Early Ruling Families in the Balkans






Part 7. The Tsars of the first Bulgarian Empire in Preslava



This family is descended from Krum, Khan of the Bulgars, who d.ca 814; he had issue:


1a) Omortag-Khan, became a Christian, d.ca 831


1b) Enravota, the first martyr of the Bulgarian Church, d.849


2b) Malamir, Khan 831/6


3b) Swiniza, who [probably] had a son:


1c) Presijan, Khan 836/52; he was [probably] father of:


1d) Boris I, Khan of the Bulgars from 852; he established the capital at Preslava; he d.as a monk 907; m.Marija N


1e) Vladimir; he was Prince of Bulgaria 889-893, after his father abdicated; he tried to re-establish paganism; Boris returned and arranged Vladimir's downfall, and Boris resumed his reign


2e) Gavriil, d.young


3e) Simeon "the Great", Tsar and Autocrat of the Bulgarians, b.ca 865, d.Preslava 927; m.1st NN; m.2nd a sister of George Sursuwul


1f) Michael; he contended for the throne, but his brother held onto it; it is not known whether Michael was incompetent, or whether this occurred because his brother’s relatives (Michael was the only son of the 1st m.) were powerful boyars


2f) Tsar Peter I, d.969; m.at Constaninople 927 Maria=Irene (d.ca 963) dau.of Christophoros Lakapenos, and granddau. of Emperor Romanos of Byzantium


1g) Tsar Boris II, d.984/6


2g) Roman, spent most of his life as a hostage and/or prisoner of the Byzantines and Russians, d.997/8


3f) Bojan, described as a master of the black arts


4e) Jakob, d.young


5e) Eupraxia, a nun


6e) Anna, who may have m. King Swatopulk of Moravia


2a) Dukum Khan 814/5


3a) Dizewg Khan 815/6


4a) Tsok






Part 8.The Tsars of the first Bulgarian Empire, in Ochrida



This family started with two men who are believed to have been brothers and somehow related to the family in Part 7:


1a) Samuel, who became Tsar of the Bulgarians 997, and moved the capital to Ochrida; he conquered Diocleia, Trebinje and Zahumlje, and made Bosnia and Raska (Serbia) vassals of Bulgaria; he d.at Prilep 1014; m.ca 970 Agathe, dau. Of Joannes Chryselios, Lord of Durazzo


1b) Gavriil Radomir, Tsar 1014/5, b.ca 970; m.1st ca 973 a dau.of Pr Geza of Hungary, who was later repudiated; m.2d 988 Irene (murdered 1015)


1c) Peter Deljan, proclaimed himself Tsar 1040; b.988, d.in Byzantine imprisonment ca 1041


2c) a dau., m.before 1015 Stefan Dobroslaw, Knez of Diocleia


2b) Miroslawa; m.ca 998 Asot Taronites


3b) a dau. [parentage uncertain] m.Vazul, Duke between the March and Gran (d.1037)


2a) Aaron, ruler of western Bulgaria, murdered 987/8


1b) Iwan Wladislaw, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1015-8, k.a.Durazzo 1018, after which Bulgaria became a Byzantine province; m.Marija N


1c) Fruschin; in 1029 he was blinded and banished to a monastery


2c) Alusian; he m.an Armenian lady


1d) Basileios Alusianos


2d) Samoel Alusianos; m.N Delassene, sister of the Empress Eudoxia


3d) Anna, d.ca 1065; m.Romanos IV Diogenes, Emperor of Byzantium 1071 (d.1072)


3c) Aaron, Duke of Vaspurakan, of Edessa and of Macedonia


1d) Theodoros Aaron, strategos of Taron, k.a.against the Turks 1055/6


2d) Radomir, a Byzantine official


4c) Trajan


1d) Maria; m.before 1063 Andronicos Dukas, co-emperor of Byzantium (d.1077)


5c) Radomir


6c) Ekaterina; m.before 1057 Isaakios Komnenos, Emperor of Byzaqntium (d.1061)


7c) a dau., m.before 1026 Romanos Kurkuas







Part 9.The Tsars of the Second Bulgarian Empire, of the Aseniden House, and their relatives



This family apparently descends from a Wallachian boyar, who had issue a follows:


1a) Iwan Asen I; he and his brother Peter rebelled against the Byzantines and he became Prince of northern Bulgaria ca 1187; he was murdered by his cousin Iwanko-Alexios in 1196


1b) Iwan Asen II, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1218-41, b.ca 1190, d.1241; m.1st Anna N; m.2nd 1221 Maria, heiress of Belgrade and Branicevo (b.ca 1204, d.1237) dau.of King Andrew II of Hungary; m.3rd 1237/8 Irene Angelina, dau.of Emperor Theodoros of Epirus


[by 1st m.]:


1c) Marija; m.ca 1225 Manuel Dukas, Despot of Thessaloniki


2c) Beloslava; m.ca 1233 King Stefan Vladislav of Serbia


[by 2nd m.]:


3c) Elena, b.ca 1224. d.ca 1254; m.1235 Emperor Thodoros II Laskaris of Nicaea (d.1258)


4c) Tamara, b.after 1220


5c) Koloman, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1241-6; b.ca 1232, d.1246


[by 3rd m.]:


6c) Miachael II Asen, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1246-57; b.ca 1238, murdered by Kalojan1257; m.1255 a dau.of Rostislaw, Gr Pr of Kiev


7c) Teodora=Anna; m.Sebastokrator Pjotr


8c) Marija; m.Iwan Milo, a boyar, who contended for the throne in 1258


1d) Iwan Asen III Mytzes, Tsar 1279-80, fled from Iwailo to the Tatars and then to Constantinople, d.ca 1302; m.1278 Irene Palaiologina, dau.of Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII; their children took the surname Asan


1e) Michael Asanes, a military leader in Macedonia for the Byzantines, then supported Serbia


2e) Andronikos Asanes, Despot of Morea, Stattholder of Thrace, d.after 1355; m.a dau.of Michael Dukas Glabas Tarchaneitos


1f) Manuel Komnenos Raul Asanes, Stattholder of Bizye, Thrace; m.ca 1321 Anna, dau.of Theodoros Synadenos


1g) Joannes Asanes


2g) Andronikos Asanes, a military leader in Thrace


2f) Joannes Assanes, Stattholder of Constantinople; m.ca 1347 a dau.of Alexios Apokaukos


1g) Anna Asanina; m.Joannes Kontosephanos


3f) Irene; m.before 1320 Emperor Joannes IV Kantakuzenos of Byazantium (d.1383)


4f) Helene Asanina, d.young


3e) Isaakios Asanes, a mercantile leader in Constantinople, d.ca 1351; m.1st before 1320 Theodora (dsp), dau.of the Tatar Khan Abaga; m.2nd NN


1f) Andronikos Asanes


2f) Michael Asanes, Stattholder in Morea, d.there before 1383


3f) Irene Asanina; m.1346/51 Georgios Philanthropenos, archon of Lemnos


4f) Andreas Asanes, Stattholder in Morea


4e) Konstantinos Asanes


1f) Michael Asanes, Stattholder on Lesbos, d.ca 1355; m.before 1330 Irene, dau.of Joannes Synadenos


5e) Manuel Asanes


6e) Theodora Asanina, may have m.Manuel Tagaris


7e) Maria Asanina; m.Roger de Flor, a Catalonian leader


8e) Anna Asanina, engaged to Michael Dukas Angelos, of Neopatrai


2d) Keramarija, m.Georgi Terter, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1280-92


2b) Alexander, d.ca 1241; m.a dau.of King Stephen Prvovencani of Serbia


1c) Kalojan= Koloman, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1257, d.1258; m.a dau.of Rostislaw, Gr Pr of Kiev


2a) Peter, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1196, murdered 1197


3a) Kalojan, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1197-1207, b.ca 1170, murdered 1207; m.a Kuman princess


1b) Bithleem


2b) Marija, d.after 1216; m.1209 Henry of Flanders, Emperor of Constantinople (d.1216)


4a) a dau., m.a boyar


1b) Alexii Slaw, Voivode of Melnik, d.after 1229; m.1st Constantinople 1208 an illegitimate dau.of Henry of Flanders, Emperor of Constantinople; m.2d after 1218 a dau.of Theodoros Petraliphas


5a) a dau., m.the boyar Strez


1b) Boril Strez, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1207-18, when he was overthrown and blinded; m. a Kuman princess


2b) Dobormir Strez, sovereign Prince of the lands between the Struma and Vardar, d.1208/11; m.1st 1199 a dau.of Manuel Kamytzes Komnenodukas; m.3d 1201/2 Theodora, dau.of Isaakios Komnenos







Part 10.More Tsars of the Second Bulgarian Empire.



One Tich, a boyar of Skopje, m.a dau.of Stefan Nemanja of Serbia, and they had a son:


1a) Konstantin Tich Asen, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1257-77, murdered during his struggle with Iwailo 1277; m.1st NN; m.2nd 1258 Irene (d.ca 1269) dau.of Emperor Theodoros II Laskaris of Nicaea by Helene Asanina; m.3rd 1269 Maria, dau.of Joannes Kantakuzenos; (Maria later married her husband's conqueror, Iwailo Kordukubas, who was Tsar 1278-9, and was murdered in exile with the Tatars 1280)


1b) [by 3rd m.] Michael Asen, a contender for the throne, b.1270/1, murdered 1300/1


2b) [by 1st or 2nd m.]a dau., m.ca 1284 Smilec, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1292-8


1c) Teodora, d.1322; m.ca 1293 King Stefan Uros III Decanski of Serbia


2c) a dau., m.Eltimir,a leading official and supporter of his brother, George Terter (below)



   George Terter, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1280-1292, d.after 1304; he m. Keramarija, dau.of Iwan (see Part 9), but by her had no issue; by his other wife, Marija N, he had issue:


1a) Todor Swetoslaw, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1299-1321, d.1321; m.1st Jefrosina, dau.of Mankus, a merchant; m.2d 1320 Theodora, dau.of Byzantine Emperor Michael IX


2a) Anna, d.after1 304; m.1st 1284 King Stefan Uros II of Serbia, who repudiated her 1294; m.2d 1301 Demetrios Dukas Kutrules Angelos (d.after 1304)


3a) a dau., who m.1285 Chaka Khan, who ruled briefly as Tsar in 1298







Part 11.The Tsars of Bulgaria of the House of Schischman



One Schischman, a boyar, declared himself indepent from Bulgaria and established the principality of Vidin, a city on the Danube; he had issue:


1a) Michael III Schischman, Despot of Vidin, Tsar of the Bulgarians 1323-30, d.1330; m.1st NN; m.2nd ca 1300 (repudiated 1324) Ana, dau.of King Stefan Uros II of Serbia; m.3d after Aug 1324 Theodora Palaiologina, dau.of Byzantine Emperor Michael IX


1b) Iwan Stefan Schischman, Tsar 1330-1; thereafter he lived in Naples, d.there ca 1373; m.an illegitimate dau.of Philip of Naples, Pr of Tarento


2b) Schischman, d.in Dubrovnik


3b) Michael, Pr of Vidin


2a) Belaur


3a) Kereza Petriza; m.Despot Srazimir


1b) Iwan Alexander Asen, Tsar 1330-71; m.1st ca 1320 (repudiated 1340) Teodora Bassaraba, dau.of Voivode Bassaraba of Wallachia; m.2nd ca 1345 a Jewish woman named Sarah, who changed her name to Teodora


[by 1st m.]:


1c) Michael Asen, co-tsar in Adrianople, b.1321, k.a.against the Turks ca 1354; m.Adrianople 1336 Irene Palaiologina, dau.of Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III


1d) Alexios Asanes


1e) Irene; m.Paolo di Bernardo, a patrician of Venice


2c) Iwan Srazimir, Pr of Vidin 1360-96, d.after 15 Sep 1396; m.before 1369 Ana Slava Bassaraba, dau.of Nicolae Alexandru, Pr of Wallachia


1d) Konstantin, d.Belgrade 1422


2d) Dorothea, d.ca 1390; m.King Stefan Trvtko I of Bosnia


3c) Iwan Asen, k.a.against the Turks 1354


[by 2nd m.]:


4c) Iwan Schischman, Tsar 1371-93, d.imprisoned at Phillipoli 1395; m.1st Maria N; m.2d Dragana, dau.of Knez Lazar of Serbia


1d) Alexander, a Moslem, Stattholder in Asia Minor and Smyrna, k.a.1418


2d) Frutschin=Vladislav, a Hungarian diplomat in Albania


3d) Keraza


5c) Iwan Asen


6c) Tamara; m.1375 Sultan Murad I; note: usually, when the sources say a Christian lady married a Turkish sultan, it really means that the lady was taken into his harem as a concubine


7c) Keratza; m.ca 1365 Emperor Andronikos IV Palaiolog of Byzantium (d.1385)


8c) Desislawa; m.Pr Konstantin of Welbuschd (d.1394)


2b) Iwan Komnenos Asen, d.ca 1363; m.1st NN; m.2nd ca 1355 Anna, dau.of Andronikos Palaiolog


1c) Kominia, d.1395/6; m.1372 Balsa Balsic, Lord of Zeta (d.1385)


3b) Elena, d.1374; m.1332 King Stefan Dusan of Serbia (d.1355)