were constitutional - exceptional measures to restrict rights are OK in war time (Schenck vs. US)
Name 2 gov’t agencies designed to make efficient use of our resources during WWI.
War Industries Board, War Labor Board, Food Administration
What monetary instrument did the U.S. gov’t use to raise funds for WWI?
the Liberty (or Victory) Bond
What organization was responsible for producing U.S. propaganda during WWI?
Committee on Public Information (CPI)
How did WWI provide greater opportunities for women? What did this lead to?
Served in non-combat roles in military and took important manufacturing jobs in wartime industry; won right to vote shortly after war
What was the Great Migration?
Major demographic shift of African Americans out of the South and into Northern cities where they took jobs in wartime industries
What was Wilson’s Plan for Peace called? Which part of it was most important to him? Why?
14 Points, League of Nations – he believed it would help solve all future crises before they became wars
Name two key conditions of the Treaty of Versailles.
Germany responsible for WWI, pay big reparations, League of Nations