MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Location: file:///C:/AF8A9A36/m01blecture06.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

Scientific Revolution = and the Enlightenment

History M01B - Krister Swanson - Moorpark College

Prior to Copernicus

Beliefs of Aristotle brought into agreement with Me= dieval Church

  • Rest is natural state (motion stops when force stops)
  • earth in middle, surrounded by spheres
  • light (air & fire) & heavy (earth &  elements


  • Copernicus says earth goes around sun (more mathematical sense than Ptolemy)
  • circular orbits, earth just another planet?
  • attacked by Church (Luther & Calvin too), reaction to Cop is slow
  • allows people to think in new ways


  • Brahe attacks Copernicus, gives publicity
  • Sun & moon around earth, other planets around sun
  • Brahe’s big contrubution is new, fairly accurate, drawings
  • Kepler gets Brahe’s charts, and...


  • looks for way to make Brahe’s concept work with sun in middle
  • combines ideas of Copern. & Brahe

3 Main Contributions:

  • Makes orbits elliptical
  • orbit speed not uniform
  • time of orbit relative to distance from sun


  • works with telescope, discovers complexity of universe
  • uses experiments to establish mathematical relationships that explain wh= y things happen (quantity replacing quality)
  • This is a major intellectual shift
  • Mocks Aristotle & Ptolemy so is put on trial by Church


  • synthesizes thought of C, K & G
  • key ? he faces is planetary motion
  • influenced by Galileo’s mathematical basis
  • explanation is universal gravitation (inertia applies to all bodies)
  • “To better understand creation is to better understand the creator”<= /li>

The Shift

  • Scholasticism (dogmatic analysis)
  • Humanism (ideals vs.. dogma)
  • New Science (Copernoicus, etc.)

all lead to…= ;


New Philosophy

  • reconcile new science with existing thought
  • Bacon: ‘now’ is good, empirical, science =3D progress
  • Descartes: absolute truth, deductive, reason applies to physical
  • Pascal: refutes religious skeptics, separate science, leap of faith


Hobbes        =     Locke

è Humanism è Sci. Rev. (17th Cent.) è Enlightenment

  • replace religion with science & natural philosophy to understand
  • continuation of 17th Cent. Greats
  • science improves, people look to understand and control human society & ot= her aspects of life
  • Causes of the Enlightenment

    • è public opinion now a force

    Zee Philosophes

    • reform thought, society & gov’t to impr= ove liberty
    • MC background  (professors, = etc.) writing for MC audience
    • gov’ts needed r= eform (debt, corruption, lack of rep.)
    • formed a family structure, shared ideas in salons

    Voltaire vs. French policy

    • church prohibits study of natural life
    • Church says improvement in life is not possible & takes advantage of political position (tithing)
    • religious sects create division
    • churches promote evil acts (war, inquisition, persecution)