Text of Overview Review II

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What group had great faith in the ongoing progress of society and thought government could solve social problems?
the progressives
Name a law that progressives passed to help purify food.
Pure Food & Drug Act, Meat Inspection Act
Name a measure taken by progressives to take the corruption out of gov’t.
commission system, direct primaries, referendums & initiatives
What did Progressives do to try to help children?
Created the Children’s Bureau, improved schools and regulated child labor.
What did Progressives do by passing the 16th Amendment?
Created the income tax
What two progressive causes were most important to President Theodore Roosevelt?
Regulating monopolies (“trustbusting”) and conserving the environment.
What law did he use to bust the trusts?
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
What organization was formed by WEB DuBois in the early 1900’s to try and improve conditions for African-Americans?
What was the result of the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920?
Women got the right to vote
Why was there a surplus in farm products during the 1920’s?
overproduction from WWI
Name the two events that helped pull the U.S. into the war.
Lusitania & Zimmerman Telegram
What two laws passed during World War I curtailed civil rights and sought to punish enemy spies?
Sedition Act (prevented speaking out against the war) & the Espionage Act (spy and die!)
What was Wilson’s Plan for Peace called? What was the most critical component of this plan?
14 Points, the League of Nations
What was the major population shift from rural areas, especially the South, to urban areas involved in wartime production?
Great Migration (many African Americans moved North)
Name two key conditions of the Treaty of Versailles at the end of World War I.
Germany responsible for WWI, pay big reparations, League of Nations
What policies offered by Republican presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover appealed to many Americans during the 1920’s?
pro business, isolationist foreign policy, “return to normalcy”
What kind of revolution took place in Russia in 1917-1919? What kind of “scare” did this cause in the United States?
Bolshevik (communist) revolution, “Red Scare”
How did the 18th Amendment and the Volstead Act attempt to change American society?
Tried to improve American moral values by banning the sale and production of alcohol
How successful was prohibition? Who took over distribution of alcohol during prohibition?
not very, organized crime
Identify three characteristics of urban America in the 1920’s.
cultural diversity, new immigrants, religious diversity, speakeasies & jazz, manufacturing
Name two ways women established new independent attitudes in the 20s.
Bobbing Hair, wearing shorter skirts, moving out on their own
What is “buying on the margin”?
taking a loan on profits to buy more stock
Why is this a problem?
market crashes and nobody can pay back their loans
What group worked to oppress everybody who was not a White Protestant? Why did it have a resurgence in the 1920’s?
KKK, increased ethnic tension in the cities (Great Migration & Red Scare)
How did the automobile change American life?
demand for roads, faster transportation, closed distances, greater contact
What new forms of media started the worldwide spread of American pop culture in the 1920’s?
Radio and the Movies
What amendment gave women the right to vote?
What was the Harlem Renaissance?
the flourishing growth of the arts in Harlem’s African American community during the 1920’s
What single event in October, 1929 is often thought of as the start of the Depression?
stock market crash  (loses ½ its value) due to over-inflated prices
What President was blamed for the start of the Depression? What was his approach to solving the Depression
Herbert Hoover, Staying hands off, “rugged individualism”, voluntary action
What was the Dust Bowl?
destruction of millions of acres of farmland in OK & TX because of drought and wind and unwise agricultural practices
What photographer is famous for capturing the face of the Depression, especially the Dust Bowl and the Okie flight to CA?
Dorothea Lange
What was the Bonus Army?  How did the gov’t deal with them?
WWI vets who wanted their bonus early, dispersed by force (US Army troops)
Where did unemployment peak during the Great Depression?
How much did GNP fall during the Great Depression?
Who defeated Hoover in the election of 1932? What was his plan to solve the Great Depression called?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the New Deal
How did conservatives view the New Deal?
1st step towards socialism (too much gov’t involvement), too many “Robin Hood” taxes on the wealthy
What was the most controversial part of the New Deal?  What did it ask people to do?
NRA (nat’l recovery administration), comply with voluntary min. wage & other regulations
What organization brought electricity to rural areas?  What technology did they use to generate electricity?
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), hydroelectric (they built dams)
What did FDR try to do when the Supreme Court rejected parts of the New Deal like the NRA and the AAA?
Pack the court (add six justices who agreed with his ideas)
Who was Father Coughlin?  Who did he blame the GD on?
RC priest in Detroit, Jewish bankers and capitalists
What were the two biggest parts of the “2nd New Deal”?
Social Security and the Works Progress Administration (WPA)
What does Social Security provide?
Benefits for the elderly and disabled
What organization was created by the Wagner Act to help protect the rights of workers and unions?
the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
What national labor organization rose to prominence in the Depression by organizing all types of workers?
the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
What major event eventually pulled our country out of the GD?
World War II
What law(s) allowed us to provide supplies for Great Britain while remaining neutral?
Lend-Lease Act, Cash and Carry
What was significant about the Atlantic Charter?
established common war goals for United States & Great Britain (before we were actually in the war)

What key resources did the United States stop selling to Japan in the months preceding the attack on Pearl Harbor?
oil, steel, scrap metal, gasoline
How did the federal government raise money for the war effort?
Selling war bonds
How did our army handle soldiers of different races?
placed them in segregated regiments
What famous propaganda character represented American women working in wartime factories? Name one problem these women faced.
Rosie the Riveter; wage gap, fired for flirting, sexual harassment, little day care
Why did the United States government decide to inter the Nisei?  How did many young Nisei men show their loyalty to the US?
the Nisei were considered a national security threat, they joined the 442nd Regiment and fought with valor in Europe
What two kinds of fighting were most common in the Pacific?
naval air battles & amphibious assaults (island hopping)
What battle was considered the turning point in the Pacific? Why was it significant?
Midway, United States planes and ships destroyed 4 Japanese carriers and put Japan on the defensive
What 1944 invasion marked the beginning of the end for the Germans in Europe? Where did it take place?
D-Day/Operation Overlord, the Normandy Coast of France
What was the last major German counter attack?
Battle of the Bulge
Name two goods that were rationed during WWII.
rubber, gasoline, sugar, flour
Where did the Big 3 meet to discuss post war plans early in 1945? (hint: the Soviets were promised a special role in Eastern Europe during this meeting)
Which president made the decision to drop the Atomic bomb on Japan? What was his alternative to dropping the Bomb?
Truman, massive land invasion
What doctrine vowed to support all resistors of communism wherever they may be?
Truman Doctrine
In what aspect of American society did President Truman promise to end segregation in 1948?
the United States Military
What economic plan was supposed to keep Western European Nations free form Comm. after WWII?
Marshall Plan
Which side did the U.S. support in the Korean War?  Who supported the other side?
the South, the USSR
What was the result of the Korean War?
NK stays Comm., SK free, DMZ in middle
How did we respond to the Soviets cutting off access to W. Berlin in 1948?
Berlin Airlift of supplies
Which U.S. Senator made a name for himself in the early 1950’s by hunting communists?
Joseph McCarthy
What were the two main treaty organizations of the Cold War? What anti-communist treaty organization did the USA help to form in Asia?
NATO & Warsaw Pact;
What communist dictator rose to power in Cuba in the late 1950’s?
Fidel Castro
What effort did Kennedy make to remove Castro from power? Why did it fail?
the Bay of Pigs, lack of local support, no air strike
What 1962 Soviet threat in the Caribbean led to some of the darkest moments of the Cold War? What was the outcome of this crisis?
Cuban Missile Crisis, U.S. promised not to invade Cuba again, USSR took back its missiles
What 1896 Supreme Court decision made segregation legal (separate but equal)?
Plessy v. Ferguson
What 1954 Supreme Court decision reversed Plessy?  What was the immediate result?
Brown vs. the Board of Ed. (Topeka, KS), desegregation of the schools
What was the key principle of Martin Luther King’s strategy to end segregation?
non-violent passive resistance
Give an example of a Black Separatist Organization.
Black Panthers, Nation of Islam
Give 2 examples of tough conditions faced by black students at Central High in Little Rock in 1957.
soldier escorts, name calling, fights, threats
What was the purpose of the March on Washington?  What famous speech did MLK deliver there?
pressure for Civil Rights Legislation, “I Have a Dream Speech”
What organization did Malcolm X represent (at first)?  What did he say blacks should reject?
Nation of Islam, self hatred imposed on them by white culture
What was NOW?  What were two issues they focused on?
National Organization for Women, equal pay, equal rights, sexual discrimination in the work place
Who did the Vietnamese originally fight for their independence?  Why did the United States support this nation in Vietnam?
France, Ho Chi Minh was a communist, needed French support in Europe
List two ways combat conditions in Vietnam were unlike those soldiers had prepared for.
jungle, traps & guerrilla tactics, heat & rain, unknown enemy
Name one factor that made our involvement in Vietnam so controversial.
just cause?, high cost ($ & lives), impatience with lack of progress
What impact did the Tet Offensive have on public opinion about the war?
turned many against it
What was the name of the quiet group that wanted law & order & supported the war? What President garnered their support?
silent majority, Nixon
What minority groups were over-represented in the troops in Vietnam?
Blacks and Hispanics
 What theory proposed that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, the rest of SE Asia would soon follow?
domino theory
What were the poor conditions that Native Americans faced in the 1960’s?
poverty, lack of educational opportunity
Name two famous decisions made by the “Nixon” moderate Supreme Court.
Roe (abortion), Swann (seg. neighborhods not seg. schools), Milliken (no int. over dist. lines)
What was one of Ford’s first important actions that relates to Watergate?
pardons Nixon
Why did OPEC place an embargo on oil to the U.S. in 1973?
we helped Israel in October war
Name two factors that led to the Rust Belt.
overconfidence, lost touch, energy crisis, foreign competition, slacking off
What is stagflation a combination of?
unemployment & inflation
What was Carter’s major foreign policy victory in the Middle East?
Camp David Accords
What was Carter’s big foreign policy nightmare?
Iran Hostage Crisis
What major events had damaged American national esteem between 1969-1981?
Vietnam, Watergate, Iran Hostage Crisis
What was our gov’t hoping for help with from the Iranians in exchange for selling them arms?
freeing our hostages in Lebanon
What Soviet leaders reforms ultimately led to the collapse of the Eastern Bloc.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Identify two challenges George Bush faced during his presidency.
recession, end of Cold War, Gulf War, S & L Crisis, War on Drugs, Clarence Thomas