Text of the M07A Midterm Review


What were the Spanish trying to find when they sponsored Columbus’ voyage west?

A new route to Asia

Name two things that the Europeans brought with them to the new world?

Iron technology, Christianity, diseases, firearms

What was Spain’s primary interest in Mexico and Peru?

Gold and silver bullion

Who was at the top of the socio-economic order in the new world?

Peninsulares (pure European blood)

Where was the first English settlement in North America?

Jamestown (in the Chesapeake region)

What product eventually became the key export of the Chesapeake?


Who provided much of the labor in the early years in the Chesapeake?  How did they pay for their passage?

Indentured servants, 3-7 years of service to their master

What uprising resulted from tension between landed and landless in VA during the late 1600’s?

Bacon’s Rebellion

Where did the use of African slaves originate?  What crop was involved?

West Indies, sugar

Where did these sugar growers eventually take the practice of African slavery?

The Carolinas, and it eventually spread to Virginia

What are two key reasons slaves became a more desirable form of labor than indentured servants?

Lifetime term of service, property according to law (any treatment acceptable), slaves could bear more slaves

What was the “middle passage”?

The journey on slave ships from Africa to the colonies

Why did the Puritans want to leave England?

religious persecution

What was the basis for Puritan religion?  Why was this significant?

Calvinism, they believed they were chosen and had a covenant with God and each other

What colonial region boasted the most religious diversity?  What were some of these groups?

Middle Colonies, Quakers, Catholics, Lutherans, etc.

What was it about Pennsylvania that made it a prosperous center of manufacturing & trade?

A whole lot of hard working, thrifty Quakers

What religious movement of the early 1700’s was focused on getting an emotional response from its audience?

Great Awakening

What city was the finance, trade, and shipping hub of the New England colonies?


How did colonial governors view their role?

Saw themselves as “mini kings” of their colonies

Where did the colonists feel they had legitimate representation?

Their colonial assemblies

What was the primary cause of the Seven Years (French & Indian) War?

Claims over colonial territories in North America

In the eyes of the British throne, what was the primary role of the colonies?  How did they ensure this?

As a source of revenue, a series of trade regulations

Why did the British begin taxing the colonists in 1763?

pay for debts incurred in the French & Indian (7 yrs.) War

What were the first taxes the British passed?  How did the colonists respond?

Stamp and Sugar Acts, strongly resisted (boycotted, protested, etc.)

What was the significance of the Boston Massacre?

First armed conflict of the revolution

What was the British response to the Boston Tea Party?

Coercive (or Intolerable) Acts

Identify two ways the colonists mobilized politically after the Intolerable Acts.

Committees of correspondence & First Continental Congress

What was significant about the First Continental Congress?

All colonies acting together in common interest, claimed their own political authority

What was the dual task of the Second Continental Congress?

Trying to negotiate peace with Great Britain while simultaneously preparing for war

What famous pamphlet in 1776 called for Americans to reject monarchy & support independence? Who was its author?

Common Sense,  Thomas Paine

Who was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence?  What does the document do?

Thomas Jefferson, lays out ideology of the revolution and grievances against King George

Who was chosen to lead the Colonial Army?  What were some of the challenges he faced?

George Washington, forming militias into an army, lack of funding & resources

How did the British view their role in the revolutionary war?  How was this reflected in their tactics?

Putting down an insurrection, they never pressed their strategic advantage

What was the key to early British strategy in the early years of the war?

Control the Hudson and cut off the revolutionary radicals in Massachusetts

What colonial victory helped bring increased aid from the French?

Defeating Burgoyne at Saratoga

After losing patience on their northern strategy, where did the British turn?

To the South in an effort to shut down Virginia

Where does the Colonial Army finally force the British to surrender?

Yorktown, with help from the French navy

Identify two key contributions women made to the revolutionary cause.

Economic (boycotts), took over household economies, supported revolutionary army

Which enlightenment thinker advocated a three branch government?


Which enlightenment thinker was an advocate for the protection of “natural rights” (life, liberty, property)? Where did they believe these rights came from?

Locke, GOD

What document set up our nation’s first government but ended up giving too much power to the states?

Articles of Confederation

Name two weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.

no power to tax, no power to coin money, no executive branch, weak central government

Why was the question of the western lands so important?  How was it finally resolved?

States made claims on land all the way to Mississippi River, Jefferson and the NW Ordinance

What was required for full citizenship (and voting rights) during the critical period (1781-1787)?

Property ownership

What uprising of impoverished Revolutionary war vets clearly demonstrated the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

Shay’s Rebellion

What area of the nation abolished slavery after the adoption of the constitution?

New England states

Where did slavery continue to flourish?  Why?

Southern states, seen as integral to their cash crop economy

How many houses are their in our Congress?  What are their names?

2, the Senate and the House of Representatives

Is our government under the Constitution more republican or democratic?

Republican (indirect representation)

What were the two major compromises made during the drafting of the United States Constitution?

Great Compromise (large states: House, small states: Senate), 3/5 Compromise (5 slaves count for 3 men)

What part of the government did the Federalists want strengthened in the new constitution?

the national (Federal) government, get it…Federalists

What group pushed hard for the inclusion of the Bill of Rights?


What was Hamilton’s (the Federalist) vision for America?

A country based on manufacturing and a strong central government

What was Jefferson’s (the Democratic Republican) vision of America?

Agricultural society, everybody owns land, strong state’s rights