Lectures for Unit II:  The Age of Revolutions

Back to the Unit Page

The Agricultural Revolution


Impetus for change Enclosure Movement New Crops & Methods Population Explosion The 1st Ind. Rev. Increased Consumption Growth of "New" Cities Poverty Wealth Caught in the Middle (bourg.) Artsy Fartsy Artisans Meanwhile in GB Back in the Colonies Brand new government Causes of the FR Problems with Debt Estates General (1789) Cahiers de Doleances Grievances of the estates: Gov’t waste, indirect taxes, corruption, Church taxes, etc. National Assembly Louis XVI Breaks Down Causes of Revolution Storming the Bastille, 1789 Great Fear Spreads Dec. of Rights of Man (8/27) Provides: Impact of Dec. of Rights March on Versailles Reconstruction of France Constitution of 1791 Women Get Left Out Departments are Formed Economic Reform Assignats Civil Cons. of Clergy Counter Revolutionaries Foreign Response Start of 2nd Rev. Crisis Continues Mobilize for Conflict Domestic Support for War Republic of Virtue Society of Women Dechristianization (starts in 11/93) Reign of Terror Fall of Robespierre Thermidorian Reaction (7/94) Nappy Comes to Power Nap pushes Seiyes out Constitution of Year VIII: all it really means is…

First Council Nap is da man

Dealing With Enemies Concordat with Church Napoleonic Code Building an Empire More on Order More on Church Workings of Cons. VIII Creates the Modern State Third Coalition Nap the Big Weiner Treaty of Tilsit Continental System More Continental Spanish Response & War More Spanish Response Austria Renews Conflict - 1809 1810- Peak of Empire What this means for Europe German Response Prussia leads German Response Russian Campaign More Russian Campaign The Squeezer Cheeser He’s Done, Who Gets Him? The Squeezer Cheeser He’s Done, Who Gets Him? Congress of Vienna A Variety of Goals: Organizing the map (west) New states barriers to France: Organizing the map (East) 100 Days (Nap’s Baaaaack) Results of C of V More Results: Few Other Thingies: Romantics Basis in Rousseau Basis in Kant English Romantics More English Romantics German Romantics Wesley & the Methodists More Romantic Religion Romantic Historians

It’s All About Industry

• old way of life passing, 1825-1855: time of transition between 1st IR & 2nd IR
• Affects all aspects of society: living cond., families, women, social classes, religion
• GB leads (markets, quality of goods, already ahead), others (esp. Fr. & Ger.) follow
Migration to Cities & Beyond
• late 1700s starts, picks up in 1820
• emancipation of serfs & more fluid labor market (changing jobs & locations)
• RR’s & roads make moving easier, feed industry (capital investment)
• cities not ready = horrific conditions
Rise of the Proletariat
• working class (no stake)
• wage system = workers no longer control means of production
• end of guilds (FR, liberals) & artisans
• confection sys. (division of labor)
• income to owners
The Proletariat Responds
• sabotage & resistance
• trade unions
• Chartism
• Socialism

• British WC wants Charter (1838), presented to Par. 3 times & rejected
The Charter’s Six Points:
a) universal suffrage
b) annual elections
c) secret ballot
d) end of prop. req.
e) salaries for members of Par.
f) equal districts
• all met over time, not immediately

Early Unions
• Combination Acts outlawed workers’ associations
• trade unions form in early 1800’s, nat’l assoc. begin to form after repeal of Comb. Acts
Industrialism & the Family

• mech. weaving = out of home
• fathers use kids as assistants è
• mid-1820’s- spinning & weaving together, men make enough to leave kids home, supervise poor W&C not from  family
• Separate sphere for WC Women
• big probs. with child labor
• Factory Act (1833): 9 hrs., 2 hrs. education, must be 9 yrs. old
• break between home & child, brings in school & factory
• 1847- 10 hr. day for all, families spend more time together
• unit of production + consumption to just consumption
• kids stay home until married
• start to supportive domestic role for WC women (MC before)
• children = assets
• unmarried women work until married (factory instead of house)
• prostitution out of desperation
• lots of new, unskilled jobs
• less arranged marriage
• men more mobile, more illegitimate kids
Thoughts on Urbanization
• draws attention to poor
• Allows poor to organize
• puts poor in contact with world
• GB faces no comp. until 1870
Classical Economics
• extension of Laissez Faire
Gov’t Should:
• maintain currency
• enforce contracts
• protect property & foreign trade
• leave rest to individual
• condition of WC can’t be improved
• pop. will overcome food supply
• wagesèmore kidsèless food
• WC needs higher standard & less kids
• Iron Law of Wages- wages è more kids è labor è lower wages è less kids
• justifies low wages & opposition to unions
• utility- greatest happiness for greatest number
• reason+utility will eliminate legal clutter

Early Socialism (LF sucks)
Workers deal w/ probs in 2 ways:
Unions (work w/in system)
Socialism (reform all of society)
• Cooperation better than competition
• Indust. is OK, free market can’t distribute goods, few control
• goods for use, not sale
• Society = community
Early Socialists
• Saint-Simon: capital & prop. should be administered by “elites” for public good
• Owen: build “utopian” communities of textile manufacturers
• Fourier: “phalanxes” liberated living
• All 3 ignore political reality
• sci. accuracy, reject reform, need revolution
• inspired by 1848
• Engels
• thesis vs. antithesis = synthesis
Communist Manifesto
• State is Bourg Committee for exploitation
• Workers deprived of wealth they create
• religion is a drug to keep lower classes in order
• loyalty to your class
Impact of Marx’s Theory:
• economic conditions evolve through history (shaped by material conditions)
• Capitalism leads to conflict between owners & workers
• reforms won’t work
• Competition Ô small group of owners & big suffering prolet.
• Prolet. will form dictatorship to reorganize society
• eventually dictatorship will not be needed
• prolet. can’t be an oppressor = no oppression
• this is the culmination of history
A Few Final Marxisms:
• shaped by unemployment and deprivation of 1840s
• widely accepted because they seem to be based on scientific fact rather than theorizing
• remove industry & government to obtain true freedom (dominating people’s lives)
• Anarchism popular in least democratic states - Movement will get more violent as time goes on (late 1800’s
• Blanqui calls for proletariat revolution
• Proudhon calls for community of small businesses w/out government