M A B E L    N O R M A N D

The Floor below, 1918; Is playing in NewYork 1938, no outside scenes
Molly'O, 1921
Head over Heels, 1922
Beyond the Rocks, 1922
Mickey, 1918
Should men walk home?, 1927

From Mabel herself:
Mabel's Dramatic Career, 1913: Mack Sennett
Mabel at the Wheel, 1914: Mack Sennett en Mabel Normand

Mabel Normand Website


Born Mabel Ethelreid Normand in Staten Island, New York, she grew up in extreme poverty. Her father was sporadically employed as a carpenter at Sailors' Snug Harbor home for elderly seamen. Before she entered films in 1909, Normand worked as an artist's model, which included posing for postcards illustrated by Charles Dana Gibson, creator of the Gibson Girl image. She met director Mack Sennett and embarked on a tumultuous affair with him. Her first films portrayed her as a bathing beauty, but Normand quickly demonstrated a flair for comedy and became a star of Sennett's short films. She appeared regularly with Charles Chaplin and Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle and wrote, directed, and starred in some of Chaplin's early films. She is frequently credited with being the first person to throw a cream pie on film and remains universally acclaimed as silent cinema's most prominent comedienne. She directed films and made full-length features before either Arbuckle or Chaplin. In 1914 she starred with Chaplin and Marie Dressler in Tillie's Punctured Romance. Normand developed into a major film star. As her relationship with Sennett came to an end, she signed a contract with Samuel Goldwyn in 1918 and opened her own film studio in Culver City. During this time she reportedly became addicted to both alcohol and narcotics, which damaged her health and career. Nonetheless, her breakup with Sennett seems to have caused Normand to re-evaluate her life and she embarked on a program of self-education, developing keen and lasting interests in reading and books. Scandals Director William Desmond Taylor shared these interests and also tried to help in her battle against addiction. The two formed a close relationship. However he was murdered in 1922 only fifteen minutes after Normand had left his home. As the last person to see him alive, Normand was closely scrutinized by police and the media. The murder was never solved. Reports of her drug use became public and Normand's reputation suffered. Her many past appearances in films with Roscoe Arbuckle, who was wrongly accused of murder, did further damage. In 1924 she was involved in yet another scandal when her chauffeur Joe Kelly, an ex-convict whose real name was Horace Greer, shot and wounded Courtland Dines, one of Normand's many lovers, with her pistol. Later career and death For a few years she made no films but was signed by Hal Roach Studios in 1926 after director/producer F. Richard Jones, who had directed her at Keystone, offered her a second chance. At Roach, she made the film Raggedy Rose plus four others. Despite publicity support from the Hollywood community (including her friend Mary Pickford), moviegoers did not respond and after more than 250 films her career was essentially over. She married actor Lew Cody in 1926, but they apparently continued to live separately in nearby houses in Beverly Hills and her health was in decline. After an extended stay in a sanitarium she died from tuberculosis in Monrovia, California. She was interred at Calvary Cemetery, Los Angeles.
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The first film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a three second film of people walking around in a garden, called Roundhay Garden Scene. The art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era" before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" in the late 1920s. Many film scholars and buffs argue that the aesthetic quality of cinema decreased for several years until directors, actors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies." The visual quality of silent movies -- especially those produced during the 1920s -- was often extremely high. However, there is a widely held misconception that these films were primitive and barely watchable by modern standards. This misconception is due to technical errors (such as films being played back at wrong speed) and due to the deteriorated condition of many silent films (many silent films exist only in second or even third generation copies which were often copied from already damaged and neglected film stock).
Since silent films had no synchronized sound for dialogue, onscreen intertitles were used to narrate story points, present key dialogue and sometimes even comment on the action for the cinema audience. The title writer became a key professional in silent film and was often separate from the scenario writer who created the story. Intertitles (or titles as they were generally called at the time) often became graphic elements themselves, featuring illustrations or abstract decorations that commented on the action. Showings of silent films almost always featured live music, starting with the pianist at the first public projection of movies by the Lumière Brothers on December 28, 1895 in Paris (Cook, 1990). From the beginning, music was recognized as essential, contributing to the atmosphere and giving the audience vital emotional cues (musicians sometimes played on film sets during shooting for similar reasons). Small town and neighborhood movie theaters usually had a pianist. From the mid-teens onward, large city theaters tended to have organists or entire orchestras. Massive theatrical organs such as the famous "mighty Wurlitzer" could simulate some orchestral sounds along with a number of sound effects. The scores for silents were often more or less improvised early in the medium's history. Once full features became commonplace, however, music was compiled from Photoplay music by the pianist, organist, orchestra conductor or the movie studio itself, which would send out a cue sheet with the film. Starting with mostly original score composed by Joseph Carl Breil for D.W. Griffith's groundbreaking epic The Birth of a Nation (USA, 1915) it became relatively common for films to arrive at the exhibiting theater with original, specially composed scores (Eyman, 1997). By the height of the silent era, movies were the single largest source of employment for instrumental musicians (at least in America). But the introduction of talkies, which happened simultaneously with the onset of the Great Depression, was devastating to many musicians. Some countries devised other ways of bringing sound to silent films. The early cinema of Brazil featured fitas cantatas: filmed operettas with singers lip-synching behind the screen (Parkinson, 1995, p. 69). In Japan, films had not only live music but also the benshi, a live narrator who provided commentary and character voices. The benshi became a central element in Japanese film form, as well as providing translation for foreign (mostly American) movies (Standish, 2005). Their popularity was one reason why silents persisted well into the 1930s in Japan.
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Shirley Jane Temple began dance classes at Meglin's Dance School in Hollywood in 1931, at the age of 3. Her film career began when a casting director from Educational Pictures visited her class. Although Temple hid behind the piano in the studio, she was chosen by the director, invited to audition, and, eventually, signed to a contract with Educational. Temple worked at Educational from 1932 to 1933, and appeared in two series of short subjects for the studio. Her first series, Baby Burlesks, satirized recent motion pictures and politics. In the series "Baby Burlesks", Temple would dress up in a diaper, but then be wearing adult clothes everywhere else. The series was considered controversial by some viewers because of its depiction of young children in adult situations. Her second series at Educational, Frolics of Youth, was a bit more acceptable, and cast her as a bratty younger sister in a contemporary suburban family. While working for Educational Pictures, Temple also performed many walk-on and bit player roles in various films at other studios. She is said to have auditioned for a lead role in Hal Roach's Our Gang comedies (later known as The Little Rascals) in the early 1930s; various reasons are given for her not having been cast in the role. Roach stated that Temple and her mother were unable to make it through the red tape of the audition process, while Our Gang producer/director Robert F. McGowan recalls that the studio wanted to cast Temple, but they refused to give in to Temple's mother's demands that Temple receive special star billing. Temple, in her autobiography Child Star, denies that she ever auditioned for Our Gang at all. However, Temple had some connection with Our Gang in that Temple's carpool friend, David Holt, had a small role in the 1933 Little Rascals film Forgotten Babies.
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1888 - The Roundhay Garden Scene, shot in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England by Le Prince, is credited as the first film. It is recorded at a groundbreaking 20 frames per second and is the earliest surviving film. Thomas Edison describes the concept of the Kinetoscope, an early motion picture exhibition device. 1889 - Eastman Kodak is the first company to begin commercial production of film on a flexible transparent base, celluloid. The first moving pictures developed on celluloid film are made in Hyde Park, London by William Friese Greene.
Magic Lantern
List of Black and White Films

Tableau vivant (correct plural: tableaux vivants) is French for "living picture." The term describes a striking group of suitably costumed artist's models, carefully posed and often theatrically lit. Throughout the duration of the display, the people shown do not speak or move. The approach thus marries the art forms of the stage with those of painting/photography, and as such it has been of interest to modern photographers. The hey-day of the tableau vivant was the 19th century with virtually nude tableau vivants or "poses plastiques" providing a form of erotic entertainment.
Before radio, film and television, tableaux vivants were popular forms of entertainment. Before the age of colour reproduction of images the tableau vivant (often abbreviated simply to tableau) was sometimes used to recreate paintings "on stage", based on an etching or sketch of the painting. This could be done as an amateur venture in a drawing room, or as a more professionally produced series of tableaux presented on a theatre stage, one following another, usually to tell a story without requiring all the usual trappings of a "live" theatre performance. They thus 'educated' their audience to understand the form taken by later Victorian and Edwardian era magic lantern shows, and perhaps also sequential narrative comic strips (which first appeared in modern form in the late 1890s).
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Garson Kanin (November 24, 1912 – March 13, 1999) was an American writer and director of plays and films. Born in Rochester, New York, he is most notable for his first film A Man to Remember (1938), listed as one of the best top ten films in 1938 by The New York Times. writing, in collaboration with his wife, actress Ruth Gordon (whom he married in 1942), the classic Spencer Tracy/Katharine Hepburn film comedies, the 1949 Adam's Rib and the 1952 Pat and Mike, both directed by George Cukor. writing and staging the 1946 play Born Yesterday, which ran for 1642 performances; and with George Cukor helped work out the screenplay of the 1950 film adaptation (see Garson Kanin's "Hollywood" page 326). directing the 1955 play The Diary of Anne Frank, which ran for 717 performances. directing the 1964 musical Funny Girl, which ran for 1348 performances. He was a colleague of Thornton Wilder, who mentored him, and an admirer of the work of Frank Capra. Kanin said "I'd rather be Capra than God, if there is a Capra." In 1990, the widower Kanin married the actress Marian Seldes, who survives him. Kanin died at age 86 in New York City of undisclosed causes. He and Katharine Hepburn were the only witnesses to Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh's wedding in California. He is quoted in saying "When your work speaks for itself, don't interrupt"
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Born Francesco Rosario Capra in Bisacquino, Sicily, Capra moved to the United States in 1903 with his father Salvatore, his mother Rosaria Nicolosi and his siblings Giuseppa, Giuseppe, and Antonia. In California they met up with Benedetto Capra, (the oldest sibling) and settled in Los Angeles, California, where, in 1918, Frank Capra graduated from Throop Institute (later renamed the California Institute of Technology) with a B.S. degree in chemical engineering. On October 18, 1918, he joined the United States Army. While at the Presidio, he got Spanish influenza and was discharged on December 13. In 1920, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States, registering his name as Frank Russell Capra. Like other prominent directors of the 1930s and '40s, Capra began his career in silent films, initially as a "prop man" and worked his way up to the director's chair, notably by directing and writing silent film comedies starring Harry Langdon and the Our Gang kids. In 1930 Capra went to work for Mack Sennett and then moved to Columbia Pictures where he formed a close association with screenwriter Robert Riskin (husband of Fay Wray) and cameraman Joseph Walker. In 1940, however, Sidney Buchman replaced Riskin as writer. For the 1934 film It Happened One Night, Robert Montgomery and Myrna Loy were originally offered the roles, but each felt that the script was poor, and Loy described it is one of the worst she had ever read, later noting that the final version bore little resemblance to the script she and Montgomery were offered. After Loy, Miriam Hopkins and Margaret Sullavan also each rejected the part.[3] Constance Bennett wanted to, but only if she could produce it herself. Then Bette Davis wanted the role,[4] but she was under contract with Warner Brothers and Jack Warner refused to loan her to Columbia Studios.[5] Capra was unable to get any of the actresses he wanted for the part of Ellie Andrews, partly because no self-respecting star would make a film with only two costumes. Harry Cohn suggested Claudette Colbert to play the lead role. Both Capra and Clark Gable enjoyed making the movie, Colbert did not. After the 1934 film It Happened One Night, Capra directed a steady stream of films for Columbia intended to be inspirational and humanitarian. The best known are Mr. Deeds Goes to Town, the original Lost Horizon, You Can't Take It with You, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, and It's a Wonderful Life. His ten-year break from screwball comedy ended with the comedy Arsenic and Old Lace. Among the actors who owed much of their early success to Capra were Gary Cooper, Jean Arthur, James Stewart, Barbara Stanwyck, Cary Grant and Donna Reed. Capra credited Jean Arthur as "my favorite actress". Capra's films in the 1930s enjoyed success at the Academy Awards. It Happened One Night was the first film to win all five top Oscars, Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Actress and Best Screenplay. In 1936, Capra won his second Best Director Oscar for Mr. Deeds Goes to Town and in 1938 he won his third Best Director Oscar in just five years for You Can't Take It with You which also won Best Picture. In addition to his three directing wins, Capra received directing nominations for three other films (Lady for a Day, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, and It's a Wonderful Life). He was also host of the 8th Academy Awards ceremony on 5 March 1936. Although these films, written by individuals on the political left, tend to exude the spirit of the New Deal, Capra himself was a conservative Republican who hated President Franklin D. Roosevelt (never voting for him), admired Franco and Mussolini, and later during the McCarthy era served as a secret FBI informer.
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Valentino was born to Marie Berthe Gabrielle Barbin (1856 - 1919), who was French, and Giovanni Antonio Giuseppe Fidele Guglielmi (1853-1906), an Italian veterinarian. He had an older brother, Alberto (1892-1981), a younger sister, Maria, and an older sister Beatrice who died in infancy. In 1913 Valentino left for the United States, following the advice of his friend Domenico Savino. He arrived in New York City on December 23, 1913. After exhausting a small family legacy, he endured a spell of poverty during which he supported himself with odd jobs such as bussing tables in restaurants, and gardening. Eventually he found work as a taxi dancer and instructor, and later as an exhibition dancer. He gained attention for his rendition of the Argentine tango. Valentino joined an operetta company that traveled to Utah where it disbanded. From there he traveled to San Francisco where he met the actor Norman Kerry, who convinced him to try a career in cinema, still in the silent movie era. In 1919, after small parts in a dozen films (in which he typically played "heavies" and gangsters), he married Jean Acker, a part-Cherokee film starlet (who was later revealed to be a lesbian). Their marriage was rumored never to have been consummated - Acker reportedly locked him out of their hotel room on their wedding night - and despite Valentino's efforts at a reconciliation, the two separated shortly afterward, and were divorced in 1922. Valentino with the Arabian Stallion Jadaan. Publicity photo for Son of the Sheik, 1926 Valentino with the Arabian Stallion Jadaan. Publicity photo for Son of the Sheik, 1926 Rudolf and Natacha, his second wife. Portrait by James Abbe. Rudolf and Natacha, his second wife. Portrait by James Abbe. Valentino met screenwriter June Mathis who had been impressed by his role as a "cabaret parasite" in The Eyes of Youth. She suggested to the director Rex Ingram that Valentino be cast as one of the male leads in his next film The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. Released in 1921, the film was a commercial and critical success, and made Valentino a star, earning him the nickname "Tango Legs." It also led to his iconic role in The Sheik and The Son of the Sheik. Valentino first met Natacha Rambova (a costume designer and art director who was a protégé and possibly the lover of actress Alla Nazimova), on the set of Uncharted Seas in 1921. The two also worked together on the Nazimova production of Camille, by which time they were romantically involved. They married on May 13, 1922, in Mexicali, Mexico. This resulted in Valentino being jailed for bigamy, since his divorce from Acker was not finalized; California law at the time required that divorcing couples wait a full year before remarrying. Valentino and Rambova remarried a year later. Blood and Sand, released in 1922, and co-starring Lila Lee and the popular silent screen vamp Nita Naldi, further established Valentino as the leading male star of his time. However, in 1923, a dispute with Paramount Pictures resulted in an injunction which prohibited Valentino from making films with other producers. To ensure that his name remained in the public eye, Valentino, following the suggestion of his manager George Ullman, embarked on a national dance tour, sponsored by a cosmetics company, Mineralava, with Rambova, a former ballerina, as his partner. During this time he also traveled to Europe and had a memorable visit to his native town. Back in the United States, he was criticized by his fans for his newly cultivated beard and was forced to shave it off. In New York City on May 14, 1923, he made his first and last record, consisting of "Valentino's renditions" of Amy Woodforde-Finden's Kashmiri Song featured in The Sheik and Jose Padilla's "El Relicario," used in Blood and Sand.
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Roscoe Conkling Arbuckle, also known as Fatty Arbuckle (March 24, 1887 – June 29, 1933), was an American silent film comedian. Arbuckle is noted as one of the most popular actors of his era, but he is best remembered for a heavily publicized criminal prosecution that ended his career. Although he was acquitted by a jury with a written apology, the trial's scandal ruined the actor, who would not appear on screen again for another 10 years. Born in Smith Center, Kansas, to Mollie and William Goodrich Arbuckle, he had several years of Vaudeville experience, including work at Idora Park in Oakland, California. One of his earliest mentors was comedian Leon Errol. He began his film career with the Selig Polyscope Company in July 1909. Arbuckle appeared sporadically in Selig one-reelers until 1913, moved briefly to Universal Pictures and became a star in producer-director Mack Sennett's Keystone Cops comedies. On August 6, 1908 he married Araminta Estelle Durfee (1889-1975), the daughter of Charles Warren Durfee and Flora Adkins. Durfee starred in many early comedy films under the name Minta Durfee, often with Arbuckle. Despite his size Arbuckle was physically adept and agile. His comedies are noted as rollicking and fast-paced, have many chase scenes and feature sight gags. Arbuckle was fond of the famous "pie in the face," a cliché that has come to signify silent film comedy in general. The earliest known use of this gag was in the June 1913 Keystone one-reeler A Noise from the Deep starring Arbuckle and frequent screen partner Mabel Normand (Note, the first known "pie in the face" on screen is Ben Turpin's Mr. Flip in 1909. However, the oldest known thrown "pie in the face" is Normand ). While Normand is said to have thrown the first pie onscreen, a Hollywood legend of uncertain provenance recounts that Arbuckle created this gag after encountering Pancho Villa's army on the Rio Grande during a Vaudeville appearance in El Paso: While the Arbuckles were picnicking on the river, they and Villa's men playfully threw fruit at each other across the river. Roscoe is said to have knocked one of the men off his horse with a bunch of bananas, to Pancho's extreme amusement. Arbuckle disliked his screen nickname, which he had been given because of his substantial girth. However, the name Fatty (big buster) identifies the character Arbuckle portrayed onscreen (usually a naive hayseed), not Arbuckle himself. When Arbuckle portrayed a biological female the character was named "Miss Fatty" (as in the film Miss Fatty's Seaside Lovers). Hence, Arbuckle discouraged anyone from addressing him as "Fatty" offscreen. Arbuckle gave Buster Keaton his first film-making work in his 1917 short, The Butcher Boy. They soon became screen partners, with deadpan Buster soberly assisting wacky Roscoe in his crazy adventures. When Arbuckle was promoted to feature films, Keaton inherited the short-subject series, which launched his own career as a comedy star. Arbuckle and Keaton's close friendship never wavered, even when Arbuckle was beset by tragedy at the zenith of his career and through the depression and downfall that followed. In his autobiography Keaton described Arbuckle's playful nature and his love of practical jokes, including several elaborately constructed schemes the two successfully pulled off at the expense of various Hollywood studio heads and stars. At the height of his career, Arbuckle was under contract to Paramount Studios for $1 million a year, the first such documented salary paid by a Hollywood studio. He worked hard for the money, filming three feature films simultaneously. On September 3, 1921 Arbuckle took a break from his hectic film schedule and drove to San Francisco with two friends, movie directors Lowell Sherman and Fred Fischbach. The three checked into the St. Francis Hotel, decided to have a party and invited several women to their suite. During the carousing a 24-year-old aspiring actress named Virginia Rappe became seriously ill and was examined by the hotel doctor, who concluded her symptoms were mostly caused by intoxication. Rappe died three days later of peritonitis caused by a ruptured bladder. Rappe's companion at the party, Maude Delmont, claimed Arbuckle had pierced Rappe's bladder while raping her. Accusations arose that Arbuckle had become carried away and tried to use a Coca-Cola or Champagne bottle to simulate sex with Rappe, which led to the injuries. Arbuckle was confident he had nothing to be ashamed of and denied any wrongdoing. Delmont later made a statement to the police in an attempt to get money from Arbuckle's attorneys, and the matter soon spun out of her control. Roscoe Arbuckle's career is cited by many film historians as one of the great tragedies of Hollywood. His trial was a major media event and stories in William Randolph Hearst's nationwide newspaper chain were written to make Arbuckle appear guilty. The resulting scandal destroyed his career and his personal life. Morality groups called for Arbuckle to be sentenced to death and studio executives ordered Arbuckle's industry friends not to publicly speak up for him. Charlie Chaplin was in England at the time. Buster Keaton did make a public statement in support of Arbuckle, calling Roscoe one of the kindest souls he had known. After two trials resulted in hung juries the third ended in an acquittal and a written apology from the jury. The Arbuckle case was one of four major Paramount-related scandals of the period. In 1920 Olive Thomas died after drinking a large quantity of medication meant for her husband (matinee idol Jack Pickford) which she had mistaken for water. In 1922 the murder of director William Desmond Taylor effectively ended the careers of actresses Mary Miles Minter and former Arbuckle screen partner Mabel Normand and in 1923 actor/director Wallace Reid's drug addiction resulted in his death. The scandals caused by these tragedies rocked Hollywood, leading to calls for reform of the "indecency" being "promoted" by motion pictures and resulted in the Production Code, which set standards for behavior depicted in Hollywood films. The Hays Office banned all of Arbuckle's films, although Will H. Hays later acknowledged that Arbuckle could be allowed to work in Hollywood. Ironically one of the few Arbuckle feature-length films known to survive is Leap Year, one of two finished films Paramount held from release during the scandal. It was eventually released in Europe but was never theatrically released in the United States or Britain.
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Katharine Hepburn was born in Hartford, Connecticut, to Dr. Thomas Norval Hepburn, a successful urologist from Virginia, and Katharine Martha Houghton. Hepburn's father was a staunch proponent of publicizing the dangers of venereal disease in a time when such things were not discussed. Hepburn's mother campaigned for equal rights for women, and co-founded Planned Parenthood with birth control advocate Margaret Sanger. The Hepburns demanded frequent familiar discussions on these topics and more, and as a result the Hepburn children were well versed in social and political issues. The Hepburn children were never asked to leave a room no matter what the topic of conversation was. Once a very young Katharine Hepburn even accompanied her mother to a suffrage rally. The Hepburn children, at their parents' encouragement, were unafraid of expressing frank views on various topics, including sex. "We were snubbed by everyone, but we grew quite to enjoy that," Hepburn later said of her unabashedly liberal family, who she credited with giving her a sense of adventure and independence. Her father insisted that his children be athletic, and encouraged swimming, riding, golf and tennis. Hepburn, eager to please her father, emerged as a fine athlete in her late teens, winning a bronze medal for figure skating from the Madison Square Garden skating club, shooting golf in the low eighties, and reaching the semifinal of the Connecticut Young Women's Golf Championship. Hepburn especially enjoyed swimming, and regularly took dips in the frigid waters that fronted her bayfront Connecticut home, generally believing that "the bitterer the medicine, the better it was for you." She continued her brisk swims well into her 80s. Hepburn would come to be recognized for her athletic physicality — she fearlessly performed her own pratfalls in films such as Bringing up Baby, which is now held up as an exemplar of screwball comedy. On 3 April 1921, while visiting friends in Greenwich Village, Hepburn found her older brother Tom (born 8 November 1905), whom she idolized, hanging from the rafters of the attic by a rope, dead of an apparent suicide. Her family denied that it was self-inflicted, arguing that he had been a happy boy. They insisted that it must have been an experimentation gone awry. It has also been speculated that the boy was trying to carry out a trick that he had seen in a play with Katharine. Hepburn was devastated by his death and sank into a depression. She shied away from children her own age and was mostly schooled at home. For many years she used Tom's birthday (November 8) as her own. It was not until she wrote her autobiography, Me: Stories of my Life, that Hepburn revealed her true birth date. She was educated at the Kingswood-Oxford School before going on to attend Bryn Mawr College, where it was rumored she was expelled for smoking and breaking curfew, receiving a degree in history and philosophy in 1928, the same year she had her debut on Broadway after landing a bit part in Night Hostess. A banner year for Hepburn, 1928 also marked her nuptials to socialite businessman Ludlow ("Luddy") Ogden Smith, whom she had met while attending Bryn Mawr and married after a short engagement. Hepburn and Smith's marriage was rocky from the start — she insisted he change his name to S. Ogden Ludlow so she would not be confused with well-known musician Kate Smith. They were divorced in Mexico in 1934. Fearing that the Mexican divorce was not legal, Ludlow got a second divorce in the United States in 1942 and a few days later he remarried. Although their marriage was a failure, Katharine Hepburn often expressed her gratitude toward Ludlow for his financial and moral support in the early days of her career. "Luddy" continued to be a lifelong friend to her and the Hepburn family. On September 21, 1938, Hepburn was staying in her Old Saybrook, Connecticut home when the 1938 New England Hurricane struck and destroyed her house. Hepburn narrowly escaped before the home was washed away.
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Vaudeville: a descendant of variety, (c. 1860s-1881), vaudeville distinguished itself from the earlier form by its mixed-gender audience, usually alcohol-free halls, and often slavish devotion to inculcating favor among members of the middle class. The form gradually evolved from the concert saloon and variety hall into its mature form throughout the 1870s and 1880s. This more genteel form was known as "Polite Vaudeville." The true beginnings of vaudeville in America probably lie in New Orleans and the "medicine shows" that toured small towns throughout the country,giving small town America a glimpse into the music hall culture of Paris and Great Britain. In the years before the Civil war, entertainment existed on a different scale. Certainly, variety theatre existed before 1860. Europeans enjoyed types of variety performances years before anyone even had conceived of the United States. On American soil, as early as the first decades of the nineteenth century, theatre goers could enjoy a performance of Shakespeare, acrobats, singers, presentations of dance, and comedy all in the same evening. As the years progressed, seekers of diversified amusements found an increasing number to choose from. A handful of circuses regularly toured the country, dime-museums appealed to the curious, amusement parks, riverboats, and town halls often featured "cleaner" presentations of variety entertainment, while saloons, music-halls, and burlesque houses catered to those with a taste for the risqué. In the 1840's, minstrel shows, another type of variety performance, and "the first emanation of a pervasive and purely American mass culture," grew to enormous popularity and formed as Nick Tosches writes, "the heart of nineteenth-century show business." Medicine shows traveled the countryside offering programs of comedy, music, jugglers and other novelties along with their tonics, salves, and miracle elixirs, while Wild West Shows provided romantic vistas of the disappearing frontier complete with trick riding, music, and drama. Vaudeville incorporated these various itinerant amusements into a stable, institutionalized form centered in America's growing urban hubs. Problematically, the term "vaudeville," itself, referring specifically to North American variety entertainment, came into common usage after 1871 with the formation of "Sargent's Great Vaudeville Company" of Louisville, Kentucky, and had little if anything to do with the "vaudeville" of the French theatre. Variety showman, M.B. Leavitt claimed the word originated from the French "vaux de ville" ("worth of the city, or worthy of the city's patronage"), but in all likelihood, as Albert McLean suggests, the name was merely selected "for its vagueness, its faint, but harmless exoticism, and perhaps its connotation of gentility."4Leavitt and Sargent's shows differed little from the coarser material presented in earlier itinerant entertainments, although their use of the term to provide a veneer of respectability points to an early effort to cater variety amusements to the growing middle class. In the early 1880s, impresario Tony Pastor, a former ringmaster with the circus turned theatre manager, capitalized on middle class sensibilities and spending power when he began to feature "polite" variety programs in several of his New York City theatres. The usual date given for the "birth" of vaudeville is 24 October 1881, when Pastor famously staged the first bill of self-proclaimed "clean" vaudeville in New York City. Hoping to draw a potential audience from female and family-based shopping traffic uptown, Pastor barred the sale of liquor in his theatres, eliminated questionable material from his shows, and offered gifts of coal and hams to attendees. Pastor's experiment proved successful, and other managers soon followed suit. Read more

Post-Vaudeville: some of the most prominent vaudevillians continued the migration to cinema, though others found that the gifts that had so delighted live audiences did not translate well into different media. Some performers whose eclectic styles did not conform well to the greater intimacy of the screen, like Bert Lahr, fashioned careers out of combining live performance, radio and film roles. Many others later appeared in the Catskill resorts that constituted the "Borscht Belt". And many simply retired from performance and entered the workaday world of the middle class, that group that vaudeville, more than anything else, had helped to articulate and entertain. Yet vaudeville, both in its methods and ruling aesthetic, did not simply perish but rather resounded throughout the succeeding media of film, radio and television. The screwball comedies of the 1930s, those reflections of the brief moment of cinematic equipoise between dialogue and physicality, reflect the more madcap comedic elements of some vaudeville acts (e.g., The Three Keatons). In form, the television variety show owed much to vaudeville, riding the multi-act format to success in shows such as "Your Show of Shows" with Sid Caesar and, of course, The Ed Sullivan Show. Even today, performers such as Bill Irwin, a Macarthur Fellow and Tony Award-winning actor, are frequently lauded as "New Vaudevillians". References to vaudeville and the use of its distinctive argot continue throughout Western popular culture. Terms as “a flop” (an act that does badly), for example, have entered into accepted usage in the American idiom. Many of the most common performance techniques and "gags" of vaudeville entertainers are still seen on television and on film. Vaudeville, like its dime museum and variety theatre forebearers, also continued and solidified a strong American absorption with foreign entertainers. Read more

Vaudeville was a genre of variety entertainment prevalent in the United States and Canada from the early 1880s until the early 1930s. Developing from many sources, including concert saloons, minstrelsy, freak shows, dime museums, and literary burlesque, vaudeville became one of the most popular types of entertainment in North America. Each evening's bill of performance was made up of a series of separate, unrelated acts. Types of acts included (among others) musicians (both classical and popular), dancers, comedians, trained animals, magicians, female and male impersonators, acrobats, one-act plays or scenes from plays, athletes, lecturing celebrities, minstrels, and short films.
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Revues are most properly understood as having amalgamated several theatrical traditions within the corpus of a single entertainment. Minstrelsy's olio section provided a structural map of popular variety presentation, while literary travesties highlighted an audience hunger for satire. Theatrical extravaganzas, in particular, moving panoramas, demonstrated a vocabulary of the spectacular. Burlesque, itself a bawdy hybrid of various theatrical forms, lent to classic revue an open interest in female sexuality and the masculine gaze. Revues enjoyed great success on Broadway from the World War I years until the Great Depression, when the stock market crash forced many revues from cavernous Broadway houses into smaller venues. (The shows did, however, continue to infrequently appear in large theatres well into the 1950s.) The high ticket prices of many revues helped ensure audiences distinct from other live popular entertainments during their height of popularity (late 1910s-1940s). In 1914, for example, the Follies charged $5.00 for an opening night ticket; at that time, many cinema houses charged a $0.10-0.25, while low-priced vaudeville seats could be had for $0.15.[1] Among the many popular producers of revues, Florenz Ziegfeld played the greatest role in developing the classical revue through his glorification of a new theatrical "type," "the American girl." Famed for his often bizarre publicity schemes and continual debt, Ziegfeld joined Earl Carroll, George White, and the Shubert Brothers as the leading producing figure of the American revue's golden age. Revues took advantage of their high revenue stream to lure away performers from other media, often offering exorbitant weekly salaries without the unrepentant travel demanded by other entertainments. Performers such as Eddie Cantor, Anna Held, W.C. Fields, Bert Williams, and the Fairbanks Twins found great success on the revue stage. Composers or lyricists such as Richard Rodgers, Lorenz Hart, Irving Berlin, and George M. Cohan also enjoyed a tremendous reception on the part of audiences. Sometimes, an appearance in a revue provided a key early entry into entertainment. Largely due to their centralization in New York City and adroit use of publicity, revues proved particularly adept at introducing new talents to the American theatre. Rodgers and Hart, one of the great composer/lyricist teams of the American musical theatre, followed up their early Columbia University student revues with the successful Garrick Gaieties (1925). Comedian Fanny Brice, following a brief period in burlesque and amateur variety, bowed to revue audiences in Ziegfeld's Follies of 1910. Specialist writers / composers of revues have included Sandy Wilson, Noel Coward, John Stromberg, George Gershwin, Earl Carroll and Flanders and Swann.
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Cabaret is a form of entertainment featuring comedy, song, dance, and theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue — a restaurant or nightclub with a stage for performances and the audience sitting around the tables (often dining or drinking) watching the performance. The venue itself can also be called a "cabaret." The turn of the 20th century introduced a revolutionized cabaret culture. Performers included Josephine Baker and Brazilian drag performer João Francisco dos Santos (aka Madame Satã). Cabaret performances could range from political satire to light entertainment, each being introduced by a master of ceremonies, or MC. In the United States, cabaret diverged into several different and distinct styles of performance mostly due to the influence of Jazz Music. Chicago cabaret focused intensely on the larger band ensembles and reached its zenith in the speakeasies, and steakhouses (like The Palm) of the Prohibition Era. New York cabaret never developed along the darkly political lines of its European counterparts, but did feature a great deal of social commentary. When New York cabarets featured jazz, they tended to focus on famous vocalists like Eartha Kitt and Capucine (Germaine Lefebvre) rather than instrumental musicians. Cabaret in the United States began to disappear in the sixties.
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Chautauqua (pronounced ʃəˈtɔkwə) is an adult education movement in the United States, highly popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Chautauqua assemblies expanded and spread throughout rural America until the mid-1920s. The Chautauqua brought entertainment and culture for the whole community, with speakers, teachers, musicians, entertainers, preachers and specialists of the day.
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Burlesque refers to theatrical entertainment of broad and parodic humor, which usually consists of comic skits (and sometimes a striptease). While some authors assert that Burlesque is a direct descendant of the Commedia dell'arte, the term 'burlesque' for a parody or comedy of manners appears about the same time as the first appearance of commedia dell'arte. With its origins in nineteenth century music hall entertainments and vaudeville, in the early twentieth century burlesque emerged as a populist blend of satire, performance art, and adult entertainment, that featured strip tease and broad comedy acts that derived their name from the low comedy aspects of the literary genre known as burlesque. In burlesque, performers, usually female, often create elaborate sets with lush, colorful costumes, mood-appropriate music, and dramatic lighting, and may even include novelty acts, such as fire-breathing or demonstrations of unusual flexibility, to enhance the impact of their performance. Put simply, burlesque means "in an upside down style". Like its cousin, commedia dell'arte, burlesque turns social norms head over heels. Burlesque is a style of live entertainment that encompasses pastiche, parody, and wit. The genre traditionally encompasses a variety of acts such as dancing girls, chanson singers, comedians, mime artists, and strip tease artistes, all satirical and with a saucy edge. The strip tease element of burlesque became subject to extensive local legislation, leading to a theatrical form that titillated without falling foul of censors.
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Variety-Show: the format is basically television's version of the music hall format. Variety in the UK evolved in theatres and music halls, and later in Working Men's Clubs. Most of the early top performers on television and radio did an apprenticeship either in stage variety, or during World War II in Entertainments National Service Association (ENSA). In the UK, the ultimate accolade for a variety artist for decades was to be asked to do the annual Royal Command Performance at the London Palladium theatre, in front of the monarch. In the 1960s, even the Beatles undertook this ritual. In the US, shows featuring Milton Berle, Jackie Gleason, Bob Hope and Dean Martin also helped to make the Golden Age of Television successful.
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Variety Entertainment: Blackface minstrelsy / Cabaret / Circuses / Ice shows / Nightclubs / Revues / Variety television series / Vaudeville / Ventriloquism / Ziegfeld Follies
"Variety entertainment":
Variety show / Book of Cool / Buffalo Bill / Burlesque / Dime museum / The Famous Spiegeltent / Folies Bergère / Gang Show / Guerilla burlesque / Medicine show / Minsky's Burlesque / Music hall / Neo-Burlesque / Texas Jack Omohundro / Revue / Ronnie Ronalde / Sex Workers' Art Show / The Society of M.I.C.E. / Songwriters On Parade / Vaudeville (American) / The Young Ones (TV series)
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Café chantant (French: lit. “Singing café”) is a type of musical establishment associated with the belle époque in France. Although there is much overlap of definition with cabaret, music hall, vaudeville, etc. the café chantant was originally an outdoor café where small groups of performers performed popular music for the public. The music was generally lighthearted, sometimes risqué, even bawdy but, as opposed to the cabaret tradition, not particularly political or confrontational. The tradition of such premises as a venue for music has its origins in Paris and London of the 18th century, but gained its widest popularity in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with the growth of various other national “schools” of cafè chantant (besides French). Thus, one spoke of an Italian, German, or Austrian café chantant, for example. In Spain it was known as a cafe cantate and became the centre for professional flamenco performances from the mid 19th century to the 1920's Cafés chantants, known as kahvehane in Turkish, appeared in Istanbul during the Ottoman Era in 1554. Hundreds of them were opened continually, most of them with a social club status
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The Chatham Theatre or Chatham Street Theatre was a playhouse on the east side of Chatham Street in New York City. It was located between Roosevelt and James streets, a few blocks south of the Bowery. At its opening in 1839, the Chatham was a neighborhood establishment, which featured big-name actors and drama. By the mid-1840s, it had become primarily a venue for blackface minstrel shows. Frank S. Chanfrau restored some of its grandeur in 1848. The playhouse's most successful period was under the management of A. H. Purdy. He staged serious productions of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin beginning in 1852, the success of which prompted him to advertise heavily and to create a special section where African American patrons could sit. Following Purdy's departure in 1857, the theatre entered its final decline. It flip-flopped many times between a standard melodrama house and a concert saloon before finally being demolished in 1862.
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Ninotchka, 1939, Greta Garbo, Ernst Lubitsch
The Night of The Hunter, 1955, Charles Laughton
A man to remember, 1938, Garson Kanin
It's a Wonderful Life, 1946, Frank Capra
Entoeziasm, 1930, Dziga Vertov, about Mineworking

Laurel and Hardy
Charlie Chaplin

L'atlantide, 1921, Jacques Feyder, desertfilm
!!Metropolis, 1927, Fritz Languit, sciencefiction
Ionisation, 1929, Edgar Varese
Poeme Electronique, Edgar Varese
!!The eleventh year, 1928, Dziga Vertov
Such men are dangerous, 1930, Kenneth Hawks
!Der Mandarin, 1918, Fritz Freisters
Submarine, 1928, Frank Capra
La Sirene des Tropiques, 1927, Mario Nalpas en Henri Etievant

Irma la Douce is a 1956 French stage musical whose book and lyrics were written by Alexandre Breffort with music by Marguerite Monnot. An English language version, with the new book and lyrics provided by Julian More, David Heneker and Monty Norman, opened in London's West End in July 1958. The English version uses a few colloquial French expressions, including some of the Parisian underworld slang of the original, making an exotic and entertaining feature of it, as in the titles of songs, "Le Grisbi is le Root of le Evil in Man" (grisbi is old slang word for money, also present in the 1954 Jean Gabin movie title Touchez pas au grisbi) and "Dis-Donc", and employs a narrator to guide the audience through the linguistics. The musical tells the story of an impoverished law student, Nestor le Fripé, who falls in love with a prostitute, Irma la Douce, and becomes her protector and dependent. Through jealousy of her clients he disguises himself as a rich older man who visits and pays Irma for conversation and becomes her only client. Nestor becomes exhausted with working hard enough to make enough money for Irma to support him and decides that the only way out of his mess is to destroy his alter ego. When the older man disappears, Nestor is convicted of murder and sent to Devil's Island but he escapes and returns to Irma when he hears that she is pregnant. He manages to prove his innocence of murder by briefly assuming his disguise once more and all ends well. The London production starred Elizabeth Seal in the title role, Keith Michell as Nestor and Clive Revill as Bob-le-Hotu, the narrator, and ran for 1512 performances. The show transferred to Broadway in September 1960 with the same three lead actors, winning Elizabeth Seal the 1961 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical, and ran for 524 performances. It was adapted by Billy Wilder and I.A.L. Diamond into a 1963 comedy film directed by Wilder and featuring Jack Lemmon as Nestor (renamed "Nester Patou" in the movie), Shirley MacLaine as Irma, Lou Jacobi and Grace Lee Whitney. The story was altered to make Nestor a naive police officer who raids a house of prostitution and finds his superior there, so he is fired and becomes Irma's pimp. That is how the love story begins. Though the film is not a musical, it won André Previn an Academy Award for Original Music Score. There is also a scene in the film, in which Shirley MacLaine exclaims "Dis-donc!" whilst dancing on a table, which appears to be a deliberate tribute to the musical from which the film is derived. The film was nominated for Best Actress in a Leading Role (Shirley MacLaine) and Best Cinematography, Color. Director Billy Wilder originally wanted Marilyn Monroe to play Irma as he was so impressed by her performance in Some Like It Hot - the film that she did with Jack Lemmon. But she died before production began.
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Act One: Covent Garden - 11.15p.m. A group of people are sheltering from the rain. Amongst them are the silly, shallow, social climbing Eynsford-Hills, consisting of mother and daughter, Clara. Freddy Eynsford-Hill enters after being unable to find a cab to take them home. He is a weak and ineffectual character. His sister bullies him, and enjoys seeing him look ridiculous. As he goes off once again to find a cab, he bumps into a flower girl, Eliza. Her flowers drop into the mud of Covent Garden, the flowers she needs to survive in her poverty-stricken world. Shortly they are joined by a gentleman, Colonel Pickering. While Eliza tries to sell flowers to the Colonel, a bystander informs her that a man is writing down everything she says. The man is Professor Henry Higgins. A row occurs when Higgins tells people where they were born, which creates both amazement and irritation. One man accuses Higgins of coming from Hanwell Insane Asylum. It becomes apparent that he and Colonel Pickering have a shared interest in phonetics. Indeed, Pickering has come from India to meet Higgins and Higgins was planning to go to India to meet Pickering. Higgins tells Pickering that he could turn the flower girl into a duchess. These words of bravado spark an interest in Eliza, who would love to make changes in her life and become more mannerly, even though, to her, it only means working in a flower shop. At the end of the act, Freddy returns after finding a taxi, only to find that his mother and sister have gone and left him with the cab. The streetwise Eliza takes the cab from him, using the money that Higgins tossed to her out of pity, leaving him on his own. Act Two: Higgins' Laboratory - Next Day. As Higgins demonstrates his equipment to Pickering, the housekeeper, Mrs. Pearce, tells him that a young girl wants to see him. She is shown up, and to his disappointment it is Eliza. He has no interest in her, but she says she wants to pay to have lessons, so she can talk like a lady in a flower shop. Higgins claims that he could turn her into a duchess. Pickering makes a bet with him on his claim, and says that he will pay for her lessons. She is sent off to have a bath. Mrs. Pearce tells Higgins that he must behave himself in the young girl's presence. He must stop swearing, and improve his table manners. He is at a loss to understand why she should find fault with him. Then Alfred Doolittle, Eliza's father, appears with the sole purpose of getting money out of Higgins. He has no interest in his daughter in a paternal way. He sees himself as member of the undeserving poor, and means to go on being undeserving. He has an eccentric view of life, brought about by a lack of education and an intelligent brain. He is also aggressive, and when Eliza, on her return, sticks her tongue out at him, he goes to hit her, but is prevented by Pickering. The scene ends with Higgins telling Pickering that they really have got a difficult job on their hands. Act Three: Mrs Higgins' drawing room. Henry tells his mother he has a young 'common' whom he has been teaching. Mrs Higgins is not very impressed with her son's attempts to win her approval because it is her 'at home' day, in which she is entertaining visitors. The visitors are the Eynsford-Hills. Henry is rude to them on their arrival. Eliza enters and soon falls into talking about the weather and her family. The humour stems from the knowledge the audience have of Eliza, of which the Eynsford-Hills are curiously ignorant. When she is leaving, Freddy Eynsford-Hill asks her if she is going to walk across the park, to which she replies; " Walk! Not bloody likely..." (This is the most famous line from the play, and, for many years after, to use the word 'bloody' was known as a pygmalion.) After she and the Eynsford-Hills leave, Henry asks for his mother's opinion. She says the girl is not presentable, and she is very concerned about what will happen to the girl; but neither Higgins nor Pickering understand her, and leave feeling confident and excited about how Eliza will get on. This leaves Mrs Higgins feeling exasperated, and she says "Men! Men!! Men!!!" Act Four: Higgins' laboratory - The time is midnight, and Higgins, Pickering, and Eliza have returned from the ball. Pickering congratulates Higgins on winning the bet. As they retire to bed, Higgins asks where his slippers are, and on returning to his room Eliza throws them at him. The remainder of the scene is about Eliza not knowing what she is going to do with her life, and Higgins not understanding her difficulty. Higgins says she could get married, but Eliza interprets this as selling herself like a prostitute. "We were above that at the corner of Tottenham Court Road." Finally she returns her jewellery to Higgins, including the ring he had given her, as though she is cutting her ties with him, but retrieves it from the hearth. Act Five: Mrs Higgins' drawing room. Higgins and Pickering are perturbed at discovering that Eliza has walked out on them. Doolittle returns now dressed in wedding attire and transformed into the middle class in which he feels '..intimidated..'. The scene ends with another confrontation between Higgins and Eliza, which is basically a repeat of the previous act. The play ends with everyone leaving to see Doolittle married, and Higgins leaves on his own. Despite the intense central relationship between Eliza and Henry, the original play ends with her leaving to marry the eager young Freddy Eynsford-Hill. Shaw, annoyed by the tendency of audiences, actors, and even directors to seek 'romantic' re-interpretations of his ending, later wrote an essay[1] for inclusion with subsequent editions, in which he explained precisely why it was impossible for the story to end with Higgins and Eliza getting married. Some subsequent adaptations have changed this ending. Despite Shaw's insistence that the original ending remain intact, director Gabriel Pascal provided a more ambiguous end to the 1938 film: instead of marrying Freddy, Eliza apparently reconciles with Henry in the final scene, leaving open the possibility of their marriage. The musical version My Fair Lady and its 1964 film have similarly happy endings.
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Camera Obscura

American Silent Film Actors


The Columbia Years 1943-1952: The Complete Recordings is a 1993 compilation album by the American singer Frank Sinatra. This twelve-disc set contains 285 songs Sinatra recorded during his nine-year career with Columbia Records:
Disc one "Close To You" "You'll Never Know" "Sunday, Monday Or Always" "If You Please" "People Will Say We're In Love" "Oh, What A Beautiful Mornin'" "I Couldn't Sleep A Wink Last Night" "A Lovely Way To Spend An Evening" "The Music Stopped" "If You Are But A Dream" "Saturday Night (Is The Loneliest Night In The Week)" "There's No You" "White Christmas" "I Dream Of You (More Than You Dream Of Me)" "I Begged Her" "What Makes The Sunset?" "I Fall In Love Too Easily" "Nancy (With The Laughing Face)" "Cradle Song" "Ol' Man River" "Stormy Weather" "The Charm Of You" [edit] Disc two "Embraceable You" "When Your Lover Has Gone" "Kiss Me Again" "(I Got a Woman Crazy For Me) She's Funny That Way" "My Melancholy Baby" "Where Or When" "All The Things You Are" "Mighty Lak' a Rose" "I Should Care" "Homesick-That's All" "Dream (When You're Feeling Blue)" "A Friend of Yours" "Put Your Dreams Away (For Another Day)" "Over The Rainbow" "You'll Never Walk Alone" "If I Loved You" "Lily Belle" "Don't Forget Tonight Tomorrow" "I've Got a Home In That Rock" "Jesus is a Rock In That Weary Land" "Stars in Your Eyes" "My Shawl" [edit] Disc three "Someone to Watch Over Me" "You Go To My Head" "These Foolish Things (Remind Me Of You)" "I Don't Know Why (I Just Do)" "The House I Live In (That's America To Me)" "Day By Day" "Nancy (With The Laughing Face)" "You Are Too Beautiful" "America The Beautiful" "Silent Night, Holy Night" "The Moon Was Yellow (And The Night Was Young)" "I Only Have Eyes For You" "The Old School Teacher" "Just An Old Stone House" "Full Moon And Empty Arms" "Oh, What It Seemed To Be" "I Have But One Heart" "(I Don't Stand) A Ghost Of A Chance" "Why Shouldn't I?" "Try A Little Tenderness" "Paradise" "All Through The Day" "One Love" "Two Hearts Are Better Than One" "How Cute Can You Be?" [edit] Disc four "From This Day Forward" "Where Is My Bess?" "Begin The Beguine" "Something Old, Something New" "They Say It's Wonderful" "That Old Black Magic" "The Girl That I Marry" "I Fall In Love With You Ev'ry Day" "How Deep Is The Ocean (How Blue Is The Sky)" "Home On The Range" "The Song Is You" "Soliloquy (Parts 1 & 2)" "Somewhere In The Night" "Could'ja?" "Five Minutes More" "The Things We Did Last Summer" "You'll Know When It Happens" "This Is The Night" "The Coffee Song (They've Got An Awful Lot Of Coffee In Brazil)" "Among My Souvenirs" "I Love You" "September Song" "Blue Skies" "Guess I'll Hang My Tears Out To Dry" [edit] Disc five "Adeste Fideles (O, Come All Ye Faithful)" "Lost In The Stars" "Jingle Bells" "Falling In Love With Love" "Hush-A-Bye Island" "So They Tell Me" "There's No Business Like Show Business" "(Once Upon) A Moonlight Night" "Strange Music" "Poinciana (Song Of The Tree)" "The Music Stopped" "Why Shouldn't It Happen To Us" "Time After Time" "It's The Same Old Dream" "I'm Sorry I Made You Cry" "None But The Lonely Heart" "The Brooklyn Bridge" "I Believe" "I Got A Gal I Love (In North & South Dakota)" "The Dum-Dot Song (I Put A Penny In The Gum Slot)" "All Of Me" "It's Up To You" "My Romance" [edit] Disc six "Always" "I Want To Thank Your Folks" "That's How Much I Love You" "You Can Take My Word For It Baby" "Sweet Lorraine" "Always" "I Concentrate On You" "My Love For You" "Mam'selle" "Ain'tcha Ever Comin' Back" "Stella By Starlight" "There But For You Go I" "Almost Like Being In Love" "Tea For Two" "My Romance" "Have Yourself A Merry Little Christmas" "Christmas Dreaming (A Little Early This Year)" "The Stars Will Remember (So Will I)" "It All Came True" "That Old Feeling" "If I Had You" "The Nearness Of You" "One For My Baby (And One More For The Road)" [edit] Disc seven "But Beautiful" "A Fellow Needs A Girl" "So Far" "It All Came True" "Can't You Just See Yourself" "You're My Girl" "All Of Me" "I'll Make Up For Ev'rything" "Strange Music" "Laura" "Night And Day" "My Cousin Louella" "We Just Couldn't Say Goodbye" "S'posin'" "Just For Now" "None But The Lonely Heart" "The Night We Called It A Day" "The Song Is You" "What'll I Do?" "Poinciana (Song Of The Tree)" "(I Offer You The Moon) Senorita" "The Music Stopped" [edit] Disc eight "Mean To Me" "Spring Is Here" "Fools Rush In (Where Angels Fear To Tread)" "When You Wake" "It Never Entered My Mind" "I've Got a Crush on You" "Body And Soul" "I'm Glad There Is You" "I Went Down To Virginia" "If I Only Had A Match" "If I Steal A Kiss" "Autumn In New York" "Everybody Loves Somebody" "A Little Learnin' Is A Dangerous Thing, Part 1" "A Little Learnin' Is A Dangerous Thing, Part 2" "Ever Homeward" "But None Like You" "Catana" "Why Was I Born?" "It Came Upon A Midnight Clear" "O Little Town Of Bethlehem" "White Christmas" "For Every Man There's A Woman" [edit] Disc nine "Help Yourself To My Heart" "Santa Claus Is Coming to Town" "If I Forget You" "Where Is The One?" "When Is Sometime?" "It Only Happens When I Dance With You" "A Fella With An Umbrella" "Nature Boy" "Sunflower" "Once In Love With Amy" "Once In Love With Amy" "Why Can't You Behave?" "Bop! Goes My Heart" "Comme Ci Comme Ca" "No Orchids For My Lady" "While The Angelus Was Ringing (Les Trois Cloches)" "If You Stub Your Toe On The Moon" "Kisses And Tears" "Some Enchanted Evening" "Bali Ha'i" "The Right Girl For Me" "Night After Night" "The Huckle-Buck" "It Happens Every Spring" [edit] Disc ten "Let's Take An Old-Fashioned Walk" "(Just One Way To Say) I Love You" "It All Depends On You" "Bye Bye Baby" "Don't Cry Joe (Let Her Go, Let Her Go, Let Her Go)" "Every Man Should Marry" "If I Ever Love Again" "We're Just A Kiss Apart" "Every Man Should Marry" "The Wedding Of Lili Marlene" "That Lucky Old Sun (Just Rolls Around Heaven All Day)" "Mad About You" "(On The Island Of) Stromboli" "The Old Master Painter" "Why Remind Me" "Sorry" "Sunshine Cake" "(We've Got A) Sure Thing" "God's Country" "Sheila" "Chattanoogie Shoe Shine Boy" "Kisses And Tears" "When the Sun Goes Down" "American Beauty Rose" [edit] Disc eleven "Peachtree Street" "Should I (Reveal)" "You Do Something To Me" "Lover" "When You're Smiling (The Whole World Smiles With You)" "It's Only A Paper Moon" "My Blue Heaven" "The Continental" "Goodnight Irene" "Dear Little Boy Of Mine" "Life Is So Peculiar" "Accidents Will Happen" "One Finger Melody" "Remember Me In Your Dreams" "If Only She'd Look My Way" "London By Night" "Meet Me At The Copa" "Come Back To Sorrento (Torna A Surriento)" "April In Paris" "I Guess I'll Have To Dream The Rest" "Nevertheless (I'm In Love With You)" "Let It Snow! Let It Snow! Let It Snow!" "Take My Love" "I Am Loved" "You Don't Remind Me" "Love Means Love" "Cherry Pies Ought To Be You" [edit] Disc twelve "Faithful" "You're The One" "There's Something Missing" "Hello, Young Lovers" "We Kiss In A Shadow" "I Whistle A Happy Tune" "I'm A Fool To Want You" "Love Me" "Mama Will Bark" "It's A Long Way (From Your House To My House)" "Castle Rock" "Farewell, Farewell To Love" "Deep Night" "A Good Man Is Hard To Find" "I Could Write A Book" "I Hear A Rhapsody" "Walking In The Sunshine" "My Girl" "Feet Of Clay" "Don't Ever Be Afraid To Go Home" "Luna Rossa (Blushing Moon)" "The Birth Of The Blues" "Azure-Te (Paris Blues)" "Tennessee Newsboy (The Newsboy Blues)" "Bim Bam Baby" "Why Try To Change Me Now"
The Columbia Years 1943-1952

The first calypso recordings, made by Lovey's String Band, came in 1912, and inaugurated the Golden Age of Calypso. By the 1920s, calypso tents were set up at Carnival for calypsonians to practice before competitions; these have now become showcases for new music. The first major stars of calypso started crossing over to new audiences worldwide in the late 1930s. Attila the Hun, Roaring Lion and Lord Invader were first, followed by Lord Kitchener, one of the longest-lasting calypso stars in history -- he continued to release hit records until his death in 2000 . 1944's Rum and Coca-Cola by the Andrews Sisters, a cover of a Lord Invader song, became an American hit. Calypso, especially a toned down, commercial variant, became a worldwide craze with the release of the "Banana Boat Song", a traditional Jamaican folk song, whose best-known rendition was done by Harry Belafonte on his 1956 album Calypso; Calypso was the first full-length record to sell more than a million copies. 1956 also saw the massive international hit Jean and Dinah by Mighty Sparrow. This song was a sly comment as a "plan of action" for the calypsonian on the easy availability of prostitutes after the closing of the United States naval base on Trinidad at Chagaramas. In the 1957 Broadway musical Jamaica Harold Arlen and Yip Harburg cleverly parodied "commercial", Harry Belafonte style Calypso. Early forms of calypso were also heavily influenced by jazz such as Sans Humanitae, the extempo melody in which calypsonians lyricise impromptu, commenting socially or insulting each other, without humanity - once again the French influence. Many calypso chord progressions can be linked to twelve bar jams in jazz as demonstrated by Lord Kitchener, one of the most famous calypsonians and a melodic genius.[citation needed] Elements of calypso have been incorporated in jazz to form calypso jazz.
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