Text of the Summer Final Review Game
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Identify three reasons for New Imperialism. In what continent was this new imperialism most evident?
nationalism, industrialism, belief in cultural superiority, spread religion; Africa
What two nations started the colonization of Africa? What part?
GB & France, northern sections
What was GB’s goal in Africa?
Cape to Cairo
Why was China ripe for forced trade in the 1800s?
What was the U.S. policy for trade in China?
Open Door Policy
Why was trade with China so important to the Europeans?
Chinese goods were in high demand in Europe
What was the Chinese rebellion in response to the Open Door Policy?
Name two negative results of Colonial Rule in Africa?
culture loss, disease, famine, ethnic wars
Why was India the "jewel in the Crown" of the British Colonies?
location and resources excellent for trade
Name three crops grown in India for trade?
tea, indigo, cotton, jute, opium
What was the root of the tension between A-H & Russia?
territorial interests in the Balkans
Identify at least two of the big trends leading to WWI.
industrial arms race, colonial rivalry, nationalism, alliances
In 1914, who belonged to the Triple Alliance?
Italy, Germany, A-H
In 1914, Who belonged to the Triple Entente?
GB, France & Russia
What event triggered war between these two alliances?
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Who came in to back A-H? Serbia?
Germany and Russia
What were the basics of the Schlieffen Plan?
swing through France with strong right, defeating them quickly then beating the Russians
Why did the Schlieffen Plan fail? What did this lead to?
weak right, digging trenches on Western Front
What were the two major actions on the Western Front in 1916? How successful were these actions?
German attack on Verdun, Allied offensive at Somme, not at all
What were the Allies trying to accomplish at Gallipoli?
break through & reestablish connection with Russia
What were the two major battles on the western front in 1916?
Verdun and the Somme
Identify three weapons that were used first in WWI.
machine guns, tanks, airplanes, submarines, poison gas
Identify at least 4 causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917.
reform-revolt-repress, industrialism, Nicky’s a weenie, Rev. of 1905, Crimea, R-J War, Duma-Duma-Duma
Who took control in the March Revolution?
liberals/cadets (Provisional Gov’t lead by Kerensky)
Who snuck Lenin back into Russia? Why?
Germans, wanted him to stir things up
What brought the U.S. into the war?
Zimmerman Telegram & sinking of the Lusitania
What did the Germans do after the Bolsheviks surrendered?
Launched an all out attack on the Western Front
What allowed the British and French to hold off this assault?
help from the U.S.
How did the Germans try to counter the British blockade during WWI?
with the U-Boat (unterseebooten)
What was Kerensky (and the provisional gov’t)’s biggest mistake?
staying in the war vs. Germany
When did the Bolsheviks take control of Russia?
October/November of 1917
What did the treaty of Brest-Litovsk give the Germans? Why did the Bolsheviks have to sign this treaty?
lots of land & an indemnity, needed to get out of war & focus on keeping control
Who was the political leader of the Bolsheviks? Military Leader?
Identify three of Wilson’s 14 Points for Peace at the end of World War I.
free seas, self determination, open diplomacy, League of Nations, "Peace Without Victory"
Identify 4 ways that the Treaty of Versailles was hard on Germany.
blame for war, huge reparations, Alsace-Lorraine, small army, dictated, demilitarized-Rhineland
What did Wilson cash in his idealism for?
League of Nations
Why did trench warfare suck? (list at least three reasons)
machine guns, trench foot, boredom, shell shock, rats, barbed wire
Who ruled Japan for the 200 years leading up to 1850?
the Tokugawa shogunate
What was the shogunate’s policy towards the rest of the world?
What was the key factor that caused the Japanese to open relations with the U.S. after Perry’s visit?
the threat of military action
How did the new Japanese emperor refer to his reign? What did this mean?
meiji, enlightened rule
Where did the Japanese emperor look for models for a new government?
the western nations
The new government of Japan was modern and democratic in appearance, but in reality, who still held most of the power?
The authoritarian Sat-Cho elite
What did the Meiji require from all Japanese men?
3 years of military service
What two Japanese groups bore the greatest burden for the transition to a modern industrial nation?
The farmers and the new industrial workers
Who most wanted the Treaty of Versailles enforced? Why?
France, most damaged & all alone vs. Ger.
What was Lenin’s solution to the economic problems the Communists faced after the Russian Civil War?
New Economic Policy (NEP)
Lenin's death led to a power struggle between whom? Who was the victor?
Stalin & Trotsky, Stalin
What was the main threat that fascist regimes responded to?
spread of communism
What did fascist rulers insist the individual must put before everything?
How did Mussolini become Prime Minister?
appointed by king after Black Shirts march on Rome
What did France do in 1923 when Ger. fell behind on reps.?
How did this impact the Ger. economy?
huge inflation, some unemployment
Name 2 parts of the Nazi Party Platform.
repudiation of T of V, unification of Aust & Ger., eradication of Jews, agrarian reform, confiscation of war profits, etc.
What did the Dawes Plan do?
restructured rep pay back (tied to Ger. economy)
Name 2 of the key causes of the Great Depression.
Crisis in currency & investments, commodities crisis, lack of leadership
Why couldn’t farmers pay their debts in the ‘20s?
glut of agricultural goods in market
How did most European gov’ts respond to the GD?
cut spending, wage & price controls
What instrument guided the Soviet economy between 1927 & 1942?
the Five Year Plans
What did these plans call for?
rapid industrialization w/ specific goals for production
How did the plans expect to pay for these increases?
grain exports from collectivized farms
What class strongly opposed collectivized farming? What was done to those who opposed?
kulaks, death or imprisonment
What was the cost of this industrialization?
millions of deaths, lack of economic equality, years of self denial
What was Stalin’s goal in the great Purges?
eliminate all opposition w/in the Party (old Bolsheviks)
What old empire had controlled the Middle East for hundreds of years prior to 1900? What event brought the collapse of this empire?
The Ottoman Empire, WWI
How did the Ottoman gov’t respond to the uprising of Armenian Christians in 1915?
They killed 600,000 Armenians and sent 500,000 more into exile
What leader took over Turkey at the end of WWI and allowed for the official end of the end of the Empire? What was his biggest reform?
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, make Turkey a secular state, free from connections with Islam
What resource was discovered in Persia that served to increase foreign interest?
Name at least two of the new "states" created in the Middle East after WWI?
Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan
What was the first new kingdom created by Arabs in the Middle East? What specific industry brought great wealth to this kingdom in the 1930’s?
Saudi Arabia, the American oil industry
What dynasty had ruled China for over three hundred years prior to 1912?
the Manchu dynasty
Who were the Manchu overthrown by in 1912?
supporters of Sun Yat Sen
What large group will the Chiang Kai Shek and the nationalists come into conflict with in the struggle for control of China?
Mao Tse Tung and the Communists
Who took over leadership of the Nationalists after Sun Yat Sen’s death?
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai Shek)
Who did Jiang Jieshi identify as the two major enemies to Chinese unification in the late 1920’s ?
the Communists and Japan
What is the basic message of Mao’s Four Slogans?
do the opposite of what the enemy wants/expects
What was Mao’s "Long March"?
when Mao and the communists broke the nationalist siege and marched north to their only remaining base
Sum it all up by identifying 3 of the major problems China faced during the 1930’s.
the Great Depression, Japanese aggression, internal conflict (comms vs. nats)
Where did Gandhi receive an education that emphasized nationalism and self-reliance?
Where was Gandhi when his eyes were opened to racial injustice?
South Africa (and its policy of Apartheid)
What kind of things did Gandhi encourage the Indians to do in their resistance of the British?
Boycott, refuse to pay taxes, refuse to work for the British
What event exposed the British to a great deal of outrage from the rest of the world?
The march on the salt mine
When will India finally get it’s independence?
In 1947, after WWII
Who rose to power in response to the GD in Ger.? Who did they use as scapegoats?
Nazis, Jews and Communists
What did Hitler blame on the Communists & use as an excuse to expand his power?
What act of terror made the Nazi anti-Semitic program a clear reality?
What was the name of Hitler’s elite secret police force? Who led it?
What act of terror made the Nazi anti-Semitic program a clear reality?
What was appeasement?
Britain & France’s policy of giving Hitler small pieces of territory to keep him happy
What kinds of propaganda were used by the Nazis? Who was their minister of propaganda?
marches, rallies, radio, print; Joseph Goebbels
What was the Nazis’ economic policy?
Gear all production toward strong military state
Where did Hitler look for territory after Czechoslovakia?
What treaty guaranteed his security on the eastern front?
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Why did the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor?
the U.S cut off shipments of oil
What was the Vichy government?
controlled non-occupied France during WWII
What event led to hardships on the German homefront?
failure of Soviet Invasion
Name two places Hitler took territory before the war started.
Czechoslovakia, Austria, Rhineland
What event started the WWII in Europe?
Germany’s invasion of Poland
How long did it take Germany to conquer Western Europe at the start of the war?
9 months (9/39-6/40)
What was the Battle of Britain (or Blitz)?
massive German air raids over a period of months in 1940
What law allowed us to provide supplies for Great Britain while remaining neutral?
What was the Atlantic Charter?
An agreement on war goals between Churchill and Roosevelt signed in 8/41 (before we entered the war
Where did the U.S. enter the fighting in the war against Germany?
What offensive operation by the Germans eventually helped lead to their downfall?
invasion of the USSR
What was the Allied invasion of Normandy called?
What two kinds of fighting were most common in the Pacific?
naval air battles & amphibious assaults (island hopping)
What battle was considered the turning point in the Pacific?
Where did the Japanese resort to the greatest amount of kamikaze activity? Why was this island geographically significant?
Okinawa, less than 500 miles from Japan
What was the name of the program to create the A-Bomb? Where did many of it’s scientists come from?
Manhattan Project, Europe – which they left because of anti-Semitism
What were Truman’s two main options to defeat Japan? On what two cities was the A-Bomb dropped?
invasion or A-Bomb, Hiroshima & Nagasaki
Identify two things that were controversial about the use of the A-Bomb.
used on civilians, radiation, start arms race, unknown effects
Where was the next major campaign after winning in North Africa? Why was it difficult to fight there?
Sicily (Italy), rugged mountainous terrain
What did we use to attack German manufacturing and military centers from 1942 until the end of the war?
Long range Bombers
What invasion marked the beginning of the end for the Germans in Europe?
Name two things the U.S. wanted from the Soviets at Yalta.
in the U.N., out of Eastern Europe, help vs, Japan
Name two things the Soviets wanted out of the United States and the British at Yalta.
Friendly satellite states in Eastern Europe, reparations and forced labor from the Germans
How did WWII solve the problems of the Great Depression?
boosted production & wages, created full employment
How did the governments raise money for the war effort?
Selling war bonds
Name two goods that were rationed during WWII.
rubber, gasoline, sugar, flour, meat products
Identify three uses for propaganda in WWII.
recruit for war effort, conserve/ration, don’t blab, hate the enemy, believe in our cause, stay united
What international organization was formed after WWII to try & solve problems that might lead to WWIII? Identify three main components of this org..
United Nations; Security Council, General Assembly, International Court, Economic and Social Council
What economic plan was supposed to keep Western European Nations free from Comm. after WWII? What country sponsored it?
Marshall Plan, the United States
Which side did the U.S. (and the U.N.) support in the Korean War? Who supported the other side?
the South, the USSR & China
What was the end result of the Korean War?
N. Korea stays Comm., S. Korea free, DMZ in middle (along the 38th parallel)
What were the two main treaty organizations of the Cold War?
NATO (U.S. led) & Warsaw Pact (USSR led)
What U.S. doctrine vowed to support all resistors of communism wherever they may be?
How did the U.S. respond to the Soviets cutting off access to West Berlin in 1948?
Berlin Airlift (carrying in supplies to West )
What officially started the arms race in 1949?
The soviets tested an atomic bomb
What made it possible for the U.S. to avoid a major post-war economic slump?
Marshall Plan and people spent what they had saved during the war
Who finally comes to power in China in 1949? What type of government did he set up?
Mao Zedong, Communist Dictatorship
Where did Mao’s opponents, the nationalist Koumintang, flee? Are they still in power there?
Name two things Khrushchev did to lessen Stalin’s influence.
some freedoms, agricultural reform, more consumer goods, Secret Speech
How did some of the satellite states respond to Khrushchev’s reforms? How did the soviets respond to this?
Tried to break away from the Soviet Union, sent in the military to squash the uprisings
What did the U.S. response to the European crises of 1956 demonstrate?
We were unwilling to intervene behind the Iron Curtain
What communist dictator rose to power in Cuba in the late 1950’s? What did he do that angered Americans?
Fidel Castro, seized American properties and favored the Soviets
What is the name for the doctrine that says your enemy won’t attack you if he knows you can retaliate?
Mutually Assured Destruction
What 1963 movie made a farce of everyone’s deep seeded fear of Nuclear Holocaust?
Dr. Strangelove (…or how I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb)
What was the U-2 incident? How did it affect relations between the superpowers?
The Soviets shot down and American spy plane and captured the pilot, relations took a turn for the worse
What step did the U.S. take to try and remove Castro from power in 1961?
the invasion at the Bay of Pigs
Where did the Soviets attempt to set up missiles in October of 1962? How did the U.S. respond?
Cuba, naval blockade (this is the Cuban Missile Crisis)
What was the outcome of this crisis?
U.S. promised not to invade Cuba again, USSR takes back its missiles
How did the Soviets respond to the 1968 uprising in Czechoslovakia?
sent in troops
Who led Vietnamese resistance to French control and then led N. Vietnam against the United States?
Ho Chi Minh
What Soviet leader helped hasten their collapse by pushing for an arms buildup in the late 70s & early 80s?
What was Détente? What did it allow to happen?
A lessening of tension between the superpowers, new treaties (on arms buildup, etc.)
What important commodity did the U.S. start selling to the Soviets during Détente?
Who’s set of major reforms brought an end to the USSR? What were the two parts of his reforms?
Gorbachev, perestroika and glasnost
How did the satellite states respond to the weakness of the USSR in 1989?
"revolted" for independence
Identify four areas that "revolted" in 1989.
Poland, E Ger., Czech., Romania, Hungary,
What movement led to independence for Poland in 1989?
How did the U.S. respond to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1980?
By boycotting the 1980 Moscow Olympics and putting an embargo on grain
How did Czechs respond when the gov’t tried to crack down on the first wave of demonstrations in 1989?
Even larger demonstrations
Who became the first president in Czechoslovakia after the Revolution of 1989? What was he before he was president?
Vaclav Havel, a dissident playwright
What was the major issue in Czech after 1989? How was it resolved?
Ethnic tension between Czechs & Slovaks, split nation into Czech Republic and Slovakia
What incident sparked revolution in Romania? What happened to their repressive leader?
The murder of thousands of demonstrators by the Secret Police, he was captured and executed
What contributed to the collapse of the communist dictatorship in East Germany?
economic slump and repressive government
What is the basic nature of the problem in the former Yugoslavia?
many different ethnic/religious groups, discrimination outside common areas
What two groups were suppose to form new states out of the former Palestine in 1947?
Israelis and Arab Palestinians
Which group was the first to form a state? What nation immediately recognized this state?
The Israelis, the United States
Why did the Palestinians refuse to immediately form a state of their own?
they didn’t want to show that they agreed with the division of land
Name two of the Arab nations that actively opposed the state of Israel.
Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iran
What was the outcome of the 1967 Six Days’ War in the middle east?
Israel won a huge victory and occupied a lot of new territory
What was the key outcome, especially for the U.S., of the Yom Kippur War of 1973?
Israel held their territory, OPEC put an embargo on oil to the U.S.
Why were the Camp David Accords of 1978 a big step forward?
Egypt and Israel agreed to ongoing peace talks
What organization did not want the peace process to continue and resorted to terrorism in the 1980s?
the PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)
What step toward peace did the PLO take in 1988?
recognizing that Israel had the right to exist
After a decade of progress toward peace, how has the process recently turned violent?
Palestinian suicide bombers and an Israeli military crackdown
What was the policy of racial separation in South Africa called? Roughly how long was it in force?
apartheid, 90-100 years
What group was organized to fight against this system?
ANC (African National Congress)
What leader of the ANC was imprisoned for 30 years, but later became president of SA?
Name two of the proposed ways to draw boundaries for the new African nations.
colonial boundaries, tribal areas, pan-africanism (all people in one nation)
What kind of governments were most often formed by the leaders of the respective nationalist movements?
authoritarian one-party states
What African nation led the way toward independence after WWII? Who was their leader?
Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah
Identify three of the major challenges facing the new nations in Africa.
dictatorship, lack of infrastructure, old tribal tensions, healthcare/disease, reliance on foreign intervention
Who led the revolutions that broke out across Latin America in the early 1800’s? What class/group was left out?
the Creole elite, the natives
Who did the U.S. support in Nicaragua in the early 1980’s? Why?
the contras, they were fighting the communist Sandinistas
Who was the brutal, drug dealing, dictator that ruled Panama with U.S. support?
Who appealed to the working class to gain power in Argentina? Who was his famous wife?
Juan Peron, Evita
What event eventually ended military rule in Argentina in the early 1980’s?
the failed invasion of the Falkland Islands
What ecological damage did the "economic miracle" of Brazil bring with it?
major harvesting of the Amazon Rainforests