Celtic, Roman, Greek, Norse, & Other Goddesses of Europe
Alright, when I first started out to make a goddess index type thing, I was putting in goddesses from all over in it. After months of research and writing I gave up. It was to much. There are thousands of goddesses, so I've picked a few. This is in no way a complete list, and if I haven't included a goddess you would like up here, e-mail me some info. on the goddess and I'll post it (and give you credit) as soon as I can.
Abona - A Romano-Celtic goddess who rules over forests and rivers. Her worship is believed to have originated in Germany's Black Forest region. The name "Avon" derives from her name.
Abundantia - A Roman goddess of fertility and the personification of abundance. According to myth, Abundantia is a lady who enters houses in the middle of the night when all are asleep, and brings prosperity.
Alcyone - A Greek goddess who was changed into a kingfisher by gods after she threw herself into the sea upon finding her husband, Ceyx, drowned and washed up upon the shore. The seven days preceding the Winter Solstice and the seven days after are known as the Halcyon Days, named after Alcyone.
Anna Perenna - A Roman goddess of protection who, according to myth, saved the plebeians from famine. She was honoured annually with an open air festival that took place on the 15th of May in a sacred grove near the city of Rome.
Aphrodite - The ancient Greek goddess of love and beauty, and a deity who presided over human love, marriage ceremonies, and married life. She is depicted in works of art as a blue-eyed, golden-haired woman with pale skin and a beautiful face. Her name means "risen from the sea", and some of her children were: Aeneas, Eros, Hymen, Harmonia, Priapus, and Hermaphroditus, who was half male and half female. She was one of the 12 Great Olympians, and rival for the goddess Peresphone for the love of the Greek youth Adonis. The colours sacred to her were white, green, blue, and scarlet. Her sacred gem stone is lapis lazuli; her metal is copper, and the trees sacred to her are myrtle, myrrh, and palm. The aphrodisiacs sacred to her and used by the Greeks were the tunny, sturgeon, scallop, periwinkle, and mandrake. She, and her Roman counterpart Venus, are the goddess most invoked by Modern Witches for the casting of love spells and for rituals involving the making of aphrodisiacs, philters, and love charms.
Arachne - A Roman goddess who presided over the craft of weaving, and whose name was Greek for "spider". According to Greek myth, Arachne was a woman of Colophon who wove beautifully. She unwisely challenged the goddess Minerva to a trial of skill, but was defeated and hung herself in despair. Afterward Minrva changed Arachne into a spider so she could forever weave her webs of silk.
Aradia - An ancient Italian goddess, considered to be the "Messiah of Witches." According to Tuscan legend, Aradia was the daughter of the moon goddess Diana and Lucifer (whose name means "light bearer"). After dwelling in Heaven for part of her life, Aradia's mother sent her down to Earth to teach the arts of magick to all Witches. When she had completed her mission, she was recalled back to Heaven. It is said that she can bestow upon a witch the secret knowledge and ability to conjure and communicate with spirits of the dead, locate lost or hidden treasure, transform water into wine, divine the future by cards and palm reading, heal the sick, transform ugliness into beauty, tame wild animals, curse enemies, bless friends, and cast love spells. Many Wiccans and Neo-Pagans consider Aradia to be a lunar deity like her mother Diana, and invoke her at Full Moon Esbats, as well as in other rituals and spellcastings.
Arduinna - A Romano-Celtic goddess of forests and also off the art of hunting. She is depicted in works of art as a woman riding on the back of a wild boar, which is her sacred animal. In many ways she is similar to the Roman goddess Diana.
Ariadne - A Greek vegetation goddess and , according to Homer and Hesiod, a daughter of the bull god Minos. She is also the consort of the god Dionysus. The Corona Borealis is said to be her crown, a gift from the god Zeus.
Arrianrhod - A Celtic Earth goddess and the daughter of Beli. She was worshipped primarily thoughout pre-Christian Wales. She presides over all aspects of fertility and also initiates the souls of the dead into the "otherworld" in the tower of Caer Sidi.
Artemis - The Greek goddess of the moon, hunting, and wild beasts. As a lunar goddess, she has been influential archetype for Witches and worshippers of the contemporary Goddess religion. She is equivalent to the Roman moon goddess Diana, and is regarded by many as the Maiden aspect of the divine feminine trinity known as the Triple Goddess.
Artio of Muri - A Romano-Celtic goddess of fertility, prosperity, and harvest. She is also known as Artemis Brauronia. The ber is the animal most sacred to her, and in works of art she is depicted as a woman offering fruit to a bear.
Astraea - The Greek goddess of innocence and purity, daughter of Themis, and a deity associated with justice. It is said that after leaving Earth, Astraea was placed among the stars where she became the constellation Virgo the Virgin.
Athena - The Greek goddess of war, wisdom, and the arts. She is one of the 12 Great Olympians and is identified with the Roman goddess Minerva. S is also known as Pallas Athena (the maiden of Athens). The olive is her sacred tree and the aigis (the skin of a sacrificial goat) is her sacred symbol.
Aurora - The Roman goddess of the dawn, and the daughter of Hyperion and Thia. (However, in some myths her father is said to have been Pallas; her surname of Pallantias.) Her Greek counter part is the goddess Eros, and the appropriate time to honour or invoke her is at sunrise.
Aveta - A Romano-Celtic goddess who presided over birth and midwifery. She is the patroness of all nursing mothers, and the animal most sacred to her is the dog.
Bellona - A Roman mother goddess who was also a deity who presided over battles. The first known temple dedicated to her was erected in the year 296 B.C. and attended by Asiatic priests who engaged in frenzied dances and performed blood sacrifices upon her sacred alter.
Boldogasszony - A tutelary goddess worshipped in pre-Christian Hungary as the protectress of women and children. After the advent of Christianity in the country, Boldogasszony, became synchronized with the Virgin Mary.
Bona Dea- An ancient Roman goddess of fertility and chastity, also known as Damia, Fatua, and Oma. She is identified with the Phygian goddess Cybele. Her annual festival was celebrated in the night on the first day of May, and her worship was restricted to women. She was often depicted as an elderly woman with pointed ears, holding a snake.
Brigit - A major Celtic goddess of fertility, fire, wisdom, poetry, and sacred wells. She was also associated with prophecy, divination, and healing. She was worshipped from prehistoric times until the advent of Christianity (circa A.D. 1100). She was honoured annually in Ireland during the sacred fire festival of Imbolc, which the Celts celebrated on the first day of February. She is also known as Brigid, Bride, and Banfile and Poetess.
Cailleach Bheur - A Celtic goddess of the Winter season who was worshipped in pre-Christian Scotland, and depicted in works of art as a cronelike woman with a blue face. According to myth, each year on Samhain (31st of October) she is reborn as the bringer of the snows. She reigns until the eve of Beltane (30th April) when she turns into stone and the goddess Brigit deposes her.
Ceres - Roman goddess of harvest and fertility, and also a mother goddess. According to myth, during the Winter part of the year when her daughter Proserphina remains in the Underworld as the consort of Pluto, Ceres grieves and causes all vegetation on Earth to wither and become barren. In the Spring when Proserpina returns to her, Ceres rejoices and makes all the flowers and trees return to life. In Greek myth, Ceres is called Demeter and is the goddess of agriculture, whose daughter Persephone (like Proserpina) must spend part of the year in the Underwolrd in a nearly identical myth.
Cerridwen - A Celtic (Welsh) goddess of mountains and fertility who brewed a "Sacred Cauldron of Inspiration" (or "Knowledge") with an assortment of magickal herbs. She is sometimes associated with the moon, and is regarded as the Crone aspect of the Mother Goddess.
Concordia - The Roman goddess of peace and harmony. Her symbols are the herald's staff entwined by serpents and two clasped hands. She is identified with the Greek goddesses Aphrodite, Pandemos, and Harmonia. In ancient works of art, she is depicted as a matronly woman holding an olive branch in one hand, and the cornucopia in the other her left.
Conventina - A Romano-Celtic tutelaaary and water goddess who was worshipped at a sacred spring in Carrawburgh. Her cult flourished from around circa 200 B.C. until A.D. 500. There is also evidence that she may be a goddess connected to Pagan fertility rites and childbirth. She is depicted and a nymphlike figure, standing on a leaf and holding a vessel which pours forth a stream of water.
Creirwy - The Celtic goddess of love and beauty. She is the daughter of the poetry goddess Keridwen.Accorking to Celtic myths, she was the most beautiful woman in the world, and her brother, Avaggdu, was the ugliest man.
Demeter - A Greek goddess of fertility, husbandry, and harvest and an important deity in the mysteries of the Eleusis. In myth, she is the mother of Peresephone and is identified with the Roman goddess Ceres.
Diana - A Roman goddess of the moon who was also a forest-dwelling goddess of the hunt, the protectress of wild beasts, and the guardian of virginity. She was also the mother of the Witches goddess Aradia. Diana closely resembles the Greek goddess Artemis. She is the personification of the moon's positive attribute, and a role model for many feminist Witches as representative of female strength, independence, self-esteem, and warriorlike aggressiveness. She is invoked for protection and nurturing. She is the principal goddess worshipped by those who follow the Dianic tradition of Wicca.
Eileithyia - A Greek goddess of birth worshipped mainly by women and invoked to alleviate the pain and danger associated with childbirth. It is said that her divine presence was only summoned by the cries of women in labour. She was known to the Romans as Ilithyia, and to the Minoans as Eleuthyia. Her cult, which flourished for nearly two thousand years before the advent of Christianity, was centered in Crete.
Eos - The Greek winged goddess of the dawn. She is identified with the Roman goddess Aurora and is the consort of the storm god Aeolos. She is best known for giving birth to six children who preside over the various winds. According to legend, the morning dew is made from her fallen tears.
Eostre - An Anglo-Saxon goddess of fertility and Springtime who is said to be the bringer of the light of day and for whom the holiday of Easter (originally a pre-Christian fertility festival) was named. Many of the old folk customs with Easter and surviving into the present day are actually remnants of the ancient rites linked with Eostre.
Epona - A Celtic equestrian goddess who was associated with healing and the fertility of domestic animals. She was worshipped from circa 400 B.C. until circa A.D. 400 and was the only Celtic goddess to be worshipped in ancient Rome.
Fjorgyn - An ancient Nordic goddess of fertility who was thoughout Iceland from the Viking period (or earlier) until the advent of Christianity. She is also known as lord and is said to be the mother of the god Thor.
Flora - The Roman goddess of flowers, and the consort of Zephyrus, the lord of the south winds who announces the advent of Spring each year. In ancient Rome, offerings of fruit and flowers were often presented to Flora by her worshippers, most of whom were young girls. The major festival celebrated in her honour was called Floralia, and it took place from the 28th of April though early May. Having a strong sexual overtone, the celebration closely resembled the Druidic fire festival of Beltane celebrated around the 1st of May.
Fortuna - The Roman goddess of happiness, good fortune, and chance who was said to possess the power to bestow upon mortals either wealth or poverty, pleasures or pains. She is identified with the Greek goddess Tyche, and her principle symbol is Wheel of Fate (aka Wheel of Fortune).
Freya - A Nordic-German goddess of fertility, prosperity, love, and beauty, whose sacred symbols and familiars were cats. She is represented in myth as a beautiful woman riding in a golden chariot drawn by cats. In the darkness of night, Freya was said to roam in the form of a she-goat or fly through the heaves in the form of a falcon. She was also the queen of the Underworld, and both the sister and the consort of the god Frey. There is a strong connection between Freya and the arts of Witchcraft and divination. As a Neo-Pagan goddess, she is worshipped by many who follow the Teutonic or Norse traditions of Wicca.
Frigga - A Nordic-Germanic mother goddess and consort of the god Odin. She was also the patroness of marriage and fecundity, and is represented in myth as riding in a chariot drawn by sacred rams. She is regarded as the Queen of Heaven, and the sixth day of the week.
Gaia (or Gaea) - A Greek Earth mother and goddess of fertility who's worship was widespread in ancient Greece. She is the personification of the Earth, and in Rome she was worshipped as the goddess Terra. The center of her cult was an oracle at Delphi that predated that of Apollo. In myth, she was the consort of Uranus and the mother of the Titans, the Furies, and the Cyclopes. Many Wiccans and Neo-Pagans invoke Gaia when planting herbs or casting spells the concern the Earth. Rituals, Earth healings, and liberations are often performed in her honour, especially on Earth Day and during the Sabbats.
Hecate - A Greek moon goddess, queen of the Underworld, and the protectress of all Witches. Hecate is the Crone aspect of the divine feminine triad, symbolized by the waning and dark moon representing the darker side of the Triple Goddess. Sherules over all magickal arts and is a popular deity among many modern witches, especially older female ones. In ancient times, she was worshipped at crossroads in Thessaly by occult bands of female moon-worshipers, and invoked thoughout Greece by those seeking wealth and favour. The honour of summon her, according to Greek tradition, an offering of some sort must be left in a roadside shine or at a crossroads at the Witching hour (midnight).
Hera - A Greek goddess known as the Queen of Heaven, a creatrix, and the consort of the great god Zeus. She represents the power of inspiration. She was honoured annually in ancient times by a New Year's festival called the Heraia and also every four years by a women's games festival which took place on Olympus.
Idun - In Teutonic mythology, the goddess of Spring who possessed the golden apples of eternal youth. She was the consort of Bragi (the god of poetry), and dwelled in Asgard, the sacred space reserved for the abode of the gods and goddesses. She is also known as Idhunn, Ithunn, and Ithun.
Leto - A Greek mother goddess who is said to have given birth to the deities Artemis and Apollo. She is also a goddess who guards over the graves of the dead. The Romans identified her with Latona, and she was worshipped as the principal goddess by the people of Lycia.
Luna - A Roman goddess of the moon, (translation of the Latin "luna"). She is regarded as the equivalent of the Greek lunar goddess Selene. In ancient Rome, a major temple was constructed for her worship of the Aventine Hill. Like other lunar goddesses, Luna is associated by Witches with moon magick, transformations, the psychic, and the feminine. Alchemists gave her name to silver (h sacred metal) and used the crescent moon as their symbol for it.
Macha - A red-haired Celtic goddess of fertility and battle, and one of the three aspects of the war-goddess Morrigan. She possess the power of shapeshifting, often transforming from maiden to crone, or from woman into crow - the harbinger of death in old Irish tradition. She uses various means to influence the outcome of war, and red is her sacred colour.
Maia - A Greco-Roman Earth goddess and the personification of Springtime. She was one of the consorts of Zeus, the mother of the messenger god Mercury, and also one of the Pleiades (the seven daughters of Atlas who were turned into the constellation of the same name after their deaths). She is also known as Tellus and Terra, and is identified with the Greek goddess Gaia. It is believed that the month of May is named after her.
Melusine - 1.) A love goddess who took on the appearance of a beautiful woman with the tail of a fish. This meremaidlike deity was worshipped by the followers of the medieval love cults in southern France. 2.) In folk legend and heraldry, a two-tailed mermaid or water spirit.
Metis - A Greek goddess of wisdom, celebrated for her prudence and sagacity. According to myth, she was devoured by the great god Zeus because he feared that she would bring forth into the world a child who was more cunning ant powerful than himself.
Minne - An ancient Pagan goddess who is said to have granted women and men permission to engage in lovemaking. Her name was a synonym for "love", and she was often called Lofn ("Goddess of Love"). In medieval times, Minne (like Melusine) was worshipped as a mermaid tailed Aphrodite by followers known as Minnesinger and Minstrels.
Morrigan - Celtic war-goddess of death and destruction and the mother of all Irish gods. She is said to appear in the from of a raven (a bird of ill-omen in the Celtic tradition) before and during battles. She is also known as the "Spectre Queen" and "Great Queen Morgan". As a Goddess Trinity, she was called Macha when she worked magick with the blood of the slain; Badb, when she appeared in the form of giantess on the eve of war to warn soldiers of their fates; and Neman, when she appeared as a shapeshifting crone. Her sacred colours are scarlet and black.
The Muses - In Greek myth, the nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosynne who ruled all forms of poetry, music, dance, and astronomy. They were originally regarded as musician-nymphs, but in later writings they were given the status of minor deities. The nine muses (Calliop, Clio, Erato, Euterrpe, Melpomene, Polyhymina, Terpsichore, Thalia, and Urania) were invoked by poets as well as royalty for inspiration in all artistic endeavors.
Nerthus - An ancient goddess of fertility, believed to be of Danish origin. Her name means "north" and she was worshipped at a sacred grove on an undisclosed island from circa A.D. 100 until circa A.D. 400. Some sources suggest that she may in fact be the female counterpart of Njord, the Viking god of the sea an of the winds. Nerthus is also a deity associated with peace.
Nyx - A primordial Greek goddess who personifies the essence of night and darkness. In myth, she was both sister and consort of Erebus, the lord of darkness, and the mother of the twin sons Thanatos (the god of death) and Hypnos (the god of sleep).
Ops - An ancient Roman goddess of harvests and fertility, who was worshipped on the 25th of August at the Volcanalia festival and on the 19th of December at the Opalia. Her name was often invoked by farmers thoughout Italy to bless seeds before planting.
Ostara - An ancient Germanic sun goddess who is associated with the birth of Spring and the Pagan fertility rites of Easter before it became Christianized as a holy holiday commemoration the resurrection of the crucified Jesus Christ. the traditional time for Ostara's prayers, invocations, and offerings to be made was at dawn. She is identified with the Anglo-Saxon goddess Eostre. Many Neo-Pagans and Wiccans honour Ostara by giving her name to their Sabbat of the Spring Equinox, which normally occurs on or close to the 20th of March each year.
Pistis - A benign Gnostic Christian goddess and primordial female force, who was worshipped from circa 200 B.C. until circa A.D. 400. Her exact origin is unknown; however, one literary source reveals that she was "formed out of infinity" and ruled long before the creation of the cosmos took place.
Rhiannon - A Celtic (Welsh) mother goddess, called Rigantona by the ancient Romans (a name which means "great queen"), and identified with the mare goddess Epona. Rhiannon is represented in myth as a beautiful woman who rides a pale white mare and carries a magickal bag of abundance. She I also associated with the Underworld and ancient fertility rites.
Selene - A Greek lunar goddess who is identified with the Roman moon goddess Luna. The sun god Helliosis her brother who falls asleep when she rises at the end of the day (and vice versa). According to legend, two beautiful horses draw her silver chariot across the evening sky. She corresponds to the full moon phase and to the Mother aspect of t Triple Goddess. She is also guardian goddess who watches over those who practice the arts of magick.
Sheela-Na-Gig - A primal Earth mother goddess who was worshipped in ancient times by the Celtic tribes of Pagan Ireland. She is depicted on ancient amulets and carvings (often found, on the doorways of many pre-sixteenth century Irish churches) as a nude female figure with pronounced breasts, squatting and holding open her private parts. It was believed that her image could not only promote fertility, but guard against bad luck and bewitchment as well.
Sif - A Norse harvest goddess. She was the wife of the god Thor and best known for her long golden hair. She appears in only one myth, in which Loki, cuts off her hair and gets a dwarf to give her hair made of real gold.
Sol - Just as the ancient Romans had a powerful sun god by the name of Sol, so did the ancient people of Iceland. However, their sun god was a female deity who was one of the Aesir goddesses.
Tyche - The Greek goddess of fortune, and the daughter of Zeus and Hera. She is the Greek counterpart to the Roman goddess Fortuna, and in Homer's Hymn to Demeter, she is described as a Nereid (a sea-nymph of the Mediterranean waters.) According to historic records, sacrifices were carried out by Emperor Julian in the years A.D. 361 and 362 in honour of he goddess Tyche.
Venus - The Roman goddess of love, romance, sexual intercourse and beauty. She is the Roman counterpart of the Greek goddess Aphrodite, and her period of worship lasted from circa 400 B.C. to circa A.D. 400. She personifies sensuality, fertility, prosperity, and good fortune. She is also the goddess after whom the planet Venus (considered to be planet that astrologically influences matters of love) is named. Her sacred festival, the Veneralia, was celebrated annually in ancient Rome on the first day of April. Like Aphrodite, Venus is often invoked by modern Witches and Neo-Pagans in love spells and love divinations.
Vesta - A Roman goddess of Fire and the hearth whose circular temple in ancient Rome was lit by a sacred fire tended by six virgin priestesses known known as the Vestal Virgins. (It is said that being buried alive was the punishment for any Vestal Virgin who broke her vows of chastity.) Vesta was also a popular guardian of Roman households. Like the majority of both Roman and Greek deities, she was depicted in works of art in human form as a beautiful woman, holding a burning tordch in one hand and a votive bowl in the other.
Zoe - According to Gnostic Christian myth, Zoe was the goddess of life. She was born from the goddess Pistis, the primdial female force, and was destined to become the consort of the creator god Sabbath. She was a most powerful deity and the creatrix of Israel, the angels, and Jesus Christ