Text of the M25 Final Review

Why were new immigrants subjected to so much discrimination?

different languages, religions (Roman Catholic, Jewish), complexions, cultural differences

What do you call a group of corporations controlled by the same board for common interest?


What theory used biblical ideas to justify gaining wealth (as long as it was shared to help society)?

The Social Gospel

Name 2 demands of the populists.

silver-backed currency, higher crop prices, a natíl bank to give fair loans, regulation of the RRs

What optimistic group had great faith in the ongoing progress of society?

the progressives

What two progressive causes were most important to President Theodore Roosevelt?

Regulating monopolies ("trustbusting") and conserving the environment.

What organization was formed by WEB DuBois in the early 1900ís to try and improve conditions for African-Americans?


What was the result of the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920?

Women got the right to vote

What did the Open Door Policy give us free reign to do?

force China to trade with us

Identify 2 places where the United States annexed territory or otherwise assumed control in the Pacific at the turn of the century.

The Philippines, Hawaii, Guam

Name two reasons why the U.S. was interested in expanding itís imperial power.

ports for naval ships, markets for manufactured goods, expansion of Christianity, sources of raw materials

What "manufactured" event drew the U.S. into the Spanish American War?

the sinking of the USS Maine

Why was there a surplus in farm products during the 1920ís?

overproduction from WWI

What was Wilsonís stated reason for entering WWI?

"Make the world safe for democracy."

What two laws passed during World War I curtailed civil rights and sought to punish enemy spies?

Sedition Act (prevented speaking out against the war) & the Espionage Act (spy and die!)

Name 2 kinds of people who might have opposed U.S. involvement in WWI.

pacifists, socialists, German immigrants, Irish immigrants

What was Wilsonís Plan for Peace called? What was the most critical component of this plan?

14 Points, the League of Nations

What was the major population shift from rural areas, especially the South, to urban areas involved in wartime production?

Great Migration (many African Americans moved North)

Why did many Americans reject Woodrow Wilsonís "Moral Diplomacy" at the end of World War I?

High cost of war in exchange for very little benefit from United States involvement

What policies offered by Republican presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover appealed to many Americans during the 1920ís?

pro business, isolationist foreign policy, "return to normalcy"

What kind of revolution took place in Russia in 1917-1919? What kind of "scare" did this cause in the United States?

Bolshevik (communist) revolution, "Red Scare"

Who took over after Harding to clean up after the scandals? Describe his business philosophy.

Coolidge, hands off, pro-ownership

Identify two examples of anti-immigrant sentiment from the twenties,

Sacco & Vanzetti, Al Smith, KKK, immigration quotas & restrictions

How did the 18th Amendment and the Volstead Act attempt to change American society?

Tried to improve American moral values by banning the sale and production of alcohol

Name two ways women established new independent attitudes in the 20s.

Bobbing Hair, wearing shorter skirts, moving out on their own

What is "buying on the margin"?

taking a loan on profits to buy more stock

What group worked to oppress everybody who was not a White Protestant? Why did it have a resurgence in the 1920ís?

KKK, increased ethnic tension in the cities (Great Migration & Red Scare)

How did Al Smithís religion help to prevent him from winning the 1928 Presidential election?

There was widespread prejudice in the United States against Catholics

What new forms of media started the worldwide spread of American pop culture in the 1920ís?

Radio and the Movies

Name two types of jobs commonly held by lower class women.

factory, lower clerical, janitorial

What was the Harlem Renaissance?

the flourishing growth of the arts in Harlemís African American community during the 1920ís

What were some of the key themes explored by Harlem Renaissance writers such as Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston

challenging racism, problems of poverty and oppression, celebrating Black culture

What encouraged consumption of all kinds of new goods in the twenties?

new marketing techniques and easier credit/installment plans

What single event in October, 1929 is often thought of as the start of the Depression?

stock market crash (loses Ĺ its value) due to over-inflated prices

What were the two sources of bad debts that caused so many banks to fail at the start of the Depression?

Loans to farmers and investments in the Stock Market

What President was blamed for the start of the Depression? What was his approach to solving the Depression

Herbert Hoover, Staying hands off, "rugged individualism", voluntary action

What were Hooverís two attempts at direct govít action? What did they try to do?

Federal Farm Board (loans and cooperatives) and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (loans to banks and businesses)

What did Congress do to try and protect American industry? What was the result?

passed the Hawley Smoot Tariff, cut international trade and slowed economic growth

What was the Bonus Army? How did the govít deal with them?

WWI vets who wanted their bonus early, dispersed by force (US Army troops)

Where did unemployment peak during the Great Depression?


How much did GNP fall during the Great Depression?


Who defeated Hoover in the election of 1932? What was his plan to solve the Great Depression called?

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the New Deal

How did conservatives view the New Deal?

1st step towards socialism (too much govít involvement), too many "Robin Hood" taxes on the wealthy

What was the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) responsible for?

Regulating crop prices & productions with subsidies & by paying people not to farm

What organization brought electricity to rural areas? What technology did they use to generate electricity?

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), hydroelectric (they built dams)

What did FDR try to do when the Supreme Court rejected parts of the New Deal like the NRA and the AAA?

Pack the court (add six justices who agreed with his ideas)

Who was the charismatic senator from Louisiana that promised to "Share Our Wealth"? What happens to him?

Huey Long, shot by a political rival

What were the two biggest parts of the "2nd New Deal"?

Social Security and the Works Progress Administration (WPA)

What types of jobs did the WPA provide?

traditional public works jobs, plus additional jobs in "arts and letters" (writers, actors, artists, historians, etc.)

What organization was created by the Wagner Act to help protect the rights of workers and unions?

the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)

What national labor organization rose to prominence in the Depression by organizing all types of workers?

the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)

What major event eventually pulled our country out of the GD?

World War II

What was significant about the Atlantic Charter?

established common war goals for United States & Great Britain (before we were actually in the war)

What key resources did the United States stop selling to Japan in the months preceding the attack on Pearl Harbor?

oil, steel, scrap metal, gasoline

How did our army handle soldiers of different races?

placed them in segregated regiments

What famous propaganda character represented American women working in wartime factories? Name one problem these women faced.

Rosie the Riveter; wage gap, fired for flirting, sexual harassment, little day care

Why did the United States government decide to inter the Nisei? How did many young Nisei men show their loyalty to the US?

the Nisei were considered a national security threat, they joined the 442nd Regiment and fought with valor in Europe

What event brought us into the war?

Bombing of Pearl Harbor

What two kinds of fighting were most common in the Pacific?

naval air battles & amphibious assaults (island hopping)

How did the fighting at Iwo Jima help convince the United States to use the Atomic Bomb?

high casualty rate and "fight to the death" mentality of the Japanese soldiers

What 1944 invasion marked the beginning of the end for the Germans in Europe? Where did it take place?

D-Day/Operation Overlord, the Normandy Coast of France

What was the last major German counter attack?

Battle of the Bulge

Name two goods that were rationed during WWII.

rubber, gasoline, sugar, flour

Which president made the decision to drop the Atomic bomb on Japan? What was his alternative to dropping the Bomb?

Truman, massive land invasion

Name one thing that was controversial about the use of the A-Bomb.

used on civilians, radiation, start arms race, technology hidden from Soviets

How did WWII solve the problems of the Great Depression?

boosted production & wages, created full employment

What international organization was formed after WWII to try & solve problems that might lead to WWIII?

United Nations

Why did President Truman veto the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947? What happened to the Act?

It cut back on the power and protection of unions .. Congress overrode his veto and it became law.

What doctrine vowed to support all resistors of communism wherever they may be?

Truman Doctrine

What economic plan was supposed to keep Western European Nations free form Comm. after WWII?

Marshall Plan

Which side did the U.S. support in the Korean War? Who supported the other side?

the South, the USSR

Why did Truman fire MacArthur during the Korean War?

insisted on being more aggressive (nuke China)

What was the result of the Korean War?

NK stays Comm., SK free, DMZ in middle

How did we respond to the Soviets cutting off access to W. Berlin in 1948?

Berlin Airlift of supplies

What did the Soviets test/demonstrate in 1949? What key country had a communist revolution that same year?

an atomic bomb; China

Which U.S. Senator made a name for himself in the early 1950ís by hunting communists?

Joseph McCarthy

What effort did Kennedy make to remove Castro from power? Why did it fail?

the Bay of Pigs, lack of local support, no air strike

What is the name for the doctrine that says your enemy wonít attack you if he knows you can retaliate?

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)

What 1962 Soviet threat in the Caribbean led to some of the darkest moments of the Cold War? What was the outcome of this crisis?

Cuban Missile Crisis, U.S. promised not to invade Cuba again, USSR took back its missiles

What 1896 Supreme Court decision made segregation legal (separate but equal)?

Plessy v. Ferguson

What 1954 Supreme Court decision reversed Plessy? What was the immediate result?

Brown vs. the Board of Ed. (Topeka, KS), desegregation of the schools

Where did Rosa Parks start the Bus Boycott? Who was chosen to lead the boycott?

Montgomery, Martin Luther King Jr.

What was the key principle of Martin Luther Kingís strategy to end segregation?

non-violent passive resistance

Give an example of a Black Separatist Organization.

Black Panthers, Nation of Islam

What organization fought school segregation in the courts? Who served as its lead attorney in the Brown Case (& later first black SC Justice)?

NAACP, Thurgood Marshall

What did the SCLC do to expose Bull Connor? What happened to MLK there?

Marches in Birmingham, he was put in jail

What organization did Malcolm X represent (at first)? What did he say blacks should reject?

Nation of Islam, self hatred imposed on them by white culture

Where was militancy more rampant?

Northern cities

Who did the Vietnamese originally fight for their independence? Why did the United States support this nation in Vietnam?

France, Ho Chi Minh was a communist, needed French support in Europe

List two ways combat conditions in Vietnam were unlike those soldiers had prepared for.

jungle, traps & guerrilla tactics, heat & rain, unknown enemy

What was "vietnamization"?

turning the war over to the South Vietnamese

What were the southern sympathizers of the communist North called?

Viet Cong

What impact did the Tet Offensive have on public opinion about the war?

turned many against it

What was the name of the quiet group that wanted law & order & supported the war? What President garnered their support?

silent majority, Nixon

What minority groups were over-represented in the troops in Vietnam?

Blacks and Hispanics

What theory proposed that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, the rest of SE Asia would soon follow?

domino theory

What tactic did Nixon use to try and force the Vietnamese to the bargaining table?

increased bombing

Name two reasons Nixon went to China in 1972?

keep them at odds with USSR, open markets to trade

What did the SALT talks do?

limit strategic weapons, like ICBMs

What was one of Fordís first important actions that relates to Watergate?

pardons Nixon

Why did OPEC place an embargo on oil to the U.S. in 1973?

we helped Israel in October war

Name two factors that led to the Rust Belt.

overconfidence, lost touch, energy crisis, foreign competition, slacking off

What is stagflation a combination of?

unemployment & inflation

What was Carterís major foreign policy victory in the Middle East?

Camp David Accords

What was Carterís big foreign policy nightmare?

Iran Hostage Crisis

What major events had damaged American national esteem between 1969-1981?

Vietnam, Watergate, Iran Hostage Crisis

What president tried to restore prestige to the presidency in light of this?

Ronald Reagan

What was congressí position on funding the Contras in 1983?

against it

What was our govít hoping for help with from the Iranians in exchange for selling them arms?

freeing our hostages in Lebanon

Identify two challenges George Bush faced during his presidency.

recession, end of Cold War, Gulf War, S & L Crisis, War on Drugs, Clarence Thomas