Tin Pan Alley is the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The start of Tin Pan Alley is usually dated to about 1885, when a number of music publishers set up shop in the same district of Manhattan. The end of Tin Pan Alley is less clear cut. Some date it to the start of the Great Depression in the 1930s when the phonograph and radio supplanted sheet music as the driving force of American popular music, while others consider Tin Pan Alley to have continued into the 1950s when earlier styles of American popular music were upstaged by the rise of rock & roll. Tin Pan Alley was originally a specific place, West 28th Street between Broadway and Sixth Avenue in Manhattan. The origins of the name "Tin Pan Alley" are unclear. The most popular apocryphal account holds that it was originally a derogatory reference to the sound made by many pianos all playing different tunes in this small urban area, producing a cacophony comparable to banging on tin pans. With time this nickname was popularly embraced and many years later it came to describe the U.S. music industry in general. The term is also used to describe any area within a major city with a high concentration of music publishers or musical instrument stores - a good example being Denmark Street near Covent Garden in London. In the 1920s the street became known as "Britain's Tin Pan Alley" due to the large number of music shops, a title it holds to this day. The Tin Pan Alley Festival is held there each July. The music houses in lower Manhattan were lively places, with a steady stream of songwriters, vaudeville and Broadway performers, musicians, and song pluggers coming and going. Aspiring songwriters came to demonstrate tunes they hoped to sell. When tunes were purchased from unknowns with no previous hits, the name of someone with the firm was often added as co-composer (in order to keep a higher percentage of royalties within the firm), or all rights to the song were purchased outright for a flat fee (including rights to put someone else's name on the sheet music as the composer). Songwriters who became established producers of commercially successful songs were hired to be on the staff of the music houses. The most successful of them, like Harry Von Tilzer and Irving Berlin, founded their own publishing firms. Song pluggers were pianists and singers who made their living demonstrating songs to promote sales of sheet music. Most music stores had song pluggers on staff. Other pluggers were employed by the publishers to travel and familiarize the public with their new publications. When vaudeville performers played New York City, they would often visit various Tin Pan Alley firms to find new songs for their acts. Second- and third-rate performers often paid for rights to use a new song, while famous stars were given free copies of publisher's new numbers or paid to perform them, the publishers knowing this was valuable advertising. Initially Tin Pan Alley specialized in melodramatic ballads and comic novelty songs, but it embraced the newly popular styles of the cakewalk and ragtime music. Later on jazz and blues were incorporated, although less completely, as Tin Pan Alley was oriented towards producing songs that amateur singers or small town bands could perform from printed music. Since improvisation, blue notes, and other characteristics of jazz and blues could not be captured in conventional printed notation, Tin Pan Alley manufactured jazzy and bluesy pop-songs and dance numbers. Much of the public in the late 1910s and the 1920s did not know the difference between these commercial products and authentic jazz and blues.
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Charles Bronson was born in the notorious Ehrenfeld, Pennsylvania coal-mining neighborhood of Scooptown in the Pittsburgh Tri-State area. He was one of 15 children born to a Lithuanian immigrant father of Lipka Tatar ancestry, and a Lithuanian-American mother. Bronson's father died when he was only 10, and he went down to the coal mines like his older brothers until he was drafted. He earned $1 per ton of coal mined. His family was so poor that, at one time, he had reportedly been forced to wear his sister's dress to school because he had no other clothes. This story has been repeated in Celebrity Setbacks: 800 Stars who Overcame the Odds by Ed Lucaire (ISBN 0-671-85031-8) and in an edition of Ripley's Believe It or Not!. In 1943, Bronson joined the United States Army Air Forces and served in the Pacific theater as a B-29 Superfortress tail-gunner. Assigned to the 61st Bomb Squadron of the 39th Bomb Group of the Twentieth Air Force, he flew bombing missions to Japan from North Field, Guam.
After the war he decided to pursue acting, not from any love of the subject, but rather because he was impressed with the amount of money that he could potentially make in the business. Bronson was a roommate with Jack Klugman, another struggling actor at the time. Klugman later said of Bronson that he was good at ironing clothes. His first screen appearance, which was uncredited, was as a sailor in You're in the Navy Now in 1951. During the McCarthy hearings he changed his surname to Bronson as Slavic-sounding names were suspect. He took his inspiration from the Bronson Gate at Paramount Studios, situated on the corner of Melrose Ave. and Bronson St. One of his earliest screen appearances was as Vincent Price's henchman in the 1953 horror classic House of Wax. Bronson made several appearances on television in the 1950s and 1960s, including three leading roles on Alfred Hitchcock Presents in the episodes "And So Died Riabouchinska" (1956), "There Was an Old Woman" (1956), and "The Woman Who Wanted to Live" (1962); he also starred alongside Elizabeth Montgomery in The Twilight Zone episode "Two" (1961). Charles Bronson (1973).From 1958 to 1960, Bronson starred in the ABC detective series Man With A Camera. Bronson portrayed 'Mike Kovac', a former combat photographer free-lancing in New York City. Frequently, Kovac was involved in assignments for the Police Department, which commonly put him in danger. Also on ABC, Bronson gained attention in 1963 in the role of Linc, the stubborn wagonmaster in the TV western The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters, which also starred twelve-year-old Kurt Russell. Although he began his career in the United States, Bronson first made a serious name for himself acting in European films. He became quite famous on that continent, and was known by two nicknames: The Italians called him "Il Brutto" ("The Ugly One") and to the French he was known as "le sacré monstre" ("holy monster"). Even though he was not yet a headliner in America, this overseas fame earned him a 1971 Golden Globe as the "Most Popular Actor in the World." That same year, he wondered if he was "too masculine" to ever become a star in the United States.[citation needed] Bronson's most famous films include The Great Escape (1963), in which he played Danny Velinski, a Polish prisoner of war nicknamed "The Tunnel King", and The Dirty Dozen, (1967) in which he played an Army death row convict conscripted into a World War II suicide mission. In the westerns The Magnificent Seven (1960) and the Sergio Leone epic Once Upon a Time in the West, (1968) he played heroic gunfighters, taking up the cause of the defenseless. Sergio Leone once called him "the greatest actor I ever worked with." Leone had wanted Bronson for all three of what became known as the "Man with No Name" trilogy, but Bronson turned him down each time. In Hard Times (1975), he played a street fighter making his living in illegal boxing matches in Louisiana. He is also remembered for Death Wish (1974) which spawned several sequels (in which he also starred). In the Death Wish series he played Paul Kersey, a successful New York architect, a liberal until his wife (played by Hope Lange) was murdered and his daughter raped. Kersey became a crime-fighting vigilante by night - a highly controversial role, as his executions were cheered by crime-weary audiences. After the famous 1984 case of Bernhard Goetz, Bronson recommended that people not imitate his character. During the 1980s, he made numerous films with smaller production companies, most notably Cannon Films. Ultra-violent films such as The Evil That Men Do and 10 To Midnight were blasted by critics but provided him with good-paying work throughout the 80s. Bronson's last starring role in a theatrically released film was 1994's Death Wish V: The Face of Death. Bronson was married to British actress Jill Ireland from 1968 until her death from breast cancer at age 54 in 1990. He met her when she was still married to British actor David McCallum. At the time, Bronson (who shared the screen with McCallum in The Great Escape) reportedly told him, "I'm going to marry your wife." Two years later, Bronson did marry her. She was his second wife.
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HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES / (click on the link down the text):
Categories: History of the United States by period Thirteen Colonies · 1776–1789 · 1789–1849 · 1849–1865 · 1865–1918 · 1918–1945 · 1945–1964 · 1964–1980 · 1980–1988 · 1988-present Subcategories There are 13 subcategories in this category, which are shown below. More may be shown on subsequent pages. Banana Wars Boxer RebellionH History of African-American civil rights Impeachment of Andrew Johnson I cont. Interstate Commerce Commission Modoc War Nez Perce War Philippine-American War Reconstruction R cont. Rockefeller family Sioux Wars Spanish-American War World War I Pages in category "History of the United States (1865–1918)" There are 119 pages in this section of this category. History of the United States (1865–1918) Timeline of United States history (1860-1899) Timeline of United States history (1900-1929) Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 1871 Great Chicago Fire Alaska Native Allotment Act American Expeditionary Force American Federation of Labor American Labor Union Chester A. Arthur Bimetallism The Birth of a Nation Black Friday (1869) Black Hawk War (Utah) Centennial Exposition Central Labor Union Child savers Chinese Exclusion Act (United States) Civil Rights Cases Clayton Antitrust Act Grover Cleveland Coeur d'Alene miners' dispute Colored National Labor Union Committee on Public Information Continental Congress of the working class Coxey's Army Cross of Gold speech Crédit Mobilier of America scandal Curtis Act of 1908 Dawes Act Debs v. United States Eugene V. Debs W. E. B. Du Bois Espionage Act of 1917 Farmers' Alliance Farmers' movement Federal Reserve Act First Transcontinental Railroad Ford Model T Henry Ford Four-minute men James A. Garfield Gay Nineties Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907 Gilded Age Samuel Gompers Jay Gould Great Railroad Strike of 1877 Benjamin Harrison Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty Rutherford B. Hayes Haymarket Riot Bill Haywood Hepburn Act Hercules Mine, Idaho Hindu German Conspiracy Trial Homestead Strike Immigration to the United States Industrial Workers of the World Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916 Andrew Johnson Johnstown Flood Jones-Shafroth Act Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era Knights of Labor Labor federation competition in the U.S. Labor spies Lochner era McKinley Tariff William McKinley Meat Inspection Act Nadir of American race relations National Defense Act of 1916 New Imperialism Newlands Reclamation Act Panic of 1893 Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act Peshtigo Fire Plessy v. Ferguson Populist Party (United States) Port Huron Fire of 1871 Progressive Party (United States, 1912) Pure Food and Drug Act Revenue Act of 1913 Robber baron (industrialist) Rockefeller family John D. Rockefeller John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Roosevelt Corollary Theodore Roosevelt San Diego Free Speech Fight San Elizario Salt War Sedition Act of 1918 Sewer Socialism Sherman Antitrust Act Sutro Tunnel William Howard Taft The Great Fire The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry The Significance of the Frontier in American History Tin Pan Alley United States presidential election, 1868 United States presidential election, 1872 United States presidential election, 1876 United States presidential election, 1880 United States presidential election, 1888 United States presidential election, 1892 United States presidential election, 1896 United States presidential election, 1900 United States presidential election, 1904 United States presidential election, 1908 United States presidential election, 1912 United States presidential election, 1916 Western Labor Union Wilmington Insurrection of 1898 Woodrow Wilson Wobbly lingo World's Columbian Exposition
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