Text of the Integrity & Character Review

What were Jefferson’s views on Black/White equality?  Did he think Blacks could ever be full functioning citizens of the United States?
Blacks are inferior, no
What school of social thought promoted the idea of survival of the fittest?  How was this applied to businesses?
Social Darwinism, strong businesses had the duty to dominate the weaker ones
What did the social gospel movement promote?
Applying the ideas of the Christian gospel to American society
What parts of the country were Populists from?  What kind of work did they generally do?
West and South, farming
What were the two key demands of the Populists?
Better government regulation of monopolies (especially railroads) and looser currency
The Populists may have failed in the short term, but in what key way were they a success in the long term?
Many of their ideas later went into practice (regulation of RR’s, larger currency supply, direct election of senators)
What social class sought to demonstrate their integrity and spread their definition of character in the Progressive Age?
the growing Middle Class
What cause were progressives like Jane Addams and Florence Kelley associated with?  Who were they trying to help?
settlement houses, poor women & children
What two other causes were progressive women drawn to?
women’s suffrage and temperance
What did the 19th Amendment do?  When was it ratified?
Gave women the right to vote, 1920 (after WWI)
Name a law that progressives passed to help purify food.
Pure Food & Drug Act, Meat Inspection Act
Name 2 measures taken by progressives to take the corruption out of government and increase the direct involvement of the people.
commission system, direct primaries, referendums & initiatives, direct election of senators
Which president is most closely associated with Progressivism?  What 3rd party did he form so that he could run for President again in 1912?
Theodore Roosevelt, Bull Moose Party
What were two key aspects of Theodore Roosevelt’s Progressivism?
Using power of government to regulate big business, protection of public lands, promote public health
What SC decision made segregation legal?
Plessy v. Ferguson
What did WEB DuBois feel was the key to black equality?
equal political and social rights
What did Booker T. Washington feel was critical to equal standing for Blacks?
self-improvement, especially economic
How did A. Phillip Randolph work to bring better conditions to Blacks?
through organization in labor unions
How did WWII serve as a catalyst for the Movement?
fight for U.S. then come home to discrimination
Who made discrimination against minority workers in the defense industry illegal?  Why? When?
FDR, black workers demanded equal treatment, 1941 (start of WWII)
Which President ended segregation in the United States Armed Forces?  When?
Truman, after WWII
How have periods of war impacted economic and political opportunities for women throughout U.S. History?
Expanded them (especially WWI & WWII)
Why was it such a big deal that Jackie Robinson played baseball?
it was America’s past time, everybody paid attention
What organization fought school segregation in the courts?
What decision reversed Plessy?
Brown vs. the Board of Ed. (Topeka, KS)
How quickly did this decision effectively desegregate the schools? Why?
Not very quickly, deep seeded racism remained
What did the Emmett Till case demonstrate about the Southern Judicial System?
no justice for blacks from all white system
Who was chosen to lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
Martin Luther King Jr.
What was the key principle of MLK’s strategy to end segregation?
non-violence/passive resistance
What organization was founded by King & other ministers in 1957?
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
How did Eisenhower support the integration of Central High School in Little Rock?
Sent in National Guard troops to keep the peace and protect the students (showed he would enforce decision)
What was the SNCC?  What was their first big action in the movement?
The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, Sit Ins
What was the goal of the freedom riders?  What challenges did they face?
Integrate bus terminals and take the movement to the deep South, bombings, beatings, arrests, etc.
Why was JFK reluctant to fully support them?
He was afraid of America looking bad on the world scene (Cold war, tension with the Soviets)
Why is Bull Connor so infamous?
Symbol of white oppression, police dogs & fire hoses in Birmingham
What was MLK’s chief purpose in his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”?
He will be an extremist in the cause of morality, it is not the fault of the movement that their actions result in violence
What was the purpose of the 1963 March on Washington (I Have a Dream Speech)?
Increase pressure for the passage of Civil Rights Legislation
What kinds of groups believed blacks must rely on themselves and not on integration?
Black Separatists
Give an example of a Black Separatist Organization.
Black Panthers, Nation of Islam
According to Malcolm X, who would it be OK to use violence against?
someone who had “laid a hand” on you
What did Malcolm X say blacks should reject?
self hatred imposed on them by white culture
Name two things that happened to the Freedom Riders as they went through the South.
bombed, attacked, jailed
Name two key provisions of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Defined Discrimination, no discrimination in any government or public enterprise, no discrimination in employment
Name two key provisions of the 1965 Voting Rights Act.
Outlawed literacy tests, federal officials can overrule local registrars
What President was closely associated with these pieces of legislation?
Lyndon Johnson
Where was Black militancy more rampant?
Northern cities
Name two demands of the Black Panthers.
full employment, self determination, blacks should not serve in Vietnam, decent housing, better education
How did the push for equality by African Americans affect other minority groups?
Inspired them to act (Latinos, Women, American Indians)
What were two big issues new feminists addressed?
Discrimination in employment, equal pay for equal work, glass ceiling
What were two big issues for Latinos in the late 1960’s early 1970’s?
Better conditions/pay for farm workers, better schools, more involvement in the political process
What were two big issues for American Indians in the late 1960’s early 1970’s?
Poverty, greater autonomy (self rule), restitution from the federal government.
Why did Burglars break into the Democratic National Headquarters in 1972?
looking for documents & records for Republicans to use against Democrats
What two things did reporters and prosecutors use to trace the conspiracy into the White House?
money and tapes
How did Watergate end Nixon’s presidency?
overwhelming evidence led him to resign
How did Watergate change the way people viewed the role of the United States government?
Changed dramatically for the worse, people became much more pessimistic
What two things were we seeking from the Iranians in the Iran Contra scandal?
money (to give to the Contras) and help freeing hostages in Lebanon
Why was this so controversial?
Congress had specifically told the executive branch they could not fund the Contras
Who claimed most of the responsibility for the operation and took the fall?
Oliver North (and his secretary Fawn Hall)
On what grounds was President Clinton’s integrity called into question?
sexual immorality, personal honesty, and real estate dealings