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Brief Description of the Fauna

Wildlife is very diverse and includes Lions, Leopards, Cheetahs, Wild Cats, Lynxes, Elephants, Hyenas, Foxes, Giraffes, Antelopes, Camels, Wild Goats, Elands, Ibexes, Wild Boars, Crocodiles, Marmots, Hyraxes, Zebras and a variety of other animals.
Bird life is very diverse, there are 639 species recorded in the country including 6 entirely endemic species including the Somali Ostrich (Struthio camelus molybdophanes).
Somalia is rich in marine life. There is a variety of shark species including Great White and Tiger Sharks, Whale Sharks sometimes occur far offshore. Cetaceans have been sighted way offshore few of the whales include rare sightings of the Blue Whale, Sperm, Fin, Sei and Humpback Whales, Spinner, Indo-pacific, Common and Risso’s Dolphins just to name a few. Manta and other types of rays have also been sighted offshore. Barracudas occur in large groups, and are feared by local fishermen. Moray and other types of eels have been found in Somali waters.

The Environment

Recurring droughts cause food shortages in Somalia and the use of contaminated water also contributes to human health problems. The large increase in the livestock population has forced many herders onto marginal grazing lands, resulting in lost grassland and increased desertification. The country has no range management system and must also import all of its energy, causing fuel shortages and external debt problems. Civil war continues to hamper most efforts to safeguard the environment. Off the coast, over-fishing is damaging the marine resource base. Somalia is a party to an international agreement on endangered species and Law of the Sea.


The climate varies from arid subtropical to tropical. Temperatures usually average 28° C (82° F), but may be as low as 0° C (32° F) in the mountain areas and as high as 47° C (116° F) in the desert. The monsoon winds bring a dry season from September to December and a rainy season from March to May. The average annual rainfall is about 635 mm (about  25 in.) and is usually greater in the south and west. Apart from a variety of minor local wet periods, the main rains fall twice yearly between March and June and between September and December, throughout Somalia. The dry seasons are similarly distributed - but while the hottest time of the year on the northern coast falls in summer, the south is by contrast pleasantly cool at this period, particularly near the coast.

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