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Highland dominates the Somalia scene. Typically it constitutes a wide variety of woody plants, with Acacia and/or commiphora less than 6 metre high as dominants, but it varies greatly. In more arid areas it may be reduced to scattered low bushes, but at other extreme may merge into woodland with emergent trees up to 12m high. It may be dense and virtually impenetrable, even to elephants, or more open and heavily grazed by domestic animals.
Lowland forest is now confined to parts of the Juba valley and the extreme southerly tip of the country. These areas consist of mixed deciduous tropical species, but are disappearing rapidly, particularly along the Juba.
Highland forest in the northern mountains is restricted to areas behind and between Berbera and Bosaso. This Juniper forest has decreased greatly in the 1980’s and the preserved areas suffer a steady degradation through use by man and domestic animals.
Woodlands as such are largely riverine, and are now reduced to quite small areas along the two southern river systems, or else are pure stands of Acacia.
Grasslands still exist as huge expanses on the northern plateau, and along the eastern maritime plain. Mostly they are heavily grazed, and extend into areas which can be designated as grassy bushland, or bushed grassland
 Wetlands fall into a variety of categories. Few if any, are permanent, although the two southern rivers are nearly so. However, periodically they stop flowing and may even dry up. The great swamps and marshland associated with these rivers also dry up at times.
Coastal habitat is also variable. Most of the coastline is rocky, interspersed with long stripes of sandy shore, and stretches if it is backed by dune systems. In some places, such as along the northeast coast and at Hafun, extensive cliffs exist. There are scattered areas of mangroves, a few tidal creeks and some lagoons. Small islands occur off Zeila’a and at Maaid in the Gulf of Aden, and the chain of Bajuun islands extend south of Kismayu to the Kenya Border. Elsewhere there are a few small islets.
Cultivation, except in irrigated areas in proximity to the two rivers, is seasonal, and follows the rains. Large areas in the northwest and in the inter-riverine area in the south are devoted to cereal production, and are entirely rain-fed. Elsewhere cropping is less regular.

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