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hpv`history 2006.10.29

Le Miroir des Sports, No 787 Paul Morand 1934 train of velomobilesvelo of Mary Arneson of Minneapolis, usa

Herlihy 2004` bicycle: history

the lackey era

1696: french math'ian Ozanam documents dr.Richard` hpv

. typical of the age, the dominant theme for the next (17th) century
was a variant of the jinrikisha, where one human`s carriage
is powered by the labor of another human
. this not an inherently bad design though;
because, they could have shared the labor in order to
make up for the age`s lack of materials technology
. dr.Richard`s design worked by stepping on reciprocating slats
which made the labor appear to be cross-country skiing up-hill
. basically, his design had everything we look for in the ultimate hpv:
(1) a fairing that protects one from the elements (though not the wind
since carriages at that time were too heavy to be concerned with wind resistance)
(2) a treadle, pedal, or other mechanism that increased the laborer`s efficiency
and that would also let the laborer`s body parts
remain within the protective fairing (and avoid draisine foot-scooting) .

1804: american J.Bolton`s geared quadcycle hpv

. gearing allows the labor to move very large loads at a very slow pace;
in the patent spec's, the wagon is shown without a fairing; but it could easily add one
. proper gearing is vital to being able to remain within the fairing;
and although the Bolton design had only one gear,
it was an all-condition gear, albeit a slow one,
-- and he could always Bolt.on more !

1813: german Karl von Drais fails to get a patent on a quadcycle hpv

. "(tiller)-steered and powered by multiple humans "(working a cranked axle with legs and feet)

the draisine (hobby) era

. although Cartwright would introduce the treadle-driven quadcycle,
again it would receive neither the attention -- nor the notoriety --
of the draisine(foot-scooter)

1817: Drais invents the lauf-maschine (running machine)

. having failed at popularizing his version of the communally powered quadcycle,
von Drais next introduces a personal foot-scooter
. the Draise` lauf-maschine (running machine) was referred to by the press at that time
 as the hobby
 [ hobbyhorse; horseless carriage;
 hob = have; to make do with what you have ]
though, a year later it would be called a velocipede
[perhaps since that name reflects the positive quality of
how to run more efficiently
rather than how to deal with lacking a horse! ]

. lauf-maschine gets a french patent through an agent, under the name draiseienne;
but it's a fad
. british Johnson`s hobby gets a patent for minor improvements
that renew interest in the foot-scooter
while also intensifying complaints about
sidewalk hogs, and inciting proto.feminism
"( women wanting to straddle hobbyhorses in public! )

1820: von Drais denounces the treadle-driven trike

. what Drais liked about his foot-scooter,
is that it allowed the natural act of walking
without the oppressive weight of gravity
. this, he compared to the endurance added when
one lets a horse pull it`s load in a carriage, rather than
having it bear the load on it`s back .
. others, too, shared this view:
twenty years later, gooch`s quadcycle, aeripedus,
would still be using a draisine foot-scooting architecture
. it was only after an extensive outlay of railroads were in operation
that von Drais would consider it practical to have pedals or treadles,
since that alone would allow hpv's to be used on railroads .

1821: gomperz` Draisine (ratchet-driven foot-scooter)modern hand-pedalgomperz` draizine

. british Lewis Gompertz (Gomperz) adds a
 hand-pedal to the foot-scooter
. forward motions of the handlebars would
pivot a section of gear that would mesh with
another gear fixed to the hub of the front wheel
while the usual rotations of handlebars would still do steering .

1840: Sawyer revises Cartwright`s treadle-driven quadcyclemodern quadcyclesawyer`s 1850 treadle-driven quad

. the front wheels have a fixed axle that is bent like a sine wave
to make the treadles reciprocate (one is brought up into position
as the other is pushed back down)
. the steering column is connected to a pulley
the center of which attaches to strings that follow the trough of the pulley
back to the rear wheels which are connected by a
center-pivoting axle that provides rear steering .

1858: Sawyer quadcycles create suburbanites

. the Sawyer craft got a reputation of sometimes being a practical car;
and was known to help city workers commute to more healthful environs;
however, for use in all occassions,
the quadcycle still needed multiple gears, brakes, and a fairing
. back in those days the roads were so bad
that adding mushy air-filled tired would actually enhance efficiency
because although it increase resistance on smooth pavement,
in a field full of potholes and rocks,
a mushy tire will expand to fill potholes
and compress to accommodate rocks
thereby saving you from a lot of starts and stops .

1868: the french popularize the classic uic bicycle

. there some contention about whether the uic`s classic style of bicycle
(the 10-speed touring bike with high-pressure tires)
was invented first by the french or the scottish;
but, that point is really moot because,
the next really significant advance in hpv technology
would have to be a wider range of gears, a fairing,
and either better shock-absorber systems or better roads .

1880's: whippet has mechanical suspensionwhippet with mechanical suspension

. the pneumatic tire was about to make mechanical suspension systems obsolete;
but until then, there would still be a need for alternatives to the classic diamond frame
such as the english Whippet .

1888: dunlop developes the pneumatic tire

. many new speed records were set
once the pneumatic tire virtually repaved all the roads;
and seeing a chance at huge fortunes to be made
from a now-great product that filled a great need
the was a great amount of capital poured into cranking out cheap bikes
and world-wide advertising
. this industrial boon snowballed into an american dream
until a sudden crash in 1897
. that year altleast one of the manufacturers had sensed that the market was saturated;
and, in a panic, slashed prices while at the same time
compensating by sharply reducing the quality control
. if the market wasn't already done with them,
it was now -- dumping all that garbage product
had irrepairably ruined our reputation as bike suppliers
. a possible cause for the panic was knowledge that current patents were virtually expired;
and foreign bike production systems were now up to speed

. finally, the great demand for a bicycle
was really just mass` need for any sort of transportation;
and, since the car really wasn't a common sight then,
the bike quickly became a very massive market, if only they would bring the price down
. the fatal problem with the market
was that they lost their set of status-seeking consumers
-- the wealthy elite and the young cliques --
because when there is no other market for cheap bikes than the poor
then the best the industry can do is own a chain of thrift stores,
because the poor will fix it rather than upgrade,
or pay extra for conveniences like the sealed drive idea that failed

. one reason for the bike`s loss of status appeal
was mass production`s cheap bike being accessable to the poor (and stigmatized)
which meant a bike club was no longer a social (class) club,
and that thieves too poor to travel
could now use bikes to ruin the peacefulness of country life
. an irony of calling bicycles the great social equalizer
is that for a long time the only market for hpv's
were the velocipedes needed by those who found normal walking awkward;
whereas the modern bike tended to make everyone feel equally awkward
atleast when compared to the dignity offered by the motorized car
which happened to be introduced shortly before the decline of the bike industry .

prof.kyle & wolfgang gronen 1995:

1913: etienne bunau varilla` bike`s streamliner streamliner

  . patented as "( wind-dividing apparatus to
be attached to transprot vehicles with kinematic equilibrium,
esp'ly bicycles and motorcycles with a view of diminishing the air resistance
-- facilitate penetrating the air and to avoid the forming of eddies
at the rear of a moving body )
-- marcel berthet` velo torpille (velocity from being torpedo-shaped)
. it boosted speed by 4mph but was very unstable in cross winds

1914: first recorded streamlined biking race (34.63 mph)  partial fairings in a race

. the Brennabor Fish, and the winning Goricke Bomb
at the Berlin Olympic Track, April 4, 1914
. the uci (internat cycling union) bans all aerodynamic devices

1932: Charles Mochet `velocar (velocity carriage)naked embryo of the velocar

. the velocar enhances rider aerodynamics with a supine position
(the uci had already banned all aerodynamic add-on's earlier,
but the velocar simply repositioned the rider)

1932: oscar egg` velofusee hpv/p101velofusee.jpg

. the velofusee is a tail cone strealiner of trivial weight for it`s
impressive spee gains (48km/hr)
-- the uci would soon ban these too .

1933: streamlined bike"velodyne  velodyne get help for a launch

. does 49.992 km/hour .

1934: uci (international cycling union) bans recumbents

. after the european`s protectionist uci outcast
virtually all forms of hpv evolution
it would take 40years for the open-design community to
establish their own official record-keeping organization
. the uci`s idea of a bicycle could not possibly evolve into something that could
serve the public -- and replace the automobile -- (why would anybody want to?
the world wasn't a smog-hole yet! )
because once you put a fairing on an upright-posture design like theirs
then the side-winds make it very unstable
. the uci was primarily concerned that charles mochet`s velocar had
made obsolete an already struggling bicycle industry urgently in need of
protection against the wave of cheap american imports .

1938: first 50+ km/hr

. the streamlined velocar (supine recumbent with aerodynamic fairing)
takes the world`s first 50+ km/hr

1949: amphibious pedal-driven Amphibike [MARKKU LAHTINEN]Amphibike 1949

.  the Amphibike in Stockholm had features of a velomobile,
and the pedals could swim as well
 . Reino Karpio and Matti Näränen pedal-propelled from Helsinki to Stockholm
across the Baltic Sea with their amphibike

1974: 40-mph mile

. prof(mech.eng).chester kyle`s streamlined bike does a 40-mph mile
. it used heat-shrunk dacron aircraft fabric on aluminum

1975: ihpva (international hpv association) foundedihpva organizes open-design community --genius!

. prof.kyle
and AeroVironment`consultant(aerodynamics of truck fairings) jack lambie
founded the california`ihpva (international human powered vehicle association)
for officially recording hpv competitions
under rules that encourage evolution of the hpv
by having an open design policy (in stark contrast to uci,
the pre-existing keeper of official records
that had banned the use of fairings and recumbent frames
. before ihpva, there were no official speed records of hpv's banned by the uci .

1977.8.23: man-powered flight hpv/p242.jpg

. gossamer condor`s man-powered flight can do a figure eight

1979: single-rider hpv breaks 50mphhpv/p106.jpg

. gardner martin` air-over streamlined prone is first single-rider hpv to break 50mph
. supine tandem trike "(white lightening) exceeds 55mpg

1979: supine manuped ( front-drive, 4-pedal bike)hpv/p108.jpg

. john thomas`manuped ( front-drive, 4-pedal, supine bike with tail cone)
wins with superior acceleration and cornering in the 27-mile road race
( although it did cornering better than the vector trike,
the manuped`s steering was rather precarious
since the hands were trying to do both the steering and some of the pedaling )
--[ fighter pilots can tell a navigation system where to steer by having a laser follow their eye movements
and some quadraplegics can do desk work by holding a tool in their teeth   ]

1979.6.12, 5:51 .. 8:44: pedal-flying over the english channel pedal channel crossing

. gossamer albatross`s man-powered flight makes it over the english channel

1980: voit.vector tandem does 62.92 mph racing back to back

voigt`vector single-rider, a streamlined tadpole trike
(ie, with 2 wheels in front beside rider and rear-wheel drive) does 58.89mph
white lightning tandem does 61.04
voit vector tandem ( with back-to-back riders for a shorter length ) does 62.92mph

1983:  prone single manuped does 54.92mph tortured for gold

steve ball`prone 4-pedal rear-drive single does 54.92mph
. linear drive meant that the pedals were on a rail like a rack&pinion steering drive
. after this, prone-style recumbents are seen as obsolete
[ with linear drive, it is much easier for the hands to provide both steering and power ]

1984: supine bike with self-service streamliner

tim brummer`lightning single ( supine bike with self-service streamliner ) does 57.394 mph
. notable in that it didn't require a pitcrew to
hold the bike up while the driver was sealed in
. at stop lights it could stay upright,
showing that a racing machine could be a commuter .

1984: safe bike contest winner, prof.Tauber

partially recumbent angle (75 degrees)

prof.tauber prof.Tauber`s  bicone, [EnCycleopedia '97, p27]
and it`s short-wheel-base variant, the biconette,
have characteristics of both a folding bike and a recumbent
. they are a commercially available examples of
scientifically optimizing the angle of rider lean-back
( the rider`s posture is like having the seat on the bike`s rear rack )
. architer" Pieter Tauber is winner of a 1984 safe bike contest,
and his winning design was developed by
 van raam cycles as the tavara
and made by van raam` engineer" Wim Hoefman
1815 JN ajkmaar, netherlands

1986: martin`gold rush 65+ mph[p125]gold rush

gardner martin`gold rush ( air-over fairing ) does 65+ mph
don rush`allegro trike (with air-over front-wheel drive, and front-wheel steering ) does 62.98mph

1987: hpv historian"wolfgang gronen [p111]historian making history

hpv historian"wolfgang gronen` prone-version of the voigt`vector does (56mph @500m ,  40.79mph @100km )

1988.4.23: pedal flying (119 km) [front cover]man flies

. mit`daedalus` man-powered flight goes from crete to santorin (119 km)

1989: LA to NY in 5days+1hr [p133]son of a touring cycle

. lightening F-40 (single with 24hr riding team) does LA to NY in 5days+1hr (24.5mph)
-- the lightning P-38 is retailed as a touring cycle

1989:  73 km in 1 hour [p125]

martin`gold rush does 73 km in 1 hour

1989.12.10: pedal helicopter

. human-powered helicopter "(da vinci 3) is airborne for 7seconds
--6.10.18. could still be of use to gliders

1991: san francisco to LA in 18hr 4min [p131x-2 looks sci-fi]

. lightening x-2 does san francisco to LA in 18hr 4min

1993: cheetah lives up to it`s name at 68.4mph [cheetah -- name says it allp126]

cheetah does all-time (as of 1995) speed record of 68.4mph

1994: hour gets 55.291 miles

the hour record is 55.291 miles

booklet enCycleopedia`s icon

 EnCycleopedia 1997: a look at recent bike culture 2006.01.12

 EnCycleopedia: the internat buyer`s guide to alt's in cycling (1997 issue)
--. news from the people at

 velomobiles as mobilehomes hpv/enkemobi.jpg

. velomobiles see distance action usually associated only with cars
eg, German artist and street vendor, Tobias Enke
travels his marketing circuit in a fully-faired Leitra .
-- "(perhaps the smallest mobilehome in the world)

recumbent trike culti hpv/culti.jpg

. inventor Thomas Poreski and toolmaker Hubert Meyer
have created a steering mechanism
that leans the rider`s seat and the single front wheel into a turn
while a pivot allows the set of rear wheels to stay vertical .

sealed-transmission velomobile berkut b-317 hpv/berkutsealed.jpg

. Russia get's the gold medal at MUBA 95 in basel, switzerland for the B-317
. the B-305 -- and another Russian hpv, the S-327 [p86],
use freewheels instead of a differential,
but the B-317 got the award for having a sealed oil-bath gearbox
that provides forward, reverse (3:1), and neutral
.also has hydraulic brakes with std brake shoes
. has an optional fairing of carbon&kevlar composite reinforced with aluminum stringers
which brought the weight up from 18 to 40 kg .
--. Burkut no longer makes Faired Trikes
(the "(velo) in velomobile -- and the speed --
comes from the provision of a fairing) .

folding recumbent  mako hpv/mako.jpg

. except for the zipper fairing, and wheels,
this UK bike fits into 11x16x27 inches .

folding recumbent lepushpv/lepusfolded.jpg

. German Marec Hase` trike -- son of easy-glider --
has a luggage rack in back that pivots underneath the bike
while the front pivots over, so that this 'bent can fold into
something the size of a wheel chair .

Elsdale` procumbent (prone recumbent)

UK`s Tim & son (cool breeze uk ltd) Tim riding prone
made  the 1st commercially available procumbent
(where the rider is lying on their stomach)
--. back in 1981..83 I sketched such an idea,
and thought that would be the best design for beating both wind and obstacles
. jumping potholes would then come from the same motion that does push-up's
. it was a trike with 2 wheels steering in front
and used a parallelogram to have the wheels leaning into the curve
just as a bike does .

  bike compacted with torque coupling (instead of folding) hpv/titataniumsecure.jpg. decoupled frame parts stored in suitcase

. it's actually a racing bike, but uses break-apart tubing
as a security feature to protect the bike`s titanium frame from theft
. the bike can fit in a briefcase, and stay in the hands of the owner at all times .
. these breaks in the middle of the tubing require the tubing
to have thicker walls than normal which adds some weight;
but titatinium`s toughness/weight ratio is unsurpassed
-- if you can stay in possession of it !
(gold has been valued as an eternal metal that is easily worked;
but with today`s expertise in metals,
titanium has the highest utility/availability ratio on earth .)

Rich Williams, originator of full-suspension mountain bikes front suspension of motorcycle on bike

williams` rear suspension design applying a motorcycle`s full suspension to mountain bikes
began cycling to train for off-road motorcycle racing
( you'll know when they've designed an optimal suspension system
 when they can go back to using reliable, solid tires
-- just a rubber sole on a round rim )

2002: full-suspension B-777 lux

. a modification of the BerkutSpecial (B-777),
the lux variants has suspension on all three wheels.
. the berkut b-317  is said to be the bmw of trikes?
google(2006) leads to the Berkut Spezial 2002 .

2002: Varna Diablo exceeds 80mphvarna diablo 80mph hpv

. Sam Whittingham, fastest biology on the planet,
with this wind-invisible fiberglass shell .

2006: what's on the web today offers a $400 conversion kit [p33]hpv/pedicab.jpg

. it uses a differential -- known to offer safe, scrub-free cornering
( though adding a freewheel to each side wheel does the same thing in an opposite way:
instead of applying more energy to the faster wheel,
it applies no energy so that on cornering, the outer wheel is not
locked into going the same speed as the inside tire which has to go slower )

Eugene Bicycle Works

. Eugene Bicycle Works (541-683-3397)
is a do-it-yourself repair workspace
with personalized instruction available
. We have fully equipped work stations for you to fix your own bike
and a wide selection of used and new parts to browse through
. The hourly fee is $6 for workspace and tool rental—for unlimited use,
become a member for only $48 a year
. If you don't know what to do, our staff will provide useful and knowledgeable
advice at $1 per 5 minutes of instruction
. We also fix up donated used bikes to sell on the floor
. If you need to get a bike or to get rid of one, drop by

Center for Appropriate TransportJan and his wife kiss while he carries her on his Longhaul workbike

. Eugene Bicycle Works has a
Center for Appropriate Transport Library
founded by Jan Vandertuin,
who is also owner of  Human Powered Machines
and has designed and fabricated trikes, trailers, and workbikes .