ISSN: 0898-6827
      A   A   C   A   R     B   U   L   L   E   T   I   N
       of the Association for the Advancement of Central Asian Research, Inc.
 Editor: H. B. PAKSOY                  Vol. III  No. 2,  Fall 1990
      EDITORIAL ADDRESS: BOX  1011  Rocky Hill, CT 06067
Mir Ali  Shir Navai  Seminar  for Central  Asian Languages  and
Cultures, UCLA; Program  for Turkish Studies, UCLA;  Program on
Nationality and Siberian Studies, W. Averell Harriman Institute
for Advanced Study of  the Soviet Union, COLUMBIA U;  School of
Arts and Sciences,  CENTRAL CONNECTICUT  STATE U; Committee  on
Inner Asian and  Altaic Studies, HARVARD U;  Research Institute
for Inner Asian Studies, INDIANA U; Department of History, U of
MASSACHUSETTS-Amherst; Department of Russian and East  European
Studies, U of MINNESOTA; Middle East Studies Center, OHIO STATE
U; The Middle East Center, U of PENNSYLVANIA.
                         IN THIS ISSUE
--  Ayaz Malikov         THE  QUESTION OF THE TURK: THE WAY OUT
--  Two Supplements to This Issue
--  News of the Profession
--  Bibliographies, Edited and Translated Volumes, Book Reviews
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2             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
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Jim  Critchlow  [Fellow  of  Russian  Research  Center, Harvard
        An Uzbek scholar  has warned  that valuable  historical
manuscripts now held in Uzbekistan are being endangered by wear
and  neglect.    The  manuscripts,   which  survived  the  mass
destruction of documents which took  place during the 1920s and
30s,   include   "incomparable"   literary  works,   historical
chronicles and reminiscences, and works of philology.
        Writing in  Yash Leninchi*,  which  in the  perestroika
period has become  a vehicle for expression  of "Uzbek national
interests,"  the  scholar, Candidate  of  Philological Sciences
Qaium Karimov, says that all but a few of the manuscripts, most
of  which belong to "ancient times," have never been reproduced
or analyzed by specialists, native or foreign.
        The writer notes that one reason for inattention to the
manuscript collection is the fact that there is now a dearth of
scholars who can  read the Arabic  script.  He also  criticizes
the   Uzbek   scientific   establishment   for   failures    of
        His article is  not specific about the  extent, titles,
and  exact  locations  of  the  holdings.   He  also  gives  no
indication of whether foreign scholars could obtain access.
3             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
        Very  old documents are  known to  have existed  in the
past in  Bukhara and  other  ancient cities  of Soviet  Central
Asia.  A manuscript of the Koran, one of only six copies of the
Koran authorized by  Caliph Othman in the  seventh century, was
recently  transferred  from  a  secular  museum to  the  Muslim
Religious Board in Tashkent.
*Issue of Feb. 21, 1990.  YASH LENINCHI is the newspaper of the
Uzbek Komsomol.
Ayaz Malikov  [Candidate of Physics and Mathematical Sciences
and, Member of the Administration of the Tatar Society Center]
     [This essay is abridged from  the newspaper AZERBAIJAN, 24
March 1990. (Edited by Sabir Rustemhanli. Editorial Board: Ziya
Buniatov, Bahtiyar Vahabzade, Bayram Bayramov, Kasim Kasimzade,
Ahmet Elbrus (Assistant Editor), Aliyar Seferli, Ismail Shihli,
Yasar  Aliev, Nadir Jabbarov,  Rustem Behrudi,  Jumsut Nuriyev,
Feride  Memedova,  Firudin  Jelilov,  Firudin  Abbasov,  Elmira
Akhundova,  Sherif  Kerimli.)  Tiraj  200,000. Published  since
October 1989. The bold face statements are as in the original.
     The author, Ayaz Malikov, is suggesting that promises made
to the nationalities  since 1917 be  kept and fulfilled by  the
Soviet  state. If  not,  then the  nationalities  ought not  be
barred  from pursuing their  realization. As in  the past, some
have been  quick to  see in  this cultural  demand a  political
menace, the old bogeyman 'Pan-Turkism.'  As it is well known by
now, 'Pan-Turkism' or 'Pan-Turanianism' was  created not in the
Turk domains, but in Europe, by  Europeans, to aid the European
Balance of Power Struggles of the  19th and 20th centuries. The
literature on this  issue is nascent but  documented, including
works  and  motives of  the 'creator'  of  the notion,  and its
propagation methods into the Turk lands.
     "The entire  English-speaking world," said  one Azerbaijan
Turk scholar, "forms a cultural whole and is  not regarded as a
threat to  the rest of  the world merely  on the basis  of that
cultural unity. When Turks in Azerbaijan look to Dede Korkut or
the Orkhon stelae,  this is  not any  different than  Americans
reading Shakespeare."
     As  a  final  reminder, in  no  Turk  dialect  is there  a
distinction between "Turkic" and "Turkish." This was introduced
for  purely  political  reasons into  Russian  and  the Western
     We all,  of the  more than  30 Turk  nationalities of  the
country, at  this critical juncture  of our history,  must look
into  the past and the present  in order to find  a path to our
future. We must of course, understand, that no one will do this
4             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
for us. Or if they do, it will only produce, as we have seen in
the past, the results which we now reap.
     We, Turks,  have past through a long historical path, from
the states of the ancient Khans of the Ordos, of the  Altai and
Sayan  and to the  present time.  Behind us  is more  than 2000
years  of  political  history, full  of  attainments,  loss and
tragedy. More  than once  along this  path, we  have faced  the
threat  of  disappearance, but  our  forbears always  found the
strength  and the  confidence  in themselves  and  the hope  to
return again with  new strength  to the world  arena as  active
members of the world  community of nations. With its  own face,
and with its  own goals. We must  realize that we stand  at one
such critical moment in our history.
     In the recent  historical past,  at the  beginning of  the
20th century, Tatars freely read books, journals and newspapers
published  in  Azerbaijan;  and  Tatar  newspapers  and   books
proliferated throughout Central Asia, Caucasia and Siberia. And
now, when  the French  speaking peoples  launch a  satellite to
guarantee TV programs for France, the  French of Canada and the
rest of the  world, when in 1992 the Turkish  Republic plans to
launch  a  satellite  for  telecommunications  in   its  native
language for three  million Turks abroad, we  inexorably remain
behind the rest of the world.
     Designating our path to development,  we must proceed from
the reality  of the  existing world  and of  our position.  The
total number of members of Turk groups and nationalities of the
country is  now  close to  50 million,  that is,  equal to  the
population of France, and  every Turk nation has an  average of
2.5 million  people. The smallest groups, such  as the Khakass,
the Nogai, the Balkar number about 70 thousand, and the largest
-the Kazakhs, the Azerbaijanis and  the Tatars- number seven to
nine million  each. The  Uzbeks are  close to  20 million.  The
remaining  Turks  live in  China, Mongolia,  Afghanistan, Iran,
Turkish Republic, Syria, Iraq.
     We must work  out own strategy  of development. Our  first
step should  be the  publication in  our languages  of all  the
basic world classics. But some nations, especially those few in
number who do not  have the status of a Union  Republic, do not
have the means  to resolve this  issue, and it is  necessary to
recognize  this. What can be done? It is necessary, in my view,
to create a single  bank of translation of world  literature in
Turk languages. All translations from any language of the world
in one  of the Turk languages would be  placed in this bank and
then it  would be  easy to  make the  shift to  any other  Turk
dialect. Besides this,  it is necessary as  quickly as possible
to publish all ancient Turk literature  in Runic and in Brahmin
and in  all other  alphabets used  at any  time by all  ancient
Turks. Our children  do not  even know that  before the  Arabic
alphabet we had our own system of writing. All the ancient Turk
legacy of our peoples must be published as quickly as possible.
The cultural organization for coordinating such activity  could
be the Oriental  Institute of  the Academy of  Sciences of  the
5             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
Azerbaijan SSR. It could  unite all the forces of  our peoples,
[and] intellectuals in  the fastest  resolution of this  issue.
Publication could  be cooperative. This guarantees  the ability
to   cooperate,   and   reduces  bureaucratic   red-tape.   The
publication of the  ancient Turk  heritage for  the small  Turk
peoples  could   be  undertaken   by  the   larger  ones:   the
Azerbaijanis have the  power to guarantee a material  basis for
publications in Balkar and Karachay;  the Kazakhs could publish
in Altaian and Khakass; the Tatars, in Nogay. The other peoples
have  the   means  themselves   to  publish   this  literature.
Azerbaijan or  Turkmenistan could  help the  Gagauz, since  the
language of the Gagauz is Oghuz.
     Our peoples do not know their  own history. The history of
the Russians is taught in schools beginning with ancient Slavs,
the  history of  the  Germans, from  the  ancient Germans,  the
history of the French, from the ancient Celts and the Gauls. In
the same way,  our children must  begin their studies with  the
history  of the  ancient Turks.  The existing  TEXTBOOK OF  THE
HISTORY OF THE  USSR is a variation  on the History  of Russia,
while  the  history  of  the  other  peoples  serves  only   as
background decoration  on which the history of Russia is played
     The publication of  a textbook  THE HISTORY  OF THE  TURKS
should also  be undertaken by  the Oriental Institute  in Baku.
This  calls for the mobilization of all the intellectual forces
of the country in the field of Turcology. This textbook must be
published immediately and included in the curriculum of all the
school of all Turk regions of the country.
     The journal  SOVETSKAIA TIURKOLOGIIA must realize  that it
is the sole  journal in the country  dedicated to the  study of
the Turk people  and has a  responsibility before all the  Turk
peoples.  At   present   this   journal   is   especially   for
academicians. Sometimes the  impression is created that  if our
language  were  to become  dead, it  would  be better  for this
journal-- it would not  be distracted from "pure art"  by waves
of the  human life.  The journal  SOVETSKAIA TIURKOLOGIIA  must
address problems not only of a purely academic nature, but also
concerning the teaching of our languages in the various regions
of the  country. It should  publish statistical data  about our
children who do  not know  their own language  and analyze  the
reasons  for  this.  The journal  SOVETSKAIA  TIURKOLOGIIA must
recognize  the  difference  between  itself  and   the  journal
SHUMEROLOGIIA or ASSIROLOGIIA.  It has the business  of dealing
with  living  languages  of  living   peoples  with  their  own
     Unification of  the alphabet  is necessary  and should  be
undertaken immediately. It must be introduced  in such a way so
that differences in spelling  of the same word in  various Turk
languages is completely liquidated and  in other cases, kept to
a  minimum.  It would  be  even better,  if  we all  proceed to
Latinization.  This is  especially  important considering  that
many Turks live  abroad. Our  goal must be  the achievement  of
6             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
understanding  by Tatars and  other Turk  readers of  books and
newspapers  published  in Baku,  Tashkent  or Kazan  as  it was
before  the [1917]  revolution.  Is  it  not  strange?  At  the
beginning  of  the century  the  intelligentsia of  our peoples
actively tried to  see into the  life of another Turkic  people
and  into its  literature,  by reading  its  literature in  the
original. Nowadays you  cannot find one such  representative of
the intelligentsia. The tradition  of Alimjan Ibrahimov, Uzeyir
Hajibeyov, Boraganskii  and Sakin  Seyfullin, Sheyhzade  Babich
are completely gone.
     It is necessary  to expose once  for all the false  thesis
that the knowledge of  any Turk language is just  the knowledge
of one  local language. Any Turk language opens the door to the
other  Turk  languages,   that  is,  every  Turk   language  is
simultaneously   a  local   language   and   the  language   of
international communication between close Turk peoples and this
should  be  taught correctly.  It  is  necessary  to  have  the
knowledge of this fact among our  society in order to liquidate
the traces of  a policy  of weakening and  destrution that  has
been pursued for decades. As a  result of the pressure [of this
past official  policy] we  do not  have  sufficient numbers  of
Turcologists from our  own people.  There is not  one Tatar  or
Baskurt  Turcologist from  the  younger generation.  There  are
Turcologist from other  nationalities, but  not from among  the
Tatars  or the  Baskurt. The  young  have been  inoculated with
disrespect for their own language.
     It is necessary to introduce a single coordinated cultural
policy and  it is necessary not to  be afraid of the accusation
of "Pan-Turkism!"  By that  accusation, we  will discern  those
heirs who are guilty in our current deplorable condition.
     When you begin to  read literature in one or  another Turk
literature, you will be  amazed at the lack of  coordination in
the terminology.  It is  necessary to  create a  terminological
commission with  the goal  of creating new  terminology in  all
spheres of activity.  All films issued by Turk language studios
should be dubbed  promptly to  guarantee their distribution  in
the republic. Goods in the field  of culture are also goods and
it is  necessary that  the terms  of their  sale guarantee  the
profitability of their production.  On the one hand there  is a
market of seven  million Azerbaijanis for the  "Azerbaijanfilm"
studios and on the other, there are  in all 50 million Turks in
the country.  It is the same  for books whether artistic  or in
other  fields   of  activity.  Every  successful   book  should
immediately be offered for sale in all the Turkish areas of the
country. Why  do the  books of  Chinggis Aytmatov  and Chinggis
Huseyinov not immediately come out in our languages at the same
time they come out in Russian?
     Of  the 50  million  Turk population  of  the country,  12
million live in  republics and oblasts which  have "autonomous"
status.   Obviously,   Azerbaijan,    Uzbekistan,   Kazakhstan,
Turkmenistan  and Kirghizistan  must  use their  authority  and
influence in the higher organs of  power in the country in  the
7             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
defense of the interests of the  other Turk peoples. Within the
limits of the law, the constitution of the country, customs and
morals, we must demonstrate support for each other.
     We must proceed  from the idea,  that the Turk peoples  of
the country have the same rights in  all areas of life as other
peoples, and that the depravation or limitation of these rights
is illegal and  immoral and  contrary to nature.  In the  final
analysis, we  must be  represented also  in the United  Nations
organization, but  this is  a problem  for the  distant future,
when we have  greater integration and  when our stature in  the
world   have  grown.   The  main  issue   is  to   escape  from
provincialism  in  the   perception  of   the  world  and   its
activities. It is necessary to understand, finally, that in the
world  there  are  no  divinely  ordained  centers  and  damned
provinces, that all this is the  work of human hands. To retain
a feeling of provincialism is  one of the means of braking  the
development of  one or another nation, that  is a method of war
against it.
     According to the newspaper AIF, Soviet internal propaganda
is conducted in eighty languages for 2257 hours per week or 322
hours per day. At the same time, the Turk people of our country
are deprived of  radio stations and transmission  on short-wave
which  are  given to  them according  to international  and the
intra-union electronic communications  agreements. These  radio
stations and  hours are  allotted for  propaganda abroad.  Many
Turk peoples are disbursed throughout the country but the radio
stations of  their republics  on medium  and long  waves hardly
reach the whole territory  in the republic itself. Is  this not
derision?  This  is  wasting  the  means  of  our  peoples  and
impairing their  rights. With our  resources and our  time they
built radio  stations and   broadcast abroad in  Swahili, Greek
and other languages, and we Turks  suffer from the national and
cultural  underdevelopment.  It  follows,  obviously,  that  to
decide the question  of the removal  of the radio stations  and
broadcast  hours for propaganda abroad  and to transfer them to
the  Turk  people,  who have  been  deprived  of  the means  of
communication  throughout  the  whole  country  is  a necessary
minimum. As for Tatars and Azerbaijanis or Bashkurts and others
who  have  gone out  to  the oil  fields  of Siberia  and other
places, it is necessary to protect their right to hear radio in
the  native  language  and not  just  Voice  of America,  Radio
Liberty and BBC.
     This  is  a narrow  but  very  important  question. It  is
necessary  also to create an  all-union system of television in
all the basic languages of the  country for the whole territory
of  the  USSR.  This  includes,  of  course, Turkish.  This  is
necessary for the  guarantee of development  of the culture  of
our  nation.  But right  now, this  is  guaranteed only  to the
Russian nation.
     It is necessary  to adopt an  all-union law on the  extra-
territorial cultural  autonomy of nations.  Let us  look at  an
example. Suppose tomorrow in  Kazakhstan, Siberia or Uzbekistan
8             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
a  huge  construction project  begins,  for which  thousands of
workers arrive from  Russia --Russians-- but also  thousands of
Azerbaijanis and thousands of Uzbeks.  Will there be comparable
guarantees of the education of the  children for the members of
these  nations  in  their native  language  in  Kazakhstan? The
answer is simple! Only  Russian schools will be built,  but not
Azerbaijani  or  Uzbek schools.  Perhaps  there will  be Kazakh
schools, if the project is in Kazakhstan. Where is the equality
of  nations  called   for  in  the  constitution   and  in  our
propaganda? From  this, emerges  the necessity  of adopting  an
all-union law guaranteeing to children  of all nationalities of
the country education in the native language independent of the
place of  residence on  the territory  of the  country. Failing
this  the  government should  return to  the parents  the money
which was designated by  the budget for the education  of their
     The  number  of  Russians in  Naberezhnye  Chelny  and the
number of  Tatars in Moscow  is approximately equal,  but could
you compare the number  of schools in Tatar language  in Moscow
to the number  of Russian language  schools in Chelny?  Fifteen
percent  of  the native  population  of the  Cheliabinsk oblast
constitute more than half million Tatars and Bashkurts deprived
of all possibility  of national development.  There is not  one
school,  not  one  child  care  center,  not  one  professional
instructional  institution in  the native language.  The people
are  deprived  of radio,  television  and press  in  the native
language. There is no national theater. But just over a hundred
years  ago, Cheliabinsk was  a large  commercial Tatar-Bashkurt
aul [city].  The question  is  not that  Russian children  have
excessive rights. They  have natural  rights, and these  rights
must be  further developed  and realized.  But the  children of
other nationalities must have exactly the same rights.
     Up  to the  present  time, the  entire  experience of  the
Tatars and Bashkurt to realize their own rights has encountered
opposition and accusations of nationalism --an  experience from
the 1930s when that was necessary to excuse the terror (in this
case spiritual) toward other nations. It is  necessary to adopt
an all-union law on national communities and their rights,  and
the rights of  the Russian  community on the  territory of  the
country can be the standard, being close to international norms
and the decisions of  Helsinki and Vienna. In  striving towards
all these goals  we should be guided by the  rights of nations,
strengthened  by all-union  and international  legal acts,  the
declarations of  rights  of  the peoples  of  Russia,  Acts  on
Decolonization  and   other  documents  having  force   on  the
territory of the USSR.
     Everyone who suffers  for his people  and its future  will
inevitably be  interested in its history in order to understand
why  his nation departed  from the rest  of the  peoples of the
world. Why are the rights of  the Tatars Azerbaijanis or Uzbeks
not the same as those of  the Swedes, the Czechs and Turks  [of
the  Turkish  Republic]?  Why does  his  people  remain "second
9             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
class," remain dependent  subject in international life  and is
not included among  the other  peoples of the  planet? Then  he
comes to  see the same  reason applied   to all the  other Turk
peoples!  That  the Turk  peoples  in  the USSR  and  China and
Afghanistan,  and  Iran   have  similar  problems.  Finding   a
designated path out  of the  crisis requires first  of all  the
consciousness of the crisis. It is impossible to cure a disease
without realizing that it exists. If we unite, than there is no
doubt we  will find a  way out of  the position which  has been
created. We need unity and confidence.
     We must be aware that no one but ourselves will solve this
problem for us. But it requires  energy and effort, reliance on
confidence and  success. And this we must find in the more than
two thousand years of history of  the Turks. Our ancestors also
fell into crisis and found a way out!
     Harekette Bereket! [Activity is fruitful.]
Three separate readers of the AACAR BULLETIN kindly supplied us
with  copies of  a questionnaire  circulated by  the CENTER  ON
is entitled "Contemporary Interethnic Relations in the USSR and
the First Congress  of the People's  Deputies of the USSR."  We
are   photomechanically   duplicating   the   entire   package,
consisting  of  seventeen  pages, plus  cover  letter,  for our
     As one  reads the questions it contains,  one is impressed
by their  nature. It  appears that  the  format and  vocabulary
employed  in   the  questions   are  specifically   suited  for
portraying  the  recent events  in  the USSR  according  to the
meticulously cultivated image of the USSR in the  Western media
and public.
April  1990 issues contain  a strongly worded  protest from the
head of  the republican veterans' council about  the content of
an eight page newspaper (17 X 10 in.) named TURKESTAN. Compiled
by one Almaz  Estekov, TURKESTAN was printed  in Estonia during
January 1990 (in Russian) and sold  in Alma-Ata, reportedly for
at least one ruble  per copy (USSR newspapers usually  sell for
5-15   kopeks).  It   contains   articles,  with   accompanying
photographs, on: the  Red Army's bloody  occupation of Baku  in
January 1990; Red Army units  in the Baltic Republics; Ferghana
incidents;  Tajikistan conflicts; a contribution by the Crimean
Tatar  Mustafa  Jemilev;  a  chronology  of activities  by  the
Nevada-Semipalatinsk   environmentalist    group   headed    by
celebrated Kazakh author Oljay Suleymanov.
     It  appears  that  the main  grievance  of  the republican
veterans' council  is  connected  with  Estekov's  contribution
pertaining to the 1986 Alma-Ata incidents. He is criticized for
10             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
portraying the 1986 events as "the organized destruction by the
state,  Party  and  the  brazenly   chauvinistic  part  of  the
indigenous  population." These  include stories  of attacks  on

demonstrators by  troops  armed  with  shovels,  victims  being
dumped in the  steppe. The  letter from  the veterans'  council
also attacks Estekov's statement that at least 185  were killed
in  the disturbances. This, of course goes against the official
claim that there were only three  dead. The said letter demands
that legal action be taken against Estekov.
     Due   to   the   costs   involved,   we   were   able   to
photomechanically  reproduce   only  a   limited  quantity   of
TURKESTAN.  Members of  AACAR  who paid  their  1990 dues  will
automatically receive a copy. Other readers who wish to receive
one are  asked to  send $10  (tax deductible)  to AACAR  (Prof.
Audrey  L. Altstadt,  address  on page  one)  accompanied by  a
minimum 9X12 sized,  self addressed envelope bearing  85c worth
of stamps for US mail. First come, first served. We  regret the
                     NEWS OF THE PROFESSION
AACAR extends warm  collegial welcome to two  new Institutional
Members: Department  of History,  UNIVERSITY OF  MASSACHUSETTS-
Center for Middle  Eastern Studies,  HARVARD UNIVERSITY held  a
workshop  on  "Middle  East Labor  and  Working  Class History:
Concepts  and  Approaches"   12-13  April  1990.   Participants
included: Donald QUATAERT; Sherry VATTER; Zachary LOKMAN; Assef
BAYAT; Ellis  GOLDBERG; Feroz  AHMAD; Salim  NASR; Eric  DAVIS;
Marsha   POSUSNEY;  Joel  BEININ;  Edmund  BURKE,  III;  Dipesh
Research  Institute for Inner  Asian Studies,  in collaboration
with the School  of Continuing  Studies of INDIANA  UNIVERSITY,
organized  a  conference  on  "Aral  Sea  Crisis: Environmental
Issues in  Central Asia," July 14-19 1990,  with the attendance
of Soviet and US participants.
The  Middle  East  Documentation Center  of  the  UNIVERSITY OF
CHICAGO has issued a new 44 page catalogue,  representing their
expanding holdings of  both the Ottoman Microforms  Project and
the Chicago  Persian Microforms Project.  For further  details,
contact: Laurie  ABBOTT, 5828  S. University  Avenue, 210  Pick
Hall, Chicago, IL 60637. 312/702-8425.
A  Center  for  Translations  of   Uzbek  Literature  has  been
established at  the Department  of Near  Eastern Languages  and
also arranged a Summer Course in Uzbek, 18 June-17 August 1990,
taught by  Prof. Ilse  CIRTAUTAS, aided by  native speakers  of
11             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
Uzbek, exchange students from Tashkent.  The Department of Near
Eastern Languages and Civilizations maintains exchange programs
with the Tashkent State University as well as with the People's
Republic of  China. There  are also  two student  organizations
active at the  University: The  Uzbek Circle,  and the  Student
Association for Inner Asian Studies. The celebrated Uzbek poet,
Erkin  VAHIDOV,  read  and  discussed  his  poetry  in  related
functions.  Contact: 229-B  Denny  Hall,  DH-20, University  of
Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
UNIVERSITY),  is a  publication of  the Houston  Circle of  the
Polish Institute of  Arts and Sciences  of America (PIASA).  It
deals  with  Polish  and  Eastern  European affairs  and  their
implications for  the United  States, published  three times  a
year. Contact: P. O.  Box 79119, Houston, TX 77279-9119.    *
The Middle  East &  South Asia  FOLKLORE NEWSLETTER,  edited by
Sabra J.  WEBBER and  Frank C.  SPAULDING is  published at  the
Center for Comparative  Studies in  the Humanities, OHIO  STATE
UNIVERSITY. Contact:  306 Dulles  Hall, 230  West 17th  Avenue,
Columbus, OH 43210-1311     *      Volume 24 of the  JOURNAL OF
ASIAN  HISTORY,  edited  by Denis  SINOR,  has  been published.
Contact: Otto  Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden.      *       ARIT  (The
American  Research Institute  in Turkey) NEWSLETTER,  edited by
Prof.  Linda  DARLING,   is  available.   Contact:  ARIT,   c/o
University Museum,  33rd and  Spruce Streets, Philadelphia,  PA
19104-6324. Tel:  215/898-3474.    *     The inaugural issue of
has  been published.  The  journal is  funded  by the  Carnegie
Corporation of New  York. Contact:  Center on East-West  Trade,
Investment,   and   Communications,  2114   Campus   Dr.,  Duke
University, Durham, NC 27706.    *     CAHIERS D'ETUDES  SUR LA
Semih VANER, published  at the Centre d' tudes et de recherches
internationales des Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques
et du Centre National  des Lettres, No. 10, 1990  is available.
Contact: CEMOTI/CERI, 4 rue de Chevreuse, 75006 Paris.    *
Center of  Near and  Middle Eastern  Studies,  SOAS (School  of
Oriental and African Studies, UNIVERSITY  OF LONDON) Newsletter
(including news and  activities of  the Modern Turkish  Studies
Programme  and  the  Central  Asian  Studies   Association)  is
available.  Contact: the  editors,  Thornhaugh Street,  Russell
Sq., London, WC1H OXG.     *       NATIONALITIES PAPERS, edited
by  Henry  R.  HUTTENBACH, is  continuing  its  new publication
schedule.   Contact:  Department  of  History,  CCNY,  138th  &
Convent,  NY NY 10031.     *      THE SOCIETY FOR CENTRAL ASIAN
STUDIES  is  continuing to  publish  CENTRAL ASIA  AND CAUCASUS
CHRONICLE (formerly Central Asian Newsletter), edited  by Marie
BROXUP, Simon CRISP  and Caroline GRAY,  and the CENTRAL  ASIAN
SURVEY, edited by Marie BROXUP. Contact:  92 Lots Road, Unit 8,
London SW10  4BQ.    *      Issue No.  3 (July 1990) of BUG NK
12             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
T RKISTAN (TURKISTAN TODAY), a  bi-lingual newsletter edited by
Dr. Timur KOCAOGLU, is available. Contact: Editor, H rwath Str.
37,  8 M nchen 40 West Germany.    *     CRIMEAN REVIEW, edited
by  M. Batu ALTAN, Vol. V, No. 1 (1990) is issued. Contact: P O
Box 307, Essex Station, Boston, MA 02112.
PUBLICATIONS:  Devin DeWEESE, "The Eclipse of the Kubraviyah in
Central Asia" in IRANIAN STUDIES, Vol. XXI, No. 1-2, 1988.    *
  Hakan  KIRIMLI,  "Soviet  Educational and  Cultural  Policies
Toward the Crimean  Tatars in Exile (1944-1987),  CENTRAL ASIAN
SURVEY, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1989    *   Hisao KOMATSU, THE EVOLUTION
OVERVIEW (Tokyo: The Toyo Bunko, 1989)    *    Paul  HENZE "Son
Imparatorluk" in  YENI  FORUM, Haziran  1990.    *       Philip
LOZINSKI, "The  transfer of Nithraic  iconography from  Central
LANVIN, Ed. (University  Park, PA. 1989). Copies  are available
from  Dr.  LOZINSKI, who  is  interested in  communicating with
those working on  the problems of  Siberia, and can be  reached
at: P O  Box 3097, Westport,  MA 02790.      *       ASPECTS OF
ALTAIC CIVILIZATION  III: Proceedings of the  Thirtieth Meeting
of  the  Permanent International  Altaistic  Conference (1987),
Denis  SINOR, Ed.  (Bloomington: Research  Institute for  Inner
Asian Studies,  1990)  Indiana  University  Uralic  and  Altaic
Series, Volume 145.
ORIENTAL RESEARCH PARTNERS [Box 158, Newtonville, MA 02160] has
issued  Catalogues 38  and 39.  ORP also published  several new
books  since our  previous issue.       *      ISIS Books  Ltd.
[Semsibey  Sokak  10/2,   Beylerbeyi-Istanbul  81210,   Turkey.
Telephones (90-1)  321 38  51 &  321 66  00] issued  catalogues
1989/4 and 1990/1.   *     BEYOGLU KITAP ILIK  LTD. [Galip Dede
Caddesi 141/5, T nel-Istanbul 80020, Turkey. Telephones: (90-1)
145 49 98 & 149 06  72] issued a new catalogue, "Periodicals  &
Series" prepared  by Ayhan AKTAR  and Necdet ISLI.    *    OXUS
ORIENTAL BOOKS [121  Astonville Street,  London SW18 5AQ;  Fax:
081-877  1173]   issued:  The   Communist  Empires   (Catalogue
Thirteen); Asian Travel,  History Memoirs (Catalogue Fourteen).
For  copies,  Contact J.  M.  S. SLATER  Esq.,  the proprietor.
Please also  note the new  dialing code.    *     YAK  and YETI
BOOKS [P. O Box 5736, Rockville, MD 20855] issued Catalogue 20:
"The Himalayan Region, Central Asia and Tibet."     *     ASIAN
RARE BOOKS  [234 Fifth Avenue,  New York, NY  10001; Telephone:
718/259-3732], specializing in  rare and  old Asian and  Middle
Eastern  titles,  issues regular  catalogues.  Stephen FELDMAN,
Proprietor, maintains  a warehouse  in Manhattan, and  services
customers by appointment only.   *    MIDDLE EAST BIBLIOGRAPHIC
SERVICES [2272 Colorado Boulevard - Suite 1183, Los Angeles, CA
90041] has issued Special  Sales List 40. Please also  note the
new address.    *    CAMEL BOOK  Company, specializing in used,
13             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
rare & out-of-print books, issued  catalog No. 7, IRAN,  TURKEY
AND AFGHANISTAN.  Contact: P O Box 1936,  Cathedral Station, NY
NY 10025.    *     WORLDWIDE ANTIQUARIAN specializing in  books
on travel concerning Middle East,  Africa and Asia has recently
issued several new catalogs.  Contact: P O Box  391, Cambridge,
MA 02141.
1987) (Tokyo: The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, 1988)
Second Printing 1989. 717 Pp. + xv.
     This Bibliography covers 15067 items published by Japanese
scholars during the  indicated period,  contains a Foreword  by
KITAMURA HaJime, Director of the Centre for East Asian Cultural
Studies; and Preface  by UMEMURA Hiroshi, Project  Leader, both
in  English.  It is  indicated  that "This  volume concentrates
mainly on the regions included in the vicinities of Eastern and
Western Turkistan and Mongolia."  (p.xi). "Scholarly books  and
journal   articles,  along  with   book  reviews  and  Japanese
translations of foreign books and articles, dominate the titles
included."  (p.xii).  In the  Explanatory  Notes, it  is stated
that, the  volume also covers ..."materials  published directly
by  Japanese scholars  overseas. While focusing  principally on
Eastern and Western  Turkistan and  Mongolia, this volume  also
includes titles on the area lying between Siberia to the north,
north and west  China, Tibet,  the Himalayas, northwest  India,
and Afghanistan to  the south, Northeastern  Asia to the  east,
and the southern Russian steppe to the west. There are research
themes which  do reach  beyond the  boundaries of  Central Asia
proper,  due  to  migrations  of  ethnic groups  and  important
changes in the course of Eurasian continental history." (p.xv).
     The  volume is arranged by "the names of authors, editors,
and   translators,   or   institutions   responsible  for   the   Japanese   phonetic  order..."   though  English
translations to  the Japanese originals,  including author  and
title, are also given.
     Copies may be ordered from: The Toyo Bunko, Honkomagome 2-
chome, 28-21, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113.
1987) INDEX  AND  ERRATA  (Tokyo: The  Centre  for  East  Asian
Cultural Studies, 1989) 259 Pp. + xvii.
     "This volume is  divided into  index and errata  sections.
The index  section is comprised  of the following  three parts:
(1) five main indexes, (2) four cross-reference indexes and (3)
a Chinese character author index." (p.viii).
     The  Contents page list the five  main indexes as follows:
"1.  Bibliographies:  Japanese  phonetic   order    2.  Chinese
14             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
Dynastic  Names:  Chronological  order     3.  Personal  Names:
Alphabetical order  4. Geographical Names  5. General: Japanese
phonetic order." The Cross Reference Indexes are: "1. Romanized
Cross  Reference   2. Japanese  Cross Reference   3.  Sub-entry
Cross Reference Index:  Japanese phonetic  order  4.  Sub-entry
Cross Reference Index: Roman Alphabetical order." (p.xvii). The
purpose of this volume is indicated as " search for books,
journal articles and  other materials compiled in  the original
bibliography by means of a set of keywords." (p. xii).
     Copies may be ordered from the above address.
ASIAN STUDIES  IN JAPAN, 1973-1983  (The Centre for  East Asian
Cultural  Studies,  Tokyo):  Part  II-6  JAPANESE   STUDIES  ON
(1987) 60  Pp.;  Part II-16  JAPANESE  STUDIES ON  INNER  ASIAN
HISTORY (1973-1983) by  UMEMURA Hiroshi (1987) 22 Pp.; Part II-
(1973-1983) by NAKAMI Tatsuo (1988) 18 Pp.; Part II-26 JAPANESE
PERIOD) 1973-1983)  by HANADA Nariaki (1987) 21 Pp.; Part II-27
(OTTOMAN PERIOD) (1973-1983) by KOYAMA  Koichiro (1985) 13 Pp.;
(1987) 16 Pp.
     (From  the inside front  cover of each  booklet): "Note to
Readers: ASIAN STUDIES IN JAPAN, 1973-1983 is published by  the
Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies, in forty-nine booklets,
for  the  purpose of  reporting  Japanese scholarship  on Asian
studies during the period 1973-1983. This  is a continuation of
which the  Centre published  in forty-six  booklets during  the
last decade.
     "In each booklet, the author  describes research trends in
Japan during 1973-1983 in a summarized fashion, and the text is
appended with a select  bibliography which lists representative
research works  appearing in book from or in scholarly journals
in  Japan during  the period.  The list does  not intend  to be
comprehensive but aims  to cover  important works published  by
Japanese  scholars both in and outside  Japan and also research
published by non-Japanese scholars in the Japanese language."
     In  the  US,  copies  may   be  ordered  from:  Kinokuniya
Bookstores of America,  West Building of Japanese  Cultural and
Trade Center, 1581, Webster Street, San Francisco, CA 94115.
     Other enquiries may  be directed at:  The Centre for  East
Asian  Cultural  Studies, c/o  The  Toyo Bunko,  Honkomagome 2-
chome, 28-21, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113.
15             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
L'ASIE  CENTRALE  PR ISLAMIQUE:  Bibliographie  critique  1977-
1              9              8              6              ,
Franz   Grenet   et  collaborateurs   (T h ran-Paris:  Institut
Fran ais de Recherche en Iran,  1988) Abstracta Iranica, volume
hors s rie 3. 140 Pp. + 3 indexes.
     Published in collaboration with the Direction G n rale des
Relations Culturelles Scientifiques et  Techniques, this volume
begins  with  a  preface  by  Bernard Hourcade,  Directeur  des
ABSTARCTA IRANICA, and  Introduction by  Franz Grenet, both  in
French. The same material is also repeated in Russian.
     The main  body of  the work, in  addition to  the List  of
Abbreviations and  Collaborators, is organized according to the
alphabetical order of  authors per  issue of ABSTRACTA  IRANICA
between the indicated dates. A short,  one to two paragraph (in
French),  description  of  each  contribution  accompanies  the
     First   index   is  devoted   to   authors,  editors   and
translators. Second index contains proper names, and the third,
     Copies may be ordered from: Editions PEETERS, B. P. 41 - B
3000 Leuven, Belgium.
Shir Muhammad Mirab Munis and Muhammad Riza Mirab Agahi FIRDAWS
AL-IQBAL: HISTORY OF KHOREZM, Yuri  Bregel, Ed. (Leiden: E.  J.
Brill,  1988).  1201 Pp.,  in  the original  Chaghatay  (in the
Arabic  script) +  Index in  the original language  and script.
English Introduction by Yuri Bregel.
The  following  is   extracted  from   Yuri  Bregel's  58   Pp.
INTRODUCTION (without the footnotes)
     ....The first known historical work  written in Khorezm in
Chaghatay was TARIKH-I DOST SULTAN composed in  1550 by  temish
Haji.  The  only  complete  manuscript  of  the  work  has been
preserved in  the library  of the  late Zeki  Velidi Togan.  It
seems  that the  TARIKH-I  DOST SULTAN  had  no circulation  in
Khorezm:  Abu'l-Ghazi  Khan, who  wrote  a century  later, knew
nothing about his predecessor. Furthermore,  temish Haji's work
apparently contains only the  history of the Ulus of  Jochi and
does not  concern  the  later history  of  Khorezm.  Thus,  the
historiography  of  Khiva  proper  begins  with   Abu'l-Ghazi's
SHAJARA-I TURK  (completed  after the  death of  the author  by
another person in  1076/1665). This work  is too well-known  to
need any  discussion here,  though a  new edition  of the  text
published in 1871  by Baron J.  P. Desmaisons and especially  a
new European translation of it would be desirable.
     ....The prime  importance of Agahi  (as well as  of Munis)
for  modern   scholarship  lies  in  his   original  historical
16             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
writings. The first of them was the continuation of the FIRDAWS
AL-IQBAL which  had remained unfinished  since the interruption
of the work by Munis in 1234/1819. Agahi received an order from
Allah-Quli  Khan  to  complete this  work  in  1255/1839-40. He
finished it apparently  shortly after  this, because later  the
same khan ordered him to write a history of his own reign; this
order could have been given not  later than 1258/1842 (the year
of Allah-Quli  Khan's death).  The history  of Allah-Quli  Khan
(including  also  the  first two  years  of  the  reign of  his
successor Rahim-Quli Khan) entitled RIYAZ AL-DAWLA was finished
in 1260/1844. After  this he wrote,  in consecutive order:  the
history  of  Rahim-Quli  Khan   (1258-1262/1843-1846)  entitled
ZUBDAT AL-TAVARIKH, the  history of  Muhammad Amin Khan  (1262-
1271/1846-1855), 'Abdallah Khan  (1271/1855) and Qutlugh  Murad
Khan (1271-1272/1855-1856) entitled  JAMI AL-VAQI'AT-I  SULTAI,
the  history  of   Sayid  Muhammad  Khan  (1271-1281/1856-1864)
entitled  GULSHAN-I DAWLAT, and the  history of the first eight
years  of  the reign  of  Said  Muhammad Rahim  Khan  II (1281-
1289/1864-1872) entitled SHAHID-I IQBAL. Altogether these works
constitute an uninterrupted  chronicle of the Khanate  of Khiva
under the Qongrat  dynasty till  the Russian conquest.  FIRDAWS
AL-IQBAL was at the beginning of this chain of histories; it is
the largest of all  of them, and it undoubtedly  determined the
character of the subsequent writing.
     ....After the  death of  Munis his  work remain  untouched
until  1255/1839-40,  when Muhammad  Rahim's son  and successor
Allah-Quli Khan ordered Agahi to resume  and finish the work of
his uncle; in  carrying out  this task he  enjoyed the  special
encouragement of Rahim-Quli  T re, and son  and heir of  Allah-
Quli Khan.It is  not quite clear what  was the state  of Munis'
manuscript when  Agahi resumed  the work  after an  interval of
twenty years.
     ....The structure  of the FIRDAWS  AL-IQBAL is  that of  a
dynastic  history  (or  rather a  combination  of  regional and
dynastic  history), and it bears  some typical features of this
branch  of  Persian historiography  with  which Munis  was well
acquainted. No individual work, however, can be  pointed out as
a sole model  for the FIRDAWS  AL-IQBAL, though the author  was
probably influenced most of all by  the SHAJARA-I TURK of Abu'l
Ghazi and perhaps by the RAWZAT AL-SAFA of Mir Khand.
     ....The  readers  of  the work  were  not  expected to  be
numerous. Munis and Agahi speak about "the nobles  (akabir) who
will read  this compendium.  This can  probably be  taken as  a
conventional flattery intended  for the reader, but in any case
there is no doubt that the number of educated people who  could
read this  work in the Khanate of Khiva was very limited. There
is a striking difference between the proclaimed approach of  to
their  respective  works stated  by  Munis and  his predecessor
Abu'l-Ghazi.  The  latter wanted  to  write  "so that  all  the
people, nobles and commoners, understand";  and his Turkish, as
he claimed, was  so plain that even a five year old child could
understand it. Munis,  on the contrary, received a  royal order
17             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990

to adorn his  work with all possible  stylistic embellishments,
poetical and prosaic, so as to  stir excitement at the literary
gatherings of  the sultans.  The difference  in  style was  due
partly to the  difference in the  position of the two  authors:
one was a king writing his own  history, while the other was an
official and a poet writing a history of his royal patron.
     ....The  first  Western  scholar  who  learned  about  the
existence of these works was a  Russian orientalist A. L. Kuhn,
who accompanied, together with several other Russian  scholars,
the Russian  military expedition  against Khiva  in 1873  which
resulted in  the capturing  of  Khiva and  establishing of  the
Russian protectorate over the Khanate. In the Khan's palace the
Russians found a  great number of archival  documents and about
300  manuscripts;  they  were  all  confiscated....Some of  the
publications confiscated in Khiva by the Russians in  1873 were
transferred  in  1874   to  the  Imperial  Public   Library  in
Petersburg,  but  others were  kept  by  Kuhn  in  his  private
possession;  these  included the  manuscripts  of the  works by
Munis and Agahi....
     [From P.  54, Note 304  of the  Introduction] The MS  C is
slightly damaged  by water from which several marginal notes at
the beginning of  the MS especially  suffered. Many pages of  E
are also damaged by  water, but it does not  appreciably affect
the  legibility  of  the text.  The  cause  of  this damage  is
probably to be explained  by a story told by  Palvan (Pahlavan)
Mirza-bashi, the secretary of  the khan of Khiva, to  a Russian
official and orientalist N. P.  Ostroumov in 1891. According to
this secretary, "Kun [Kuhn] took away from  Khiva about fifteen
hundred  different manuscripts,  but when  he transported  them
across [the Amu-Darya] in  a boat, most of the  manuscripts got
wet, and  he requested about 150  mullas from a madrasa  to dry
the  wet  copies."  (Cited from  Oustroumov's  diary  in Lunin,
SREDNYAYA AZIYA, 345, n. 523).
Ugo Marazzi  MADAY QARA: AN  ALTAY EPIC POEM.  Translation from
the   Altay,   Introduction   and  Notes.   (Naples:   Istituto
Universitario Orientale Dipartimento di  Studi Asiatici, 1986).
146 Pp. + Bibliography, Appendix.
The  following  is  extracted from  Ugo  Marazzi's INTRODUCTION
(without the footnotes)
     In  the  rich epic  literature  of oral  tradition  of the
Turkic South-Siberian area, the Altay epic holds a considerable
position  in  all   respects.  The  Altay  epic   tradition  is
outstanding for its  archaic and  shamanic character, which  is
shared on  the Mongolian side  with the Buriat  epic. Mongolian
influence, which was  nonetheless exerted on the  Altay epic at
the time of the domination of South Siberia by the  Oyrats, has
not  altered the  essence  of its  character. Of  the different
components  singled  out as  constituting  the Altay  epic (and
18             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
Turkic South-Siberian in general), the  original one appears to
be by far the most prevalent.
     Exemplary of such an  archaic character of the Altay  epic
tradition is  the poem  MADAY QARA,  the longest  and the  most
interesting of those known so far  from the whole Turkic South-
Siberian area.  In it the  heroic plot,  having several  common
features  with  the  different  Turkic  and   Mongolian  epics,
develops according to a structural conception borrowed from the
shamanic initiation experience. The mythical background of  the
poem  is constituted by  the cosmogonic theme  of the "heavenly
hunt," it serves to explain from  an aetiological point of view
the origin of two  of the most important constellations  (Orion
and the Great Bear), as  well as the origin of  the alternation
between  day  and  night while  confirming  the  role that  the
bear/double of  man and first  shaman plays  in the  primordial
organization of time  and the establishing of a  periodic order
as well  as in  the  introduction of  a vital  rhythm into  the
original chaos.
     The myth  of  the heavenly  hunt, in  the Tungus  variant,
which appears to  be the  clearest, tells of  how Mangi,  first
shaman as well as forger and  simple hunter besides being bear,
chases after Xoglen,  the reindeer/elk that has  taken away the
daylight  and  condemned the  world  to darkness.  Mangi's skis
leave a  wide white trail in the heavenly vault; the Milky Way.
He catches the thief and  lands him a blow that puts an  end to
his running; he takes possession of  the day and brings it back
to earth. From then on every evening Xoglen  steals the day and
Mangi gets it back and brings it back to the earth.
     ....In   Turkic   South-Siberian   epic   literature   the
prevailing figure is that of the  solitary hero who is destined
as a  rule to avenge his father who  has been offended or taken
prisoner or killed. After facing numerous trials, which clearly
reflect  the  initiation  experience,  and after  fighting  his
enemies from this world  and the underworld, in the  end thanks
to his magical skills the  hero has the upper hand  and affirms
the  superiority  of  the cultural  order  over  the disruptive
powers of the  underworld. The magical  skills of the hero  are
concretely  expressed  in  the  help  ensured  to  him  by  his
horse/winged   double,   by  his   companions/helping  spirits.
Substantially  the  hero's  deeds  are   none  other  than  the
transposition on an epic level of the shaman's exploits.
     The story of  the hero  K g day Margan develops  precisely
according to such  an epic model, though enriched  with archaic
motifs, elements and original myths....
                          BOOK REVIEWS
Marion Debout, Denise Eeckaute-Bardery, Vincent Fourniau, Eds.,
du Colloque organis  par la Biblioth que Interuniversitaire des
19             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
Langues Orientales, Paris, 11-12  d cembre 1986. (Edition ISIS,
Istanbul; Paris, 1988).
     This volume contains the papers presented at the colloquim
accompanying  an  exhibit  at  the   Biblioth que  des  Langues
Orientales showing travel books about the Orient, and artifacts
connected  with  trade  and  travel,  many from  the  library's
holdings.  The  content  of the  contributions  collected  here
reflects  this;  most are  based  on European  travel accounts,
which range from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century, with
the emphasis on the seventeenth and eighteenth.
     The volume opens with a brief description of the library's
holdings, followed by a short introductory essay on Asian trade
routes. The papers are organized into  three sections, each one
introduced by  a few pages  of general description.  The first,
"The Western Approaches," deals with the northwestern  regions;
the  western portion  of the  Mongol empire  and  its successor
states.  Here we find a discussion of the Mongol empire and its
legacy -- a description  of the role of interpreters  in Mongol
relations with the west by C.  Kappler, the "jam," by L. Bazin.
Two other papers deal with a later period: that by C. Poujol on
Russian travellers to Central Asia in the 18th century, and one
by V. Fourniau on the routes utilized in the Uzbek conquest  of
Central Asia. The second  section of the book is  entitled "The
Oriental Frontiers,"  and contains  three articles,  one by  L.
Boulnois  decribing  routes  and traffic  in  the  Himalayas --
religious, military  and trade--  one by  J. Legrand  about the
mission to  China led by Ivan Petlin in  1618-19, and one by L.
Bernot which describes exchanges  in agriculture and technology
between  China  and  Southeast Asia.  The  final  section, "The
Chinese Routes" contains  an article by F.  Blanchon, on routes
and legends concerning travel in  Sichuan, and two descriptions
of  western travel accounts, one by  J. Meyer on the mission of
Van Braam  from  Canton to  Peking  in 1794-5,  and  one by  M.
Caillet, on the  Chinese voyages  of the surgeon  Jean-Baptiste
Bernard in 1751-5, dealing largeley  with the region of Canton.
At  the  end  of the  volume  we  find a  brief  resume  of the
discussion about the papers, a catalogue of the exhibit, and as
an appendix,  an article  by  S. Nguyen  Dac on  the impact  of
Chinese civilization on Vietnam.
     The  articles  in  this  collection  range from  the  very
general, based largely on secondary literature, to detailed and
focused  discussions  of  one   particular  source.  Most  deal
primarily with European merchants or  travellers, and are based
on  western   travel  accounts.  Russian  literature   is  well
represented, both in primary and in secondary sources, but with
the exception of Blanchon's article on Sechuan, primary sources
in  Middle Eastern  or  East Asian  languages  are very  little
cited.  Another  common   trait  of   these  papers  is   their
concentration  on  the concrete;  we  learn many  deyails about
routes, objects of  trade and diplomatic exchanges,  some minor
and fascinating, others important. There is however very little
20             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
discussion  of  the   social  or  economic  results   of  these
exchanges, or of  the dynamics  of the system  from which  they
sprang. The  statement by Blanchon in her discussion of Sechuan
legends, that she intends not to provide an exhaustive analysis
of  the  material, but  to present  a selection  of significant
pieces, could serve to describe the collection as a whole.
     For  those who are  looking for new  insights into methods
and significance of  Asian travel and  trade in the  pre-modern
world, this collection will be a disappointment. Its main value
lies in  other directions. One is in its  use of some less well
known  western  travel  accounts, and  in  bringing  before the
public  some of  the holdings  of the Biblioth que  des Langues
Orientales. Another is  in the evocation of  details --we learn
about  the  routes through  the Himalayas,  and the  methods of
transport associated with  them, about  the survival of  Mongol
postal terminology in  Russian, Ottoman and Persian,  about the
construction of  canals and  bridges in  China. Taken  together
these do not provide  an overview of Asian trade  and commerce,
but they do  remind us vividly of  the importance of  trade and
travel in the pre-modern period, its breadth, its dangers,  and
its rewards.
Beatrice Forbes Manz
Tufts University
St. Martins Press, 1989) ix, 230 pp.
     This volume, an English translation  of the Dutch original
published in 1979, is directed at a general readership. Judging
by the bibliography, the  present edition has been  revised and
updated in light of the scholarship of the last decade.
     De Hartog opens his  study with a survey of  the geography
and  ethnography  of the  eastern steppe  and  then turns  to a
chronological account  of the life  and times of  the Mongolian
ruler. He concludes  with several  chapters on Chinggis  Khan's
immediate successors,  g dei and Guy g, at which point the book
ends rather abruptly. There seems to  be no clear rationale for
the add-on chapters except perhaps that it allows the author to
describe the Mongolian  invasion of Central Europe,  1237-42, a
subject  of  particular  interest  to  the  original  edition's
intended audience.
     Based on secondary scholarship in West European  languages
and sources available in translation,  de Hartog's narrative is
a clearly  organized and  generally accurate  portrayal of  the
emergence and expansion of the Mongolian Empire. He takes care,
as well, to  provide sufficient  background information on  the
Mongols'  major opponents --the  Chin and  Sung, Khwarazmshahs,
and the Russian  principalities-- so that the  uninitiated will
be  able  to  place   the  actions  of  the  conquerors   in  a
comprehensible and meaningful context.
21             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
     With  regard  to  accuracy,  the problem  is  not  what is
included but  what is sometimes left unsaid.  For instance, his
discussion of the imperial  ideology (p. 35) is incomplete  and
somewhat misleading. While the importance of a heavenly mandate
is duly noted,  the equally critical  concept of dynastic  good
fortune  or charisma  is  alluded to  only in  oblique fashion.
Moreover,  it would have  been useful and  appropriate to point
out at this juncture that the political notions advanced by the
Mongols  have  unmistakable  antecedents  in  the   ideological
prescriptions of the Turk khaghanate and are  in fact part of a
long  tradition among  steppe peoples. As  it stands,  the text
seems to imply that this ideological system was the creation of
Chinggis Khan and  associates. A similar criticism  can be made
of his treatment of Mongolian  attitudes tlward religion. While
his  assertion that the Mongols were  remarkably tolerant is of
course  true, the  practical,  political consequences  of  this
policy deserve elucidation. The Mongols regularly honored alien
gods  and  their  earthly  representatives  not  only  for  the
spiritual power they might control but because religious elites
possessed   effective   communications  networks   and  wielded
influence over public opinion. Once coopted with tax immunities
and official recognition, these elites facilitated the Mongols'
efforts to consolidate their hold on conquered territory.
     In this  general interpretation  of Mongolian  society, de
Hartog follows the view, first elaborated by Vladimirtsov, that
feudal  relationships  were the  central  organizing principle.
This is a long debated  issue and in the final analysis  always
turns  on  one's definition  of  feudalism. In  sustaining this
thesis, however, I don't  think it accurate to assert,  in this
case on  Bartold's authority,  that "all  members of  [Chinggis
Khan's] guard  had to  be of  aristocratic birth"  (p. 44).  In
fact, individuals were recruited  into the guard for  a variety
of  reasons:  Some as  hostages,  others because  of particular
talents,  and  some  because   of  family  connections.   Their
backgrounds were diverse  and the criterion for  acceptance was
more a matter of loyalty and utility than of birth.
     While registering my disagreements with  the author in the
spirit of friendly debate and exchange, I do  not want to leave
the wrong impression.  His handling of  the data in many  cases
reveals  insight  and  interpretive  skill.  He  argues,  quite
correctly, that the  imperial guard was  not simply a  security
force  but  a  training ground  for  military  and governmental
leaders. And his  discussion of  the political implications  of
the "official" version  of Tolui's  demise is most  perceptive.
According to  the SECRET  HISTORY OF  THE MONGOLS,  when  g dei
became ill in 1232 his younger brother Tolui, with the approval
of Eternal Heaven willingly traded his own life for that of the
ailing khaghan  and so  departed the  earth.  This episode,  de
Hartog observes, was  certainly concocted by the  toluids, once
they  gained  the  imperial throne  in  1259,  as  a device  to
dramatize their founder's great service to the empire.
22             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
     Overall, this  volume achieves  what it  set out  to do  -
provide  a  readable  and  informative  introduction  to  early
Mongolian history for the general public.
Thomas T. Allsen
Trenton State College
Carney  E. S. Gavin  and the  Harvard Semitic  Museum, editors.
Turkish  Studies,  Vol.   12,  1988).  xi,  269   pp.  Numerous
illustrations, appendices, index. Softcover.
     The photographic albums presented by Sultan Abdul Hamid II
to the governments of Great Britain and the United States are a
critically important source for both the history of the Ottoman
empire  in  the  late  nineteenth century  and  the  history of
photography  in  the same  period.  Now housed  in  the British
library  and  the  Library of  Congress,  these  albums provide
evidence  of how  the Ottoman  government wished  itself to  be
perceived by the foreign powers, as well as a visual record  of
what at  least parts of the  empire actually looked   like. The
albums in  the  Library of  Congress  have been  studied  since
1940's,  although  their  contents  have not  been  extensively
published,  but   the  British  library  albums  have  remained
uncatalogued and virtually unknown until the last decade or so.
This new publication  concerning the  albums, edited by  Carney
Gavin and  his colleagues at  the Harvard Semitic  Museum, thus
serves to bring these valuable  photographs to the attention of
a wide audience.
     The book begins with a brief  foreword by Prof. Dr. Nurhan
Atasoy  which  describes  the  project  currently  underway  to
catalogue  and  publish the  33,000  photographs in  the Yildiz
Albums, also from  the period of Abdul Hamid II, and now in the
collection  of  Istanbul  University.  The  photographs  in the
Yildiz Albums, intended to provide information about the empire
to Sultan Abdul Hamid, contain a different range of images than
the  gift  albums   in  Washington  and  London   and  form  an
interesting comparison with them.
     The balance of the book is  divided into four sections: an
historical   introduction,   information   about    the   album
collections, the  photographs, and appendices.  Each section is
further  divided,  and  each separate  article  or  appendix is
identified by  a  Roman numeral,  twelve in  all. Although  the
organization of the  book is confusing  at first, with a  great
deal of information presented  in short articles or lists,  the
book is actually easy to use, once the  reader is familiar with
     The first  section of the  book, 'Historical Introduction:
Abdul-Hamid's Gift  Albums as  an Imperial  Self-Portrait,' was
23             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
written   by   Carney   Gavin.  Divided   into   two   separate
essays,Gavin's text is the longest in the book (23 pp.). In the
'Overview,' Gavin describes  the albums themselves, as  well as
their publication here.  He also includes a  chronological list
of recent research and publications  concerning the albums. His
second essay, 'The Sultan's Gift in Perspective.' discusses the
albums  in  the  light  of  several anniversaries  which  Gavin
considers important:  the printing  of the  TABLEAU GENERAL  DE
L'EMPIRE  OTTOMAN by  I. M.  d'Ohsson, beginning  in 1787;  the
150th anniversary of the invention of photography  in 1839; the
100th anniversary of the founding of the Harvard Semitic Museum
in 1889;  and the 10th  anniversary of the  first international
F.O.C.U.S.  Conference,  held  in 1978.  Structuring  his essay
around these four anniversaries allows Gavin to touch on a wide
range of subjects, from pre-photographic representations of the
Ottoman empire, to a summary of recent international efforts in
the preservation of historical photographs.
     In  the  second section  of  the book,  'Collections,' the
albums  and their history  are discussed in  four short essays.
George  Hobart,  Curator  of  Photography  at  the  Library  of
Congress,  and  Muhammad  Isa  Waley,  Curator of  Turkish  and
Persian collections in the British  Library, have each provided
a brief  (two page)  summary of the  history of  the albums  in
their collections. The  third piece in this  section, 'Analysis
of Abdul-Hamid's Gift  Albums,' by William Allen, is  a revised
version of an article published in  1984 in the journal HISTORY
OF PHOTOGRAPHY.  Until the  publication of  this book,  Allen's
article was the most comprehensive publication  available about
the albums, and it  is still the only detailed  analysis of the
contents of  the albums. Allen summarizes the subject matter of
the photographs, as  well as  presenting information about  the
photographers responsible for the images in the albums. It is a
very useful article;  one only regrets  that it is not  longer.
The final part  of this section of the  book is entitled 'Album
Descriptions,' and contains  brief descriptions of each  of the
51 albums, arranged  in numerical  sequence according to  their
Library  of  Congress  numbers.  The  short  descriptions  each
include an identification of  the photographer (and information
as  to   how  the  identification  was  made),  the  number  of
photographs in the album, and a one or two sentence description
of their subject matter.
     Part  Three,  'A  Pictorial  Selection,'  begins   with  a
detailed  title   list  (including   the  L.C.   album  number,
photograph number within  the album,  and negative number)  for
the 166  images from  the albums  which are  reproduced in  the
book.  The  photographs  are  divided  into  the  four  subject
categories   which   researchers   have   established:   Views,
Buildings,   Monuments,   and  antiquities;   Military,  Naval,
Rescue...Industrial  Establishments; Educational  Institutions;
and  Horses,  Imperial  Stables  and  Yatchs.  The  quality  of
reproduction is high, the selection of images is representative
of the  contents of  the albums, and  the fact that  the entire
24             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
page, with the image, original  mount and captions is  included
in the  reproduction, makes this section of  the book extremely
     Also useful are the four appendices included in Part Four.
The first appendix is a table  of correspondence, which matches
the  Library  of  Congress,  British  Library,  and  microfiche
numbers of  the albums,  as well as  listing the  discrepancies
between  the  L.C  and  B.L.  sets  of albums.  In  the  second
appendix,   every  photograph   in   every  album   is   listed
individually,  arranged by  album  according  to L.C.  numbers.
Appendix Three, 'Thematic Classifications,' sorts the albums by
subject matter,  according to  the subjects  listed above.  The
fourth appendix is  an index to  the photographs which lists  a
variety of places, people, and institution  which appear in the
     As should be clear by now, this book  contains a wealth of
information about the Abdul Hamid albums. The editors have made
a great contribution  to scholarship in the  various fields for
which these photographs are important by bringing the albums to
the attention of a diverse  audience. Furthermore, the detailed
information  and extensive reproductions  will allow much wider
access to this  unique archive of Ottoman  photographic history
than has ever been possible before.
     This issue  of the  JOURNAL OF  TURKISH STUDIES  concludes
with a series of brief book  reviews. The first review article,
by Carney  Gavin, discusses  seven recent  books of  historical
photographs from  the Middle East,  with much space  devoted to
Engin  izgen's 1987  work, PHOTOGRAPHY  IN THE OTTOMAN  EMPIRE:
1839-1919. Secondly, Sinasi Tekin, the editor of the JOURNAL OF
TURKISH STUDIES  has reviewed,  in Turkish,  two recent  German
publications   on  Turkish   manuscripts,   published  in   the
Verzeichnis der Orientalishchen Handschriften (VOHD) series.
Nancy Micklewright
University of Victoria
Lubomyr  Hajda  and Mark  Beissinger,  Eds. (Boulder:  Westview
Press, 1990) vii + 331 pp.
     The  emergence  of  the  nationalities  factor as  a  core
element of the  Soviet politics under Gorbachev  will doubtless
inspire many hastily assembled volumes. All  of us in the field
of Soviet  studies should  be grateful  that the  present work,
probably the first of this  new wave, is extraordinarily  good.
Precisely, however, because the book may set the standards  for
subsequent  efforts its  minor  flaws  as  well  as  its  great
strengths should be scrutinized.
     Any treatment  of Soviet nationalities should,  of course,
be  factually  reliable.  It  should  be comprehensive  in  its
coverage of  influential nationality elements  and sufficiently
25             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
detailed  to  be  a  reliable   guide  for  those  --including,
unfortunately, numerous Sovietologists-- still  unfamiliar with
many nationalities. The  book should  be reasonably uniform  in
approach,   for   omissions    in   discussions   of   specific
nationalities or topics covered will  perplex readers seeking a
comparative  perspective.  The  work itself  should  provide an
analytic  overview informed by  relevant social science theory.
On the whole, the Hajda-Beissinger  volume meets these criteria
admirably. Firm editorial  decisions secured  an able group  of
contributors. A few words  on the background of each  (many are
not widely  known even  in Sovietological  circles) might  have
assured reader confidence; but this reviewer is convinced that,
since personal  commitments no doubt precluded collaboration by
some top specialists, it would have been practically impossible
to assemble a better team.
     The  editors'  decision  to avoid  a  routine  assembly of
chapters devoted to specific nationalities is commendable. Just
five chapters on particular nationalities are preceded by seven
theme chapters transcending  individual nations or even  groups
of nationalities.  This approach  does omit  a few  interesting
ethnic groups and occasionally over-emphasizes certain  smaller
Union  Republics.  On  the whole,  though,  the  combination of
individual  nationality  coverage  and  theme  analysis  is  so
superior that one may  hope it becomes the standard  for future
volumes of this type.
     There is one  additional requirement  for a  nationalities
survey intended to  meet current needs: it  must be up-to-date.
Because the  most  exciting Soviet  developments have  occurred
during the  past two years, this requirement  is onerous. Every
book author knows how excruciatingly difficult  it is to keep a
manuscript up-to-date as it passes  through the long publishing
process; a collaborative volume is most  difficult of all. Both
the editors and Westview Press are to be  commended, therefore,
for producing a  work, published very  early in 1990, which  so
closely approaches the ideal of timeliness.
     One   way,  evidently,   by  which   the  editors   sought
contemporary  relevance was  to  have each  nationality chapter
close with a survey of current opposition to the regime. Ronald
Suny  (on  "Transcaucasia")  and Romauld  J.  Misiunas,  on the
Baltic Republics, meet this requirement  very well by providing
cogent analyses in a comparative framework of events as late as
October 1989. Save for one or two footnotes,  Roman Solchanyk's
treatment  stops   with  1988.   This  is   hardly  surprising,
considering  his  awkward  assignment  --perhaps  a  lapse   of
editorial judgement--  to cover Moldavians and  Belorussians as
well   as   the  immense   topic   of  Ukrainian   nationality.
Fortunately, Bohdan Bociurkiw,  in "Soviet Religious  Policies"
and  Roman  Szporluk  in "The  Imperial  Legacy"  provide depth
coverage of  many  Ukrainian topics,  often  quite  up-to-date.
These two theme chapters  also expand on Dina  Spechler's brief
treatment of  "Russian Nationalism" by  analyzing the substance
of  traditional Russian  imperialism,  which  she contrasts  to
26             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
"anomic  nationalism,"  regarded  as a  dangerous  response  to
tensions of modernization.
     Many readers will find Martha Olcott's equally abbreviated
discussion of  "Central  Asia"  inadequate  for  exploring  the
reverbations  of  traditional  forces.  Her  reference  to  the
potential   clash   between  "secularized   intellectuals"  and
"Islamic  fringe groups that  are springing up  in rural areas"
seems to me obscure the possibility (advanced by H l ne Carr re
d'Encausse and the  late Alexandre Bennigsen, whom  Olcott does
not cite) that "fringe  groups" are contemporary manifestations
of 'sufi' networks with deep roots in the Soviet Moslem milieu.
Szporluk and Bociurkiw  do not  supplement treatment of  Moslem
issues as  they did  the Slavic,  Suny does  cover some  Moslem
issues in his balanced treatment of Azerbaijan; but the editors
might well  have commissioned  an additional  chapter on  RSFSR
Moslems,  notably  Tatars,  whose  role  is  indispensable  for
understanding the Islamic tradition.
     Happily, statistical treatment of current trends vital for
the future of the Moslem nations is admirable. Barbara Anderson
and  Brian  Silver,  noted  for  their  numerous  sophisticated
analyses of Soviet statistics, not only provide a comprehensive
analysis of  demographic trends and  linguistic identification,
but  also  coordinated  demographic  discussions in  individual
nationality  chapters.  Gertrude  Schroeder,  in  "The   Soviet
Economy," covers demographic  topics like  manpower as well  as
relative productivity, investment, and consumption.
     Stephen Burg's  theme  chapter  on  "Nationality  Elites,"
although   exceptionally   well   grounded  theoretically,   is
surprisingly slight  in statistical  evidence. Paul  A, Goble's
discussion  of  literary  politics does  not,  of  course, lend
itself to quantitative  techniques, but  is outstanding in  its
comparative   examination   of  the   unavowed   --and  perhaps
unconscious-- influence of Soviet categories  even on dissident
writers in Central  Asia. An unusual theme is  Teresa Rakowska-
Harmstone's "Nationalities and the Soviet Military." The author
misses  an  opportunity  to   bring  together  highly  relevant
evidence  on  Wold  War  II experience,  and  exaggerates   the
significance of Turkic and Caucasian manpower: even after large
initial  losses,  Soviet   military  manpower  was   not  drawn
"ethnically largely" from  these groups,  which comprised  less
than thirty per cent  of the population remaining  under Soviet
rule. In this novel, exploratory chapter, such minor lapses are
hardly  available, though.  The same  qualification applies  to
general  criticism of contributions to  this volume. In a wide-
ranging contemporary  survey, omissions  and infrequent  errors
are hardly  avoidable. The  wonder is  that, at  such an  early
stage,  editors  and   contributors  achieved  the   remarkable
accuracy and balance which can serve  as a model for subsequent
analysis of Soviet nationalities.
John A. Armstrong
St. Augustine, Florida
27             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Princeton University Press, 1987) xxii  + 269 pp. Bibliography.
     Interest  in  Tibet  in  the West  has  centered  over the
centuries on its topography and  its religion. Little attention
has been paid to the history of Tibet except as it occasionally
pertained to the imperial history of China. The increasing body
of scholarship on  Tibetan Buddhism will typically  mention the
introduction of Buddhism to the Tibetan court via  the marriage
of King Srong-btsan-sgam-po to the Chinese princess  Wen-ch'eng
around 642, then  skip to  the founding of  the first  Buddhist
monastery in  Tibet at  bSam-yas around  775, will  mention the
suppression of Buddhism  under the evil king  gLang-dar-ma (who
was  assassinated  in  842),  and   then  will  begin  anything
approaching  a  sustained  chronology  only  with   the  second
introduction of  Buddhism into  Tibet in  the eleventh  century
(marked commonly by  the arrival of  the Bengali monk Atisa  in
Western Tibet in 1042).  Thus, long eras of Tibetan  history go
overlooked, most importantly  the reigns  of the Tibetan  kings
from circa 600-866. This period of  the "Tibetan Empire" is the
subject of Christopher Beckwith's important new study.
     The  book is the  first detailed narrative  history of the
Tibetan  Empire  in  Central  Asia  written  in  any  language.
Beckwith brings  a prodigious skill  in languages to  his task,
employing original sources in Chinese, Old Tibetan, Arabic, and
Old Turkic and  secondary sources  in French, Russian,  German,
and Japanese. The volume is a straightforward chronology of the
political events of the  period, detailing military  campaigns,
treaties,  and diplomatic missions.  A prologue  that discusses
the  first  historical  references  to  the Tibetan  people  is
followed by an account of Tibetan conquests  in eastern Central
Asia in the late seventh  century. Subsequent Tibetan successes
to the  West, in the countries of  the Tarim Basin, were short-
lived due to political intrigues within Tibet. In the beginning
of  the  eighth  century,  the  Arabs joined  the  Chinese  and
Tibetans  as  the major  players  in  the game  for  control of
Central Asia, with treaties and alliances among the three being
made and broken.  Tibetan incursions into T'ang China reached a
high-water mark in  763 with the  capture of Ch'ang-an. But  by
the middle of the ninth century, what was once the vast Tibetan
colonial empire  had been  lost  to other  powers, notably  the
Arabs and the Uyghurs.
     Beckwith presents  this  story in  a fast-paced  narrative
accompanied by extensive annotation.  The volume concludes with
an epilogue that  attempts a synchronic cultural  comparison of
the  Franks and Tibetans  (and sometimes the  Arabs, Turks, and
28             AACAR BULLETIN VOL. 3, NO. 2 FALL 1990
Chinese) from the  seventh through the ninth  century. Although
overly brief to  be of any real  use and somewhat out  of place
given the rest of the volume, Beckwith's motivation is correct:
to show that  Tibet was one of  the great world powers  of this
age. The preceding chapters  of the book had already  made that
point quite clear. The volume concludes with five appendices; a
comparative  table  of   Frankish,  Byzantine,  Arab,  Tibetan,
Eastern  Turkic,  and  Chinese rulers;  a  glossary  of Chinese
terms; a bibliographical  essay; and a useful  bibliography and
Donald S. Lopez, Jr.
University of Michigan

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