Text of the M07A Final Review
Identify three key weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
No power to tax or coin money No executive authority – forced to invent one by committee action No official home base
What were often the two key requirements for voting in the early Republic?
You had to be a white adult male property owner
What part of the country gradually began passing emancipation laws in the late 1700s?
The North (or New England)
What agreement established the guidelines for the settlement and organization of the “western territories” in 1787? What were some key provisions?
The Northwest Ordinance, set #s of citizens for each phase of development, tries to protect Indians, bans slavery (increases sectionalism)
How did Shay’s Rebellion create great concerns regarding the strength of the government?
No central authority for dealing with future rebellions, no structure in place to solve problems that caused rebellion
What were the two major compromises made during the drafting of the United States Constitution?
Great Compromise (large states: House, small states: Senate), 3/5 Compromise (5 slaves count for 3 men)
Why is our government a “Democratic Republic”?
We vote (democracy) for the people who represent us (republic)
What part of the government did the Federalists want strengthened in the new constitution?
the national (Federal) government, get it…Federalists
What group pushed hard for the inclusion of the Bill of Rights?
What was Hamilton’s (the Federalist) vision for America?
A country based on manufacturing and a strong central government (run by elite)
Identify two of Hamilton’s early economic policies.
Consolidate Nat’l debt, assume state debts, pay debt in full, works to boost manufactures
What foreign war had a huge impact on the U.S. during the 1790s? Why?
War between France & GB, Jeff (D-Rs) backed France – Feds backed GB, fuels party tensions
What event (in 1800) demonstrated the flexibility and functionality of the new Constitution?
Jefferson’s election, totally new ideas peacefully came into power
How did Jefferson visualize the role of the executive branch?
As minimal as possible, he cut way back on spending & offices
How did Jefferson react to troubles with GB & France in 1807? How did this impact the economy?
Embargo Act, huge negative impact on economy
What was Jefferson’s vision of America? What large acquisition was designed to make this a reality?
Agricultural society, everybody owns land or a small business, strong state’s rights; the Louisiana Purchase
Who was sent to explore the Louisiana Territory? What were their primary tasks?
Lewis & Clark; map the territory, bring back specimens, friendly relations with natives
How did the rivalry between the French & British affect us in the early 1800s?
War of 1812
What disgruntled group did the British bring in to try and defeat the US in 1812?
The Indians, who were frustrated with the loss of western lands (Indiana, Illinois, etc.)
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
don’t mess around in our hemisphere & we’ll stay out of yours (to Europe)
What did Jackson supporters call Clay’s support for John Q. Adams in the 1824 election? How did Adams try to change federal power?
A “corrupt bargain”, Adams tried to dramatically increase federal power
Where did Jackson’s political support come from? Which of his policies built this up?
Common Man (new Democratic Party) expand opportunity for all white men, oppose National bank, Indian relocation (Trail of Tears)
What economic development in the early 1800’s marked the end of the old family based economy and the beginning of a new national economy?
Name two big reform movements of the early 1800’s. What did they want?
Abolition (end slavery), temperance (ban alcohol), suffrage (women’s vote), Great Awakening (win souls back to church)
What party opposed Jackson’s policies? Who did they represent?
The Whigs, mostly northern business elite who felt they were at the mercy of an unfair tyrant
What small group dominated southern economic and political life in the early 1800’s?
Wealthy plantation owners
What is “Manifest Destiny”?
The belief that the U.S. would someday control the land from coast to coast.
How did the Mex-Am War start? What was the real purpose?
Dispute over territory between Texas and Mexico – US trying to fulfill Manifest Destiny
Who opposed the Mexican-American War? Why did they oppose it?
Whigs and Abolitionists, opposed extension of slavery in the Southwest
What was the basic outcome of the Mex-Am war?
US pays $15m for major territory (CA, NV, AZ, UT, etc.)
What issue was hotly debated in the new territories as our country expanded westward?
What were two of the main provisions of the Missouri Compromise?
MO is a slave state, ME is a free state, no slavery above 36-30 line
What was the purpose of the Wilmot Proviso?
It was an attempt to ban slavery in lands acquired from the Mex-Am War
What were two of the main provisions of the Compromise of 1850?
CA free state, tougher fugitive slave law, UT & NM slave territories
What was the free labor ideal? What was its biggest enemy?
Earn enough with labor to buy own farm or business, hire younger person to help them on their way; slavery
What was the name of the nativist party that split from the Whigs in the 1850’s? Who was the target of their nativism?
Know-Nothings, Irish and German immigrants
What groups joined to form the Republican Party in the 1850’s?
Free labor & free soil advocates, abolitionists (everyone who opposed expansion of slavery in new territories)
What were the key outcomes of the Kansas Nebraska Act?
Northern route for transcontinental RR, popular sovereignty on slavery in K-N
How did the Dred Scott Decision further inflame the slavery debate?
Ruling slaves never citizens, rights therefore cannot be violated (regardless of travel, etc.)
What were two key outcomes of the Lincoln Douglass Debates?
Vaulted Lincoln to the head of the Republican party, framed the national debate over slavery
Why did John Brown take over the arsenal at Harper’s Ferry?
attempt to arm slaves and lead a revolt
Name two advantages the South had at the start of the Civil War.
Better generals, defensive war, passion for their cause
Name 3 advantages the North had at the start of the war.
larger population, more industry, better transportation, more food production
How did the North use their superior navy to try and force the South to surrender?
Blockade the southern coast and patrol the Mississippi
Which side enjoyed great success in the first two years of the Civil War? Why?
The South, better leadership and fighting a defensive war
What was the purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation?
Free the slaves in rebel states, provide moral cause for the war
What two battle in July of 1863 proved to be a turning point in the Civil War?
Gettysburg & Vicksburg
What union general took command of the entire army after waging successful campaigns in the west?
Ulysses S. Grant
Who marched through the South with the goal of forcing them to surrender?
What did the 13th Amendment do?
Made slavery illegal
Why did the Radical Republicans push for the 14th Amendment? What was it supposed to do?
Southern States were passing Black Codes, 14th was supposed to protect citizenship rights of all citizens
What President did the Radical Republicans have a major problem during Reconstruction? Why? How did they try to oust him?
Andrew Johnson, much to friendly to the South (unwilling to make big reforms), they impeached him
Name 2 things that kept freedmen from gaining true equality.
sharecropping, lynching, lack of land reform, KKK, black codes, racist attitudes
Name 2 ways Southern states kept freedmen from voting.
poll taxes, literacy tests, threats & violence
What did the 15th Amendment do? Was it effective?
Prohibited denying the right to vote based on race, no
What were carpetbaggers? Scalawags? Redeemers?
Northerners who came south during Recon, southerners who helped northerners, southerners who returned south to old ways
What finally distracted the North and drew their attention away from Reconstruction?
Panic (or economic recession) of 1873