Society, Politics & Thought in the Late 1800’s Part II

History M01B – Krister Swanson – Moorpark College


Labor Trends in late 1800s

more unskilled jobs, esp. in transportation and building

less artisans and highly skilled workers

After 1848 workers look to new institutions for change and representation…

Labor Politics & Unions

Unions: collective bargaining for economic gain, not political at first

Unions repressed in mid 1800s, 1871- unions legal in GB, 1884- legal in France

early 1900’s- many strikes- trying to keep pay up with inflation

1910 large union membership

Labor Impacts Democracy

1890: Russia only true Monarchy left

broader franchise means you can’t ignore workers

political parties organize new electorate & represent their interests

This presents opportunity for socialists, they underestimate WC nationalism

The Big ?: WC improvement through revolution or reform?

First International

founded in 1864- collection of politically radical elements from all over Europe

Marx supports calls for reform, really wants Revolution

violence of Commune hurts radical cause, by 1873- they’re done

they make Marxism main brand of soc. (rev.)

Labor Politics Around Europe

1906- Labour Party rises (WC alternative to Con. & Lib.), support unions, not socialists

Fabian Society (GB Soc.) supported municipal collectivism (gov’t control of utilities, Health Care)

After reforms of 1909 - GB becomes leader of government taking care of social probs – End of Fabianism

German SPD - revolutionaries who try to pass pro-WC legislation

SPD grows in popularity despite repression by Bismarck

Bismarck tries to make state alternative to Socialism

More Labor Politics

1889- 2nd International - unity between soc. parties & unions

1890’s Revisionists (Bernstein) claim Marx won’t happen: standard of living is up, ownership thru stock, extended franchise

therefore must revise Marx and seize opportunism (participation in non-soc. Gov’ts)

SPD winds up pursuing Bern’s goals, becomes almost mainstream by WWI

Russian Industrialism

75 yrs. behind, Alex III & Nick II push rapid industrialism

Sergei Witte plans it (tariffs, taxes, gold std.)

Based on heavy industries (RR, coal, iron, textiles)

Industry Brings Problems

Profit goes to foreign capitalists

small working class

development doesn’t improve lives

inefficient farming, rural pop. doubles

New political parties form:

Social Revs (old populists) opposed industry, wanted communal life

Cadets(CDS)from zemstvos, want Parliament


Lenin & Social Democrats

no change thru institutions, must have REV!

admired early German SPD, but didn’t want to accommodate like GSPD

Professional revolutionaries use workers & farmers

1903- London Congress of RSPD, Lenin fashions small majority (Bolsheviks) vs. Mensheviks

Bolsheviks form own party in 1912, seize power in 1917 (WWI)

Revolution of 1905

Russo-Japan War makes Gov’t look bad, Industrialization’s not working

workers massacred in march on Winter Palace č Uprisings throughout Russia

Oct.- Soviets (worker counsels) control St. Pete

Nicholas II issues October Manifesto (promises Cons. gov’t)


1906- Duma (assembly) elected then dismissed, same with 2nd, 3rd Duma elected under narrower franchise (Duma-Duma-Duma leaves all disappointed)

Stolypin is Nick II’s advisor, he squashes anti-gov’t sentiment

Land Reform- believes farmers more productive working for selves

eventually aced, Rasputin on rise

Nietzsche Attacks Reason

critical of Xianity, democracy, etc. (they lead to mediocrity)

“God is Dead” (materialism & unmotivated Xians)

instinct & ecstasy are positive

heroic strength goes beyond reason (not mediocrity but ubermensch)

morality prevents fulfillment

Wants a new moral order: pride & strength

Freud & Psychoanalysis

desire to see underside of human behavior

childhood experiences č  neuroses

Libido(sex drive) evident from start, your dreams expose your unconscious desires

Unconscious mind affects conscious behavior

id (instincts)+superego (outer pressures) moderated by ego

excessive repression will cause disorders, some repression OK

More Psychoanalysis

Jung: inherited memories+ experiences = personality  (religion & mysticism OK)

Jung is more romantic, Freud is more rational

F & J will have a profound impact on modern intellectual life

Max Weber

contrast to Marx -  non-economic factors have big impact

Explores role of Xianity in development of capitalism, etc.

rationalism & bureaucratization are major developments, people need role in society

Weber’s peers claim collective group plays larger role than the individual

group behavior’s non-rational

Race Theories

prejudice back to explorers

scientists classify by race, believe race explains history & character (Darwin)


Gobineau- Aryans degenerated

Chamber.-improve thru genetics

L&L- Jews dangerous to Germany

Racism č aggressive Nationalism

Anti-Semitism & Zionism

civil equality, still popular discrimination (assoc. with banking, believe it’s in the blood, etc.)

Dreyfus & Lueger (Xian Party) č Zionism

Led by Herzl, desire own state & chance for liberal ideals