Text of the Summer Final Review Game

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Identify three reasons for New Imperialism. In what continent was this new imperialism most evident?

nationalism, industrialism, belief in cultural superiority, spread religion; Africa

What two nations started the colonization of Africa? What part?

GB & France, northern sections

What was GB’s goal in Africa?

Cape to Cairo

Why was China ripe for forced trade in the 1800s?

internal turmoil

What was the U.S. policy for trade in China?

Open Door Policy

Why was trade with China so important to the Europeans?

Chinese goods were in high demand in Europe

What was the Chinese rebellion in response to the Open Door Policy?

Boxer Rebellion

Name two negative results of Colonial Rule in Africa?

culture loss, disease, famine, ethnic wars

Why was India the "jewel in the Crown" of the British Colonies?

location and resources excellent for trade

Name three crops grown in India for trade?

tea, indigo, cotton, jute, opium

What was the root of the tension between A-H & Russia?

territorial interests in the Balkans

Identify at least two of the big trends leading to WWI.

industrial arms race, colonial rivalry, nationalism, alliances

In 1914, who belonged to the Triple Alliance?

Italy, Germany, A-H

In 1914, Who belonged to the Triple Entente?

GB, France & Russia

What event triggered war between these two alliances?

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Who came in to back A-H? Serbia?

Germany and Russia

What were the basics of the Schlieffen Plan?

swing through France with strong right, defeating them quickly then beating the Russians

Why did the Schlieffen Plan fail? What did this lead to?

weak right, digging trenches on Western Front

What were the two major actions on the Western Front in 1916? How successful were these actions?

German attack on Verdun, Allied offensive at Somme, not at all

What were the Allies trying to accomplish at Gallipoli?

break through & reestablish connection with Russia

What were the two major battles on the western front in 1916?

Verdun and the Somme

Identify three weapons that were used first in WWI.

machine guns, tanks, airplanes, submarines, poison gas

Identify at least 4 causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917.

reform-revolt-repress, industrialism, Nicky’s a weenie, Rev. of 1905, Crimea, R-J War, Duma-Duma-Duma

Who took control in the March Revolution?

liberals/cadets (Provisional Gov’t lead by Kerensky)

Who snuck Lenin back into Russia? Why?

Germans, wanted him to stir things up

What brought the U.S. into the war?

Zimmerman Telegram & sinking of the Lusitania

What did the Germans do after the Bolsheviks surrendered?

Launched an all out attack on the Western Front

What allowed the British and French to hold off this assault?

help from the U.S.

How did the Germans try to counter the British blockade during WWI?

with the U-Boat (unterseebooten)

What was Kerensky (and the provisional gov’t)’s biggest mistake?

staying in the war vs. Germany

When did the Bolsheviks take control of Russia?

October/November of 1917

What did the treaty of Brest-Litovsk give the Germans? Why did the Bolsheviks have to sign this treaty?

lots of land & an indemnity, needed to get out of war & focus on keeping control

Who was the political leader of the Bolsheviks? Military Leader?

Lenin, Trotsky

Identify three of Wilson’s 14 Points for Peace at the end of World War I.

free seas, self determination, open diplomacy, League of Nations, "Peace Without Victory"

Identify 4 ways that the Treaty of Versailles was hard on Germany.

blame for war, huge reparations, Alsace-Lorraine, small army, dictated, demilitarized-Rhineland

What did Wilson cash in his idealism for?

League of Nations

Why did trench warfare suck? (list at least three reasons)

machine guns, trench foot, boredom, shell shock, rats, barbed wire

Who ruled Japan for the 200 years leading up to 1850?

the Tokugawa shogunate

What was the shogunate’s policy towards the rest of the world?

complete isolation

What was the key factor that caused the Japanese to open relations with the U.S. after Perry’s visit?

the threat of military action

How did the new Japanese emperor refer to his reign?  What did this mean?

meiji, enlightened rule

Where did the Japanese emperor look for models for a new government?

the western nations

The new government of Japan was modern and democratic in appearance, but in reality, who still held most of the power?

The authoritarian Sat-Cho elite

What did the Meiji require from all Japanese men?

3 years of military service

What two Japanese groups bore the greatest burden for the transition to a modern industrial nation?

The farmers and the new industrial workers

Who most wanted the Treaty of Versailles enforced? Why?

France, most damaged & all alone vs. Ger.

What was Lenin’s solution to the economic problems the Communists faced after the Russian Civil War?

New Economic Policy (NEP)

Lenin's death led to a power struggle between whom? Who was the victor?

Stalin & Trotsky, Stalin

What was the main threat that fascist regimes responded to?

spread of communism

What did fascist rulers insist the individual must put before everything?

the State

How did Mussolini become Prime Minister?

appointed by king after Black Shirts march on Rome

What did France do in 1923 when Ger. fell behind on reps.?

occupied Ruhr

How did this impact the Ger. economy?

huge inflation, some unemployment

Name 2 parts of the Nazi Party Platform.

repudiation of T of V, unification of Aust & Ger., eradication of Jews, agrarian reform, confiscation of war profits, etc.

What did the Dawes Plan do?

restructured rep pay back (tied to Ger. economy)

Name 2 of the key causes of the Great Depression.

Crisis in currency & investments, commodities crisis, lack of leadership

Why couldn’t farmers pay their debts in the ‘20s?

glut of agricultural goods in market

How did most European gov’ts respond to the GD?

cut spending, wage & price controls

What instrument guided the Soviet economy between 1927 & 1942?

the Five Year Plans

What did these plans call for?

rapid industrialization w/ specific goals for production

How did the plans expect to pay for these increases?

grain exports from collectivized farms

What class strongly opposed collectivized farming? What was done to those who opposed?

kulaks, death or imprisonment

What was the cost of this industrialization?

millions of deaths, lack of economic equality, years of self denial

What was Stalin’s goal in the great Purges?

eliminate all opposition w/in the Party (old Bolsheviks)

What old empire had controlled the Middle East for hundreds of years prior to 1900? What event brought the collapse of this empire?

The Ottoman Empire, WWI

How did the Ottoman gov’t respond to the uprising of Armenian Christians in 1915?

They killed 600,000 Armenians and sent 500,000 more into exile

What leader took over Turkey at the end of WWI and allowed for the official end of the end of the Empire? What was his biggest reform?

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, make Turkey a secular state, free from connections with Islam

What resource was discovered in Persia that served to increase foreign interest?


Name at least two of the new "states" created in the Middle East after WWI?

Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan

What was the first new kingdom created by Arabs in the Middle East? What specific industry brought great wealth to this kingdom in the 1930’s?

Saudi Arabia, the American oil industry

What dynasty had ruled China for over three hundred years prior to 1912?

the Manchu dynasty

Who were the Manchu overthrown by in 1912?

supporters of Sun Yat Sen

What large group will the Chiang Kai Shek and the nationalists come into conflict with in the struggle for control of China?

Mao Tse Tung and the Communists

Who took over leadership of the Nationalists after Sun Yat Sen’s death?

Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai Shek)

Who did Jiang Jieshi identify as the two major enemies to Chinese unification in the late 1920’s ?

the Communists and Japan

What is the basic message of Mao’s Four Slogans?

do the opposite of what the enemy wants/expects

What was Mao’s "Long March"?

when Mao and the communists broke the nationalist siege and marched north to their only remaining base

Sum it all up by identifying 3 of the major problems China faced during the 1930’s.

the Great Depression, Japanese aggression, internal conflict (comms vs. nats)

Where did Gandhi receive an education that emphasized nationalism and self-reliance?

Great Britain

Where was Gandhi when his eyes were opened to racial injustice?

South Africa (and its policy of Apartheid)

What kind of things did Gandhi encourage the Indians to do in their resistance of the British?

Boycott, refuse to pay taxes, refuse to work for the British

What event exposed the British to a great deal of outrage from the rest of the world?

The march on the salt mine

When will India finally get it’s independence?

In 1947, after WWII

Who rose to power in response to the GD in Ger.? Who did they use as scapegoats?

Nazis, Jews and Communists

What did Hitler blame on the Communists & use as an excuse to expand his power?

Reichstag Fire

What act of terror made the Nazi anti-Semitic program a clear reality?


What was the name of Hitler’s elite secret police force? Who led it?

SS, Himmler

What act of terror made the Nazi anti-Semitic program a clear reality?


What was appeasement?

Britain & France’s policy of giving Hitler small pieces of territory to keep him happy

What kinds of propaganda were used by the Nazis? Who was their minister of propaganda?

marches, rallies, radio, print; Joseph Goebbels

What was the Nazis’ economic policy?

Gear all production toward strong military state

Where did Hitler look for territory after Czechoslovakia?


What treaty guaranteed his security on the eastern front?

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

Why did the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor?

the U.S cut off shipments of oil

What was the Vichy government?

controlled non-occupied France during WWII

What event led to hardships on the German homefront?

failure of Soviet Invasion

Name two places Hitler took territory before the war started.

Czechoslovakia, Austria, Rhineland

What event started the WWII in Europe?

Germany’s invasion of Poland

How long did it take Germany to conquer Western Europe at the start of the war?

9 months (9/39-6/40)

What was the Battle of Britain (or Blitz)?

massive German air raids over a period of months in 1940

What law allowed us to provide supplies for Great Britain while remaining neutral?

Lend-Lease Act

What was the Atlantic Charter?

An agreement on war goals between Churchill and Roosevelt signed in 8/41 (before we entered the war

Where did the U.S. enter the fighting in the war against Germany?

North Africa

What offensive operation by the Germans eventually helped lead to their downfall?

invasion of the USSR

What was the Allied invasion of Normandy called?

D-Day/Op. Overlord

What two kinds of fighting were most common in the Pacific?

naval air battles & amphibious assaults (island hopping)

What battle was considered the turning point in the Pacific?


Where did the Japanese resort to the greatest amount of kamikaze activity? Why was this island geographically significant?

Okinawa, less than 500 miles from Japan

What was the name of the program to create the A-Bomb? Where did many of it’s scientists come from?

Manhattan Project, Europe – which they left because of anti-Semitism

What were Truman’s two main options to defeat Japan? On what two cities was the A-Bomb dropped?

invasion or A-Bomb, Hiroshima & Nagasaki

Identify two things that were controversial about the use of the A-Bomb.

used on civilians, radiation, start arms race, unknown effects

Where was the next major campaign after winning in North Africa? Why was it difficult to fight there?

Sicily (Italy), rugged mountainous terrain

What did we use to attack German manufacturing and military centers from 1942 until the end of the war?

Long range Bombers

What invasion marked the beginning of the end for the Germans in Europe?

D-Day/Operation Overlord

Name two things the U.S. wanted from the Soviets at Yalta.

in the U.N., out of Eastern Europe, help vs, Japan

Name two things the Soviets wanted out of the United States and the British at Yalta.

Friendly satellite states in Eastern Europe, reparations and forced labor from the Germans

How did WWII solve the problems of the Great Depression?

boosted production & wages, created full employment

How did the governments raise money for the war effort?

Selling war bonds

Name two goods that were rationed during WWII.

rubber, gasoline, sugar, flour, meat products

Identify three uses for propaganda in WWII.

recruit for war effort, conserve/ration, don’t blab, hate the enemy, believe in our cause, stay united

What international organization was formed after WWII to try & solve problems that might lead to WWIII? Identify three main components of this org..

United Nations; Security Council, General Assembly, International Court, Economic and Social Council

What economic plan was supposed to keep Western European Nations free from Comm. after WWII? What country sponsored it?

Marshall Plan, the United States

Which side did the U.S. (and the U.N.) support in the Korean War? Who supported the other side?

the South, the USSR & China

What was the end result of the Korean War?

N. Korea stays Comm., S. Korea free, DMZ in middle (along the 38th parallel)

What were the two main treaty organizations of the Cold War?

NATO (U.S. led) & Warsaw Pact (USSR led)

What U.S. doctrine vowed to support all resistors of communism wherever they may be?

Truman Doctrine

How did the U.S. respond to the Soviets cutting off access to West Berlin in 1948?

Berlin Airlift (carrying in supplies to West )

What officially started the arms race in 1949?

The soviets tested an atomic bomb

What made it possible for the U.S. to avoid a major post-war economic slump?

Marshall Plan and people spent what they had saved during the war

Who finally comes to power in China in 1949? What type of government did he set up?

Mao Zedong, Communist Dictatorship

Where did Mao’s opponents, the nationalist Koumintang, flee? Are they still in power there?

Taiwan, Yes

Name two things Khrushchev did to lessen Stalin’s influence.

some freedoms, agricultural reform, more consumer goods, Secret Speech

How did some of the satellite states respond to Khrushchev’s reforms? How did the soviets respond to this?

Tried to break away from the Soviet Union, sent in the military to squash the uprisings

What did the U.S. response to the European crises of 1956 demonstrate?

We were unwilling to intervene behind the Iron Curtain

What communist dictator rose to power in Cuba in the late 1950’s? What did he do that angered Americans?

Fidel Castro, seized American properties and favored the Soviets

What is the name for the doctrine that says your enemy won’t attack you if he knows you can retaliate?

Mutually Assured Destruction

What 1963 movie made a farce of everyone’s deep seeded fear of Nuclear Holocaust?

Dr. Strangelove (…or how I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb)

What was the U-2 incident? How did it affect relations between the superpowers?

The Soviets shot down and American spy plane and captured the pilot, relations took a turn for the worse

What step did the U.S. take to try and remove Castro from power in 1961?

the invasion at the Bay of Pigs

Where did the Soviets attempt to set up missiles in October of 1962? How did the U.S. respond?

Cuba, naval blockade (this is the Cuban Missile Crisis)

What was the outcome of this crisis?

U.S. promised not to invade Cuba again, USSR takes back its missiles

How did the Soviets respond to the 1968 uprising in Czechoslovakia?

sent in troops

Who led Vietnamese resistance to French control and then led N. Vietnam against the United States?

Ho Chi Minh

What Soviet leader helped hasten their collapse by pushing for an arms buildup in the late 70s & early 80s?

Leonid Brezhnev

What was Détente? What did it allow to happen?

A lessening of tension between the superpowers, new treaties (on arms buildup, etc.)

What important commodity did the U.S. start selling to the Soviets during Détente?


Who’s set of major reforms brought an end to the USSR? What were the two parts of his reforms?

Gorbachev, perestroika and glasnost

How did the satellite states respond to the weakness of the USSR in 1989?

"revolted" for independence

Identify four areas that "revolted" in 1989.

Poland, E Ger., Czech., Romania, Hungary,

What movement led to independence for Poland in 1989?


How did the U.S. respond to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1980?

By boycotting the 1980 Moscow Olympics and putting an embargo on grain

How did Czechs respond when the gov’t tried to crack down on the first wave of demonstrations in 1989?

Even larger demonstrations

Who became the first president in Czechoslovakia after the Revolution of 1989? What was he before he was president?

Vaclav Havel, a dissident playwright

What was the major issue in Czech after 1989? How was it resolved?

Ethnic tension between Czechs & Slovaks, split nation into Czech Republic and Slovakia

What incident sparked revolution in Romania? What happened to their repressive leader?

The murder of thousands of demonstrators by the Secret Police, he was captured and executed

What contributed to the collapse of the communist dictatorship in East Germany?

economic slump and repressive government

What is the basic nature of the problem in the former Yugoslavia?

many different ethnic/religious groups, discrimination outside common areas

What two groups were suppose to form new states out of the former Palestine in 1947?

Israelis and Arab Palestinians

Which group was the first to form a state? What nation immediately recognized this state?

The Israelis, the United States

Why did the Palestinians refuse to immediately form a state of their own?

they didn’t want to show that they agreed with the division of land

Name two of the Arab nations that actively opposed the state of Israel.

Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iran

What was the outcome of the 1967 Six Days’ War in the middle east?

Israel won a huge victory and occupied a lot of new territory

What was the key outcome, especially for the U.S., of the Yom Kippur War of 1973?

Israel held their territory, OPEC put an embargo on oil to the U.S.

Why were the Camp David Accords of 1978 a big step forward?

Egypt and Israel agreed to ongoing peace talks

What organization did not want the peace process to continue and resorted to terrorism in the 1980s?

the PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)

What step toward peace did the PLO take in 1988?

recognizing that Israel had the right to exist

After a decade of progress toward peace, how has the process recently turned violent?

Palestinian suicide bombers and an Israeli military crackdown

What was the policy of racial separation in South Africa called? Roughly how long was it in force?

apartheid, 90-100 years

What group was organized to fight against this system?

ANC (African National Congress)

What leader of the ANC was imprisoned for 30 years, but later became president of SA?

Nelson Mandela

Name two of the proposed ways to draw boundaries for the new African nations.

colonial boundaries, tribal areas, pan-africanism (all people in one nation)

What kind of governments were most often formed by the leaders of the respective nationalist movements?

authoritarian one-party states

What African nation led the way toward independence after WWII? Who was their leader?

Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah

Identify three of the major challenges facing the new nations in Africa.

dictatorship, lack of infrastructure, old tribal tensions, healthcare/disease, reliance on foreign intervention

Who led the revolutions that broke out across Latin America in the early 1800’s? What class/group was left out?

the Creole elite, the natives

Who did the U.S. support in Nicaragua in the early 1980’s? Why?

the contras, they were fighting the communist Sandinistas

Who was the brutal, drug dealing, dictator that ruled Panama with U.S. support?

Manuel Noriega

Who appealed to the working class to gain power in Argentina? Who was his famous wife?

Juan Peron, Evita

What event eventually ended military rule in Argentina in the early 1980’s?

the failed invasion of the Falkland Islands

What ecological damage did the "economic miracle" of Brazil bring with it?

major harvesting of the Amazon Rainforests