Text of the Cold War Review
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What international organization was formed after WWII to try & solve problems that might lead to WWIII? Identify three main components of this org..
United Nations; Security Council, General Assembly, International Court, Economic and Social Council
What economic plan was supposed to keep Western European Nations free from Comm. after WWII? What country sponsored it?
Marshall Plan, the United States
Which side did the U.S. (and the U.N.) support in the Korean War? Who supported the other side?
the South, the USSR
What was the end result of the Korean War?
N. Korea stays Comm., S. Korea free, DMZ in middle (along the 38th parallel)
What were the two main treaty organizations of the Cold War?
NATO (U.S. led) & Warsaw Pact (USSR led)
What U.S. doctrine vowed to support all resistors of communism wherever they may be?
How did the U.S. respond to the Soviets cutting off access to West Berlin in 1948?
Berlin Airlift (carrying in supplies to West )
What officially started the arms race in 1949?
The soviets tested an atomic bomb
What made it possible for the U.S. to avoid a major post-war economic slump?
Marshall Plan and people spent what they had saved during the war
Who finally comes to power in China in 1949? What type of government did he set up?
Mao Zedong, Communist Dictatorship
Where did Mao’s opponents, the nationalist Koumintang, flee? Are they still in power there?
Name two things Khrushchev did to lessen Stalin’s influence.
some freedoms, agricultural reform, more consumer goods, Secret Speech
How did some of the satellite states respond to Khrushchev’s reforms? How did the soviets respond to this?
Tried to break away from the Soviet Union, sent in the military to squash the uprisings
What did the U.S. response to the European crises of 1956 demonstrate?
We were unwilling to intervene behind the Iron Curtain
What communist dictator rose to power in Cuba in the late 1950’s? What did he do that angered Americans?
Fidel Castro, seized American properties and favored the Soviets
What is the name for the doctrine that says your enemy won’t attack you if he knows you can retaliate?
Mutually Assured Destruction
At the peak of the arms race, how many times over could the U.S. & the USSR have blown up the world?
What 1963 movie made a farce of everyone’s deep seeded fear of Nuclear Holocaust?
Dr. Strangelove (…or how I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb)
What was the U-2 incident? How did it affect relations between the superpowers?
The Soviets shot down and American spy plane and captured the pilot, relations took a turn for the worse
What step did the U.S. take to try and remove Castro from power in 1961?
the invasion at the Bay of Pigs
Why did the Soviets put up the Berlin Wall in 1961?
Embarrassed by the flow of immigrants fleeing East Germany
Where did the Soviets attempt to set up missiles in October of 1962? How did the U.S. respond?
Cuba, naval blockade (this is the Cuban Missile Crisis)
What was the outcome of this crisis?
U.S. promises not to invade Cuba again, USSR takes back its missiles
How did the Soviets respond to the 1968 uprising in Czechoslovakia?
sent in troops
Who led Vietnamese resistance to French control?
Ho Chi Minh
What Soviet leader helped hasten their collapse by pushing for an arms buildup in the late 70s & early 80s?
What was Détente? What did it allow to happen?
A lessening of tension between the superpowers, new treaties (on arms buildup, etc.)
What important commodity did the U.S. start selling to the Soviets during Détente?
Who’s set of major reforms brought an end to the USSR?
What were the two parts of Gorbachev’s reforms?
perestroika and glasnost
How did the satellite states respond to the weakness of the USSR in 1989?
"revolted" for independence
Identify four areas that "revolted" in 1989.
Poland, E Ger., Czech., Romania, Hungary,
What movement led to independence for Poland in 1989?
How did the U.S. respond to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1980?
By boycotting the 1980 Moscow Olympics and putting an embargo on grain
Who was the unlikely ally in the Vatican for the Solidarity movement?
Pope John Paul II
How did Czechs respond when the gov’t tried to crack down on the first wave of demonstrations in 1989?
Even larger demonstrations
Who became the first president in Czechoslovakia after the Revolution of 1989? What was he before he was president?
Vaclav Havel, a dissident playwright
What was the major issue in Czech after 1989? How was it resolved?
Ethnic tension between Czechs & Slovaks, split nation into Czech Republic and Slovakia
What incident sparked revolution in Romania? What happened to their repressive leader?
The murder of thousands of demonstrators by the Secret Police, he was captured and executed
What contributed to the collapse of the communist dictatorship in East Germany?
economic slump and repressive government
What symbol of the Cold War was torn down by demonstrators when the German border was opened?
the Berlin Wall
What is the basic nature of the problem in the former Yugoslavia?
many different ethnic/religious groups, discrimination outside common areas