Text of the Unit I Review

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What was the first English settlement in North America?
Why did the Puritans want to leave England? What boat did they travel on?
religious persecution, the Mayflower
***Name 2 characteristics of the New England colonies.
education, small farms, harbor cities, Puritanically based morals and religion
***Name 2 characteristics of the middle colonies.
religious tolerance, commerce, craftsmanship, heavy Dutch influence
***Name 2 characteristics of the southern colonies.
loyalty, plantations & cash crops, low population density
What religious movement was focused on getting an emotional response from its audience?
Great Awakening
How did this movement help feed revolutionary fervor?
equality in the eyes of God
Which enlightenment thinker pushed for a three branch government?
Which enlightenment thinker was an advocate for the protection of “natural rights”?
Which enlightenment thinker pushed government by the general will?
Why did the British begin taxing the colonists in 1763?
pay for the French & Indian (7 yrs.) War
What was the first major tax placed on the colonists after the Seven Years’ War?
Stamp Act
Name two ways the colonists protested this tax.
boycotts, demonstrations, harassment of public officials
What group of colonists wanted to remain loyal to Great Britain?
How did the British respond to the Boston Tea Party?
Intolerable Acts
What group called for the Declaration of Independence?
Second Continental Congress
Who was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence?
Thomas Jefferson
***What were the two main purposes of the Declaration of Independence?
Establish ideology behind revolution and list grievances vs. King George
Where was the first actual fighting of the Revolutionary war?
Lexington and Concord
What Colonial victory brought increased support from the French?
What was the freezing cold low point for the Continental Army?
Valley Forge
Where did the British surrender to Washington?
What document set up our nation’s first government?
Articles of Confederation
***Name two weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
no power to tax, no power to coin money, no executive branch, weak central government
What uprising proved the Articles of Confederation were too weak and needed to be replaced?
Shay’s Rebellion
How many amendments are included in the Bill of Rights? What group pushed for it?
10, Anti-Federalists
What was Hamilton’s vision for America?
A country based on manufacturing and a strong central government
What was Jefferson’s vision for America?
Agricultural society, everybody owns land
What did Jefferson’s election in 1800 prove about the new Constitution?
It was solid & able to accept a change in ideals in government
Who did Jefferson send to explore the Louisiana Territory? Why did he send them?
Lewis & Clark, promote the territory
How did we get “sucked in” to the war of 1812?
GB & France were at war & we’re caught in the middle
Name two key things the War of 1812 did for the United States.
Helped build industries & showed we could stand on our own
What was the basic message that the Monroe Doctrine sent to Europe?
stay out of our hemisphere & we’ll stay out of yours’
Who was the first President to supposedly represent the common man?
Andrew Jackson
***Identify two things Jackson was famous for.
Trail of Tears, vetoing Nat’l Bank, spoils system, using his veto 12 times, bare knuckle politics
What party was Jackson from? What party rose to oppose him?
Democrats, Whigs
**Identify three of the significant reform movements from the early 1800’s.
Temperance, public education, abolition, women’s rights, 2nd Great Awakening
Why did many Americans settle in Texas in the early 1800s?
invited by Mexico, wanted chance to own land
Why did Santa Anna lay siege to the Alamo? What happened as a result of fighting between Mexico & Texas?
settlers were refusing to follow Mexican Laws, Texas won its independence
What is “Manifest Destiny”?
The belief that the U.S. would someday control the land from coast to coast.
***Who opposed the Mexican American War? Why?
Whigs and Abolitionists, opposed extension of slavery
What was the result of the Mexican American War?
The United States defeated Mexico and bought the land you’re sitting on
What was the first time our government officially compromised over slavery?
3/5 Compromise
What was the result of giving Kansas and Nebraska popular sovereignty over slavery?
Bleeding Kansas (fighting over slavery)
Why was the Dred Scott decision significant?
it maintained that slaves remained property regardless of the circumstances
What was John Brown hoping to do when he took over the arsenal at Harpers’ Ferry?
arm slaves who would take part in a widespread revolt
What move by the Democrats allowed Lincoln, and anti-slavery Republican, to get elected in 1860?
They split into three factions over the issue of slavery
**How many states seceded when Lincoln was elected? How many more when he called for troops?
4, 7
Name two advantages the South had at the start of the Civil War.
Better generals, defensive war, passion for their cause
Name three advantages the North had at the start of the Civil War.
larger population, more industry, better transportation, more food production
What was the first actual fighting of the war?
SC firing on Ft. Sumter
What happened to the Southern industrial and agricultural production facilities during the war?
They were almost totally wiped out
What was the official name of the South’s government? Who was it’s President
CSA (Confederate States of America), Jefferson Davis
What was the bloodiest single day of fighting during the Civil War?
Battle of Antietam
What was it about the style of fighting in the Civil War that led to such huge numbers of casualties?
you would lead large #s of your men in an attempt to break lines of large #s of the opposition (e.g. Picket's Charge)
What was the purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation? What did it give the Union?
Free the slaves in rebellious states, moral cause for fighting the war
What two Union victories happened on July 4, 1863? Why were they important?
Gettysburg (turned Lee back from DC) and Vicksburg (control of the Mississippi)
What was Lincoln’s main point in the Gettysburg Address?
no nation had ever been founded on the idea of the equality of all men, and this was a cause well worth fighting for
Who marched through the South in 1864-1865 with the goal of forcing them to surrender? How?
Sherman, waging “total war”
**What was Lincoln’s philosophy on reconstruction? Why was he unable to implement it?
Heal the wounds (malice toward none…), he was assassinated 6 days after the war ended