Text of Overview Review Game I

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Why did the Puritans want to leave England?

religious persecution
What religious movement was focused on getting an emotional response from its audience?
Great Awakening
Why did the British begin taxing the colonists in 1763?
pay for the French & Indian (7 yrs.) War
Who did the southern colonies rely upon for their labor force?
slaves from Africa
Who was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence?
Thomas Jefferson
Which enlightenment thinker pushed for a three branch government?
Which enlightenment thinker was an advocate for the protection of “natural rights” (life, liberty, property)? Where did they believe these rights came from?
Locke, GOD
**Which enlightenment thinker pushed government by the general will?
**What famous pamphlet in 1776 called for Americans to reject monarchy & support independence? Who was its author?
Common Sense,  Thomas Paine
What document set up our nation’s first government but ended up giving too much power to the states?
Articles of Confederation
**Name two weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
no power to tax, no power to coin money, no executive branch, weak central government
What were the two main purposes of the Declaration of Independence?
Establish ideology behind revolution and list grievances vs. King George
How many houses are their in our Congress?  What are their names?
2, the Senate and the House of Representatives
**What were the two major compromises made during the drafting of the United States Constitution?
Great Compromise (large states: House, small states: Senate), 3/5 Compromise (5 slaves count for 3 men)
What part of the government did the Federalists want strengthened in the new constitution?
the national (Federal) government, get it…Federalists
What group pushed hard for the inclusion of the Bill of Rights?
What freedoms are guaranteed by the First Amendment?
Speech, religion, press, assembly, petition
Who has the power to declare laws/acts unconstitutional (aka the power of Judicial review established in Marbury v. Madison)?
Judicial Branch/Supreme Court
What was Hamilton’s (the Federalist) vision for America?
A country based on manufacturing and a strong central government
What was Jefferson’s (the Democratic Republican) vision of America?
Agricultural society, everybody owns land, strong state’s rights
What was the Monroe Doctrine (issued in 1823)?
don’t mess around in our hemisphere & we’ll stay out of yours (to Europe)
What is “Manifest Destiny”?
The belief that the U.S. would someday control the land from coast to coast.
**What change in voting requirements allowed the “common man” to support Andrew Jackson and the new Democratic Party in 1828?
End to the property requirement for voting
How were the industries of westward expansion in conflict with the lifestyle of the Plains NAs?
settled (mining & farming) vs. nomadic
Why did Mormons move west to the Utah territory?
To escape religious persecution
What was Lincoln’s main purpose at the start of the fighting in the Civil War?
preserving the Union
What happened to the Southern industrial and agricultural production facilities during the war?
They were almost totally wiped out
What was the purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation?
Free the slaves in rebel states
**In what speech did Lincoln call for a “new birth of freedom” and identify the new goals of the war?
Gettysburg Address
What did the Civil War Amendments (13, 14, 15) do?
Made slavery illegal (13), extends civil rights to all races (14), voting rights for all males (15)
Name 2 things that kept freedmen from gaining true equality.
sharecropping, KKK, black codes, racist attitudes, poverty
Name 2 ways Southern states kept freedmen from voting.
poll taxes, literacy tests, threats & violence
What was the major demographic shift after the Civil War?
urbanization (shift from country to city)
What inventions helped fuel the growth of cities?
telephone, electric light, use of steel in construction, electric street car
**Give 3 examples of poor working and living conditions in the new industrial cities.
heat/cold, unsafe machines, long hours, low wages, overcrowding, crime and disease
Describe 2 ways that districts or neighborhoods developed in these new cities?
by industry, wealth, racial or ethnic group
 What religious movement of the late 1800’s created a desire by Christians to save their souls by reforming society and by helping the less fortunate?
The Second Great Awakening
What was the goal of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1846?
Women’s rights including suffrage (the right to vote)
What famous book (and author) exposed the horrors of these conditions, especially in Chicago’s meat packing industry?
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair
How did workers eventually respond to these poor conditions?
formed unions
What was the first national labor organization?  Who did they try and organize?
Knights of Labor, all workers
**What type of worker did the American Federation of Labor (AFL) try to organize? Who was their first leader?
skilled white male workers, Samuel Gompers
What is laissez faire economics?
a system with little or no government control or interference with business/trade
Why were new immigrants subjected to so much discrimination?
different languages, religions (Roman Catholic, Jewish), complexions, cultural differences
How did the Americanization Movement attempt to help immigrants succeed?
education in the “American” way of life, including public schools, Protestant religion, hygiene, English language
What did political machines offer to immigrants in order to get their votes?
help with housing, finding a job, etc.
Identify two problems political machines caused for their constituents.
corruption, voting fraud, bribery, graft
What do you call a group of corporations controlled by the same board for common interest?
What type of government economic policy did the business leaders of the late 1800’s want?
What theory favored by William Graham Sumner used ideas about evolution to explain differences between the rich and the poor?
Social Darwinism
What theory used biblical ideas to justify gaining wealth (as long as it was shared to help society)?
The Social Gospel
What development in transportation linked trade between cities after the Civil War?
What kind of person was likely to be a populist?  Where were they likely to live?
farmer, Midwest
Name 2 demands of the populists.
silver-backed currency, higher crop prices, a nat’l bank to give fair loans, regulation of the RRs