Text of the CRM, 1960s & Vietnam Test Review

What Supreme Court decision made segregation legal?
Plessy v. Ferguson
What organization, founded by WEB Dubois, fought school segregation in the courts?
Give an example of a Jim Crow Law.
separate facilities, curfews, separate workplaces
How did WWII serve as a catalyst for the Civil Rights Movement?
blacks fought and died for U.S. then came home to discrimination
Why was it such a big deal that Jackie Robinson played baseball?
it was America’s past time, everybody paid attention
What did the Emmitt Till case demonstrate about the Southern Judicial System?
no justice for blacks from all white system
What decision reversed Plessy?
Brown vs. the Board of Ed. (Topeka, KS)
Where did Rosa Parks start the Bus Boycott?
Montgomery, Alabama
Who was chosen to lead the boycott? What was the key principle of his strategy to end segregation?
Martin Luther King Jr.
non-violence/passive resistance
Who were King’s chief influences in the use of non-violent tactics?
Gandhi & Thoreau
What organization was founded by King & other ministers in 1957?
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
How did President Eisenhower support the integration of Central High School in Little Rock?
Sent in National Guard troops to keep the peace and protect the students
Give 2 examples of tough conditions faced by black students at Central High School in Little Rock.
soldier escorts, name calling, fights, threats
What was the SNCC?  What was their first big action in the movement?
The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, Sit Ins
What was the goal of the Freedom Riders?  What challenges did they face?
Integrate bus terminals and take the movement to the deep South, bombings, beatings, arrests, etc.
Why was JFK reluctant to fully support the Freedom Riders?
He was afraid of America looking bad on the world scene (Cold war, tension with the Soviets)
Why was Bull Connor so infamous?
Symbol of white resistance and oppression; ordered use of police dogs & fire hoses on protestors in Birmingham
What did the SCLC do to expose Bull Connor’s tactics in 1963?  What happened to MLK there?
Marches in Birmingham, he was put in jail
What was MLK’s chief purpose in his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”?
He will be an extremist in the cause of morality, it is not the fault of the movement that their actions result in violence
What was the purpose of the March on Washington in 1963?  What famous speech was given there?
pressure for Civil Rights Legislation, MLK’s “I Have a Dream” speech
What legislation came out of this pressure?
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965
What was the focus of the 1964 Mississippi Summer Project?
increase # of black voters in Mississippi
What happened to three of the volunteers who went down to help?
Kidnapped and murdered by local Klan members
What kinds of groups believed blacks must rely on themselves and not on integration?
Black Separatists
Give an example of a Black Separatist Organization. Where was separatism & militancy more rampant among blacks?
Black Panthers, Nation of Islam
Northern Cities
According to Malcolm X, who would it be OK to use violence against?
someone who had “laid a hand” on you
What did Malcolm X say blacks should reject?
self hatred imposed on them by white culture
Name two demands of the Black Panthers.
full employment, self determination, blacks should not serve in Vietnam, decent housing, better education
Who fled the inner cities for the suburbs after WWII? What did they take with them?
middle class whites, tax dollars needed for social services
Name two places riots broke out in response to poor conditions in the cities.
Watts (1965) Newark and Detroit (1967)
What was the SCLC’s final campaign under the direction of MLK?
Poor People’s Campaign
What was John Kennedy’s plan for America called?  What were two of its major goals?
New Frontier, reinvigorate the United States & continue the triumph of capitalism Space Race (NASA, Peace Corps, Civil Rights)
What was Lyndon Johnson’s plan for the United States called?  What were two of its goals?
Great Society, eliminate poverty, improve civil rights & provide health care
What was AIM?  What were two of their demands?
American Indian Movement; treaties upheld, original land back, better education, equal rights
What was NOW?  What were two issues they focused on?
National Organization for Women, equal pay, equal rights, sexual discrimination in the work place
Who did the Vietnamese originally fight for their independence after WWII?
Who was the leader of North Vietnam?
Ho Chi Minh
Who did the U.S. install as the leader of South Vietnam in the late 1950s? How was he received by the South Vietnamese?
Ngo Dinh Diem, poorly – much protest (monks immolating themselves)
 What theory proposed that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, the rest of SE Asia would soon follow?
domino theory
What were the southern sympathizers of the communist North called?
Viet Cong or NLF
What gave LBJ the power to “use any means necessary” in Vietnam in 1964?
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Which president oversaw our escalation of the conflict?  Who’s policies was he following?
What program was started to win over the hearts and minds of the South Vietnamese and clear rural areas of VC?
Name two things used to defoliate the jungles.
napalm & agent orange
List two ways combat conditions in Vietnam were unlike those soldiers had prepared for.
jungle, traps & guerrilla tactics, heat & rain, unknown enemy
What event led to the arrest of the Chicago 7?
anti-war protests at the 1968 Democratic National Convention
What was “vietnamization”?
turning the war over to the South Vietnamese
What impact did the 1968 Tet Offensive have on public opinion about the war? Why?
turned many against it, showed that the VC and North Vietnamese were still strong and willing to fight
Name one factor that made our involvement in Vietnam so controversial.
just cause?, high cost ($ & lives), impatience with lack of progress, it was all there on TV
What is the most infamous example of the paranoid fear created by the Viet Cong?
My Lai Massacre
Name two ways people tried to avoid the draft.
go to college, start a family, self inflicted wound, act crazy
What event immediately preceded the fall of South Vietnam? What was the fate of many South Vietnamese families who supported the U.S.?
full withdrawal of U.S. troops, became refugees
Which anti-war Presidential candidate was assassinated in 1968?
Robert F. Kennedy
What goal did Nixon claim to be pursuing in the Vietnam War?
Peace with Honor
What was the name of the quiet group that wanted law & order & supported the war?
silent majority
Who were the Hawks?  Who were the Doves?
Americans who supported the war, Americans who opposed it
What minority groups were over-represented in the troops in Vietnam?
Blacks and Hispanics
What brought an end to draft deferments for students and married people in 1969?
draft lottery
What documents,  printed in the NY Times in 1971, exposed the truth about U.S. plans for Vietnam?
Pentagon Papers
Why did the U.S. attack Cambodia and Laos in 1970?  What was the response in the United States?
there were bases for the VC and NVA, massive protests (students killed at Kent State & Jackson State)
What did the 26th Amendment do?  Who did this favor in the election of 1972?
Lowered voting age to 18, George McGovern (he was an anti-war candidate favored by the young)
What tactic did Nixon use to try and force the Vietnamese to the bargaining table?
increased bombing, especially the Christmas bombings of 1972