ISSN: 0898-6827
      A   A   C   A   R       B   U   L   L   E   T   I   N
 of the Association for the Advancement of Central Asian Research
Editor: H. B. PAKSOY           Vol. II Nos. 1 & 2  February 1989
INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERS:  Mir Ali  Shir Navai  Seminar for  Central
Asian Languages and Cultures, UCLA;  Program for Turkish Studies,
UCLA; The Central Asian Foundation, WISCONSIN; Committee on Inner
Asian  and  Altaic Studies,  HARVARD  U.; Research  Institute for
Inner  Asian Studies, INDIANA U.;  Department of Russian and East
European Studies, U of MINNESOTA; The National Council for Soviet
and East European Research, WASHINGTON D.C.
                       Table of Contents:
-- Alfred E. Senn, "On Nationalism,  Perspective, and a Few Other
Things."                                                      2
-- Bahtiyar  Nazarov, "Kutadgu  Bilig: One of  the first  written
monuments of the aesthetic thought of the Turkic people."     5
-- News of the Profession                                    10
-- Book Reviews                                              18
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      "On Nationalism, Perspective, and a Few Other Things"
                          Alfred E. Senn
      Department of History, University of Wisconsin-Madison
     [Professor Senn  was formally  invited by  the Institute  of
     History of the Lithuanian SSR Academy of Sciences in Vilnius
     to  be in residence during Fall 1988. He is fluent in, inter
     alia, Lithuanian and  Russian. As  there are close  contacts
     and dialogue  between the Central  Asians and the  Balts, on
     topics of mutual  interest, we  welcome Prof. Senn's  timely
     observations -- Ed.]
     When the editor of AACAR BULLETIN  invited me to write about
my experiences in Lithuania  in the fall of 1988, I  thought of a
variety of questions which I now approach in a different way than
I did before my stay in the Soviet Union.  In the hope that these
observations  can contribute somehow to  the general study of the
nationalities of the Soviet Union I decided to offer them here.
     The   first   problem  concerns   the   use  of   the  terms
"nationalist" and "nationalism." When I spoke to a Komsomol  camp
in Lithuania, I was  rather surprised by the vehement  reaction I
received to a reference to "Lithuanian nationalism" in the 1920s.
The young intellectuals objected  to the use  of the term on  the
grounds that "nationalism" carried a  variety of bad connotations
in both Lithuanian  and Russian, their two major  languages. They
much preferred the  use of the  term "national consciousness"  or
something  of  that  sort,  especially  in reference  to  current
developments in their land.
     Another  example  of this  problem  came in  the Constituent
Congress  of the  Lithuanian  Movement for  Perestroika (Sajudis)
when the  presidinq officer called  on the delegation  to condemn
the  Voice  of  America's Russian  Program's  referring  to their
meeting as a "nationalist congress" (natsionalisticheskii  s'ezd)
delegates chanted "Shame, shame" for some fifteen seconds.
     For  years  Soviet  authorities  have  denounced  "bourgeois
nationalism"  as something  evil,  something fostering  hostility
between people of different nationalities, not to mention causing
problems for  the central authorities. One result  of these years
of  indoctrination is  an  instinctive reaction  on  the part  of
intellectuals among  the smaller nationalities  against accepting
the epithet  "nationalist" as  characterizing their thoughts  and
feelings about  the national groups  from which they  arise. They
believe  they  have a  right  to live  in the  region  that their
ancestors inhabited, and  they believe they  have a right to  use
their  native  language   in  their   daily  public  life.   They
correspondingly object to having negative  words applied to these
     The American may insist that that  is not the way he or  she
understands  the  term  "nationalism"  --  "nationalism"  is  not
necessarily identical  with "chauvinism." Here the  problem would
seem to be  of seducation  by "false friends"  -- the  assumption
that  cognates in  different  languages  have identical  semantic
circles, the same range of connotations. "Nationalism" in English
and "natsionalizm" in Russian do not. One may yet argue that this
represents an  acceptance of  Leninist definitions,  but I  would
respond that the problem  is understanding how any given  word is
currently used and received in any language.
     Using the term "nationalism" to  describe the development of
new levels of  self-consciousness among the nationalities  of the
Soviet Union may simply help those who want to discredit them. If
it cared to, for  example, Moscow radio could certainly  cite the
Voice of America  in criticizing the Lithuanians  as nationalist.
(A Lithuanian  writer, Vytautas Petkevicius,  declared, "I  speak
three languages, and a man who speaks just one language called me
a nationalist  and claims that he is  an internationalist.") Just
as one might reject  terms from other languages because  of their
political connotations -- after years of reading Marxist-Leninist
historiography, for example, I refuse to use the word "objective"
under  any circumstances  --  one should  be careful  about using
words  that  walk  into  other  politically  motivated   semantic
circles. Communication, after all, is dependent on using mutually
comprehensible words and symbols.
     Recognizing  the problems  of  political vocabularies  leads
into  the second  topic  I would  like to  raise,  namely one  of
perspective. During my three  months in Lithuania I found  myself
immersed  in  the   political  discussions  of  the   day.  Those
discussions produced interesting poles in  the assessment of what
was possible in  Lithuania. There  were of course  conservatives,
who thought that disaster lay around  every corner that one might
choose to turn; there were the so-called "extremists" who thought
that this  moment of  possible weakness  and confusion  in Moscow
offered great opportunity  for those who  dared to seize it;  and
there  were those  who wanted patiently  to push  forward slowly,
avoiding needless  confrontation  but  counting  on  establishing
permanent gains. I  had my own  thoughts about what was  possible
but  I  recognized that  the Lithuanians  had  to make  their own
decisions on whether to take or avoid risks.
     ln the latter  part of November,  living now in Hamburg  and
reading the German press, I was struck by the readiness of German
journalists to  deplore what they considered  adventurous actions
in Estonia  because trouble  among the  nationalities within  the
Soviet  Union  could  endanger Mikhail  Gorbachev's  position  in
Moscow.  These  small  nationalities, the  Germans  seemed  to be
saying, have  to understand the  bigger picture and  await better
times  to  press  their  particular  programs. According  to  one
Lithuanian writer,  a  West German  journalist  visiting  Vilnius
during the  summer had  actually   deplored the  activity of  the
Lithuanians  because  of  the  problems  they were  creating  for
     The Lithuanians I had  spoken with during my stay  there had
fully  realized that  the changes they  were experiencing  were a
result  of Gorbachev's  policies  of  glasnost  and  perestroika.
Sajudis very much appreciated the help  it had received in August
from Gorbachev's  emissary Alexander Iakovlev, but  the reformers
in Vilnius also resented  the way Iakovlev turned on  them in his
interview  with  the Western  press at  the  end of  October. The
centralist  tendencies  of  Gorbachev's   constitutional  reforms
inevitably aroused discontent in the other  constituent republics
of the Soviet Union. The Lithuanians and  the other nationalities
of the Soviet Union had their own priorities.
     The inclination of the journalists to tell the nationalities
of the  Soviet Union to "cool it" for  the benefit of the central
government  offers  another example  of  the tendency  of Westies
of their attitude  toward Moscow. Were  the events in the  Baltic
taking place while  a Stalin was in  power in Moscow,  the German
journalists would  presumably hasten  to welcome  them. But  with
Gorbachev in  power, those  same developments  seemed to  present
danger.  The  nationalities   themselves  seem  to   have  little
independent value in the world view of those journalists; one can
find many  similar examples in  reviewing the history  of Eastern
     But just as the foreign press has its own prism in following
the affairs  of the  nationalities, the specialists  too have  to
understand themselves. In  Lithuania I  could see the  difference
between Sajudis, a movement for reform  in the Soviet system, and
the  Lithuanian  Liberty  League,  Lietuvos laisves  liga,  which
advocated  Lithuanian  independence  now.  The relations  between
these two  tendencies have  shifted and  changed  over time,  and
sometimes specific issues seem confused. Nevertheless the outside
observer should take  extra care in evaluating  developments lest
his or her  own preferences  overwhelm analysis and  misrepresent
the motives of the actors. Perhaps it is an idealistic paradox to
suggest  that  the observer  must  not  be  too  idealistic,  but
distorted analyses  serve only  those who  felt no  need for  new
information in the first place.
     Another  problem that  I  found  particularly striking  also
related to the nature of reporting  that I read after I had  left
Lithuania,  namely,  what  sources do  journalists,  and  Western
specialists  too,  have   in  following  the  events   among  the
nationalities of  the Soviet Union.  In December, when  I visited
Lithuanian friends in  Chicago, one of their first  questions was
why the Lithuanians had criticized the Voice of America. They had
been unable to figure this out despite the extensive sources that
they had in hand.
     ln my last days in Vilnius, one  friend said to me, "Now you
will have to  go back and again try to follow our developments by
just  reading the  newspapers." In  reading the  German press,  I
concluded   that   the   Moscow   correspondents   were   largely
paraphrasing articles in the Russian-language press with the help
of  occasional telephone  calls  from  dissidents. Rereading  the
press,  even  press  releases,  from  the  time  of  my  stay  in
Lithuania, I would say that  the Russian-language press and those
unsolicited  telephone calls often  did not correspond  to my own
observations. This is perhaps nothing new  to the readers of this
publication, but I fe1t I had to mention it.
     On the other hand, I must of course hasten to point out that
there  were those  correspondents  who  established contact  with
identifiable  sources  in  the  region  and  therefore  had  more
reliab1e information. Romas Sakadolskis of the Lithuanian section
of  the  Voice of  America,  for example,  besides  attending the
Sajudis  convention in Vilnius,  telephoned leaders  regularly --
his  activity  was even  discussed  on Lithuanian  television one
night  as  Sajudis leaders  felt  it necessary  to  explain their
relationship with  him.   I did  not hear  his broadcasts, but  I
heard many Lithuanians quoting him.
     In  conclusion,  I  would  emphasize  that I  found  my  own
vocabulary, perspective,  and understanding  of both western  and
Soviet media very  much affected by my experiences  in Lithuania.
This was a  period of exciting  change, and I  tried to make  the
most of it.  My thanks go to H. B. Paksoy  for the opportunity to
deliver myself of these thoughts.
                            *   *   *
     "KUTADGU BILIG: One of the first written monuments of the
              aesthetic thought of the Turkic people."
                         Bahtiyar Nazarov
             Doctor of Science (Philology); Director,
Institute for Language and Literature, Uzbek Academy of Sciences,
     [This paper is adapted from a presentation given at the 30th
     meeting of  PIAC, held at  Indiana University,  Bloomington,
     during  1987. The couplets quoted from  Kutadgu Bilig by Dr.
     Nazarov were  in  the  original.  English  translations  and
     references are substituted from Robert Dankoff (Tr.), Wisdom
     of  Royal Glory:  Kutadgu Bilig  (Chicago,  1983), indicated
     pages. -- Ed.]
     Kutadgu Bilig by Yusuf Balasagun (completed 1070 A.D) is one
of  the  first  written  literary  monuments of  the  aesthetical
thought of the Turkic people.
     In the  history of  the mankind,  almost without  exception,
every state, every  empire, every  social formation is  reflected
not  only in their historical  works and scientific treatises but
also in great art works of oral and written character, that gives
the future generations  rather vivid and clear  representation of
the detailed picture about the life of the society and the people
of the previous epoch.
     Among those  is one  the first  written masterpieces  of the
Turkic language people Kutadgu Bilig appeared  in the period when
the Samanid empire  was in  decline and the  Karahanid state  was
emerging  -- which existed from the middle of the IX th up to the
beginning of the XIII century on the territory of the Eastern and
Western Turkestan.
     This  wonderful  work   of  Turkic  and  of   world  written
literature  has  become  the  object  of  investigation  by  many
scholars: Russian,  Turkish, German, English,  French, Hungarian,
Uyghur  and  others. Noteworthy  are  the investigations  of such
scholars  of  different  generations   as  A.Vambery,  R.Radloff,
S.E.Malov,  V.V.Bartold,  E.E.Bertels,  F.K pr l zade, A.Kononov,
R.R.Arat,  A.Dilachar,    A.Valitov, E.K.Tenishev,  N.A.Baskakov,
S.N.Ivanov, I.V.Steblev, D.Majidenov,  U.Asanaliev, K.Ashuraliev,
Fitrat,  S.Mutalibov,  G.Abdurakhmanov,  N.Mallallaev, A.Kajumov,
K.Karimov should be mentioned.
     It should  also be emphasized that the  dissertations of the
young  specialists  Bakijan  Tukhliev  and  Kasimjan  Sadikov  in
Tashkent are dedicated  to the investigation of  this work, which
in  its turn   gives evidence that  the problems  of studying the
literary heritage of  our national cultural traditions  takes one
of the central positions at the present time.
     Acquaintance with the ample  literature dedicated to Kutadgu
Bilig by Yusuf  Balasagun shows  that the specialists  up to  the
present   time  addressed   mainly   the  linguistic,   literary,
philosophical,  political,  social and  didactic  aspects of  the
work. Special investigation from the point of view of aesthetical
problems is still missing. If at  all, they are touched extremely
superficially, while Kutadgu Bilig  is in its essence one  of the
first  valuable sources  of  Turkic-language written  literature,
where the formation of the aesthetic  thought of Turkic people is
reflected most vividly and deeply.  This consideration caused the
choice of  the subject of  the present short  communication. This
is, of  course, a  very large  theme, requiring  efforts of  many
specialists to solve  it. Taking advantage  of the case, l  would
like all colleagues  to pay  attention to this  problem in  their
investigations,  since  the  study  of the  problem  is  of  both
scholarly and  practical importance  in the  cause of  developing
cultural and  moral  values  in  our present  unique  world,  the
aesthetic values of Kutadgu Bilig are considerable from our point
of view because  having a  general humane nature,  they can  have
rather objective and direct influence on the development of moral
basis of the nature of the modern personality irrespective of the
social structure to which it belongs.
     We  are convinced  that  the books  like  Kutadgu Bilig  are
necessary  for us at  the present time,  since in it  we can find
answers to the urgent, exciting questions,  the answers which our
ancestors left as their legacy to us. In our communication we are
trying to enlighten the aspects  of aesthetic problems, reflected
in Kutadgu Bilig.
     One of the central problems in aesthetics is known to be the
problem of beauty. Democritus saw  beauty in the order,  symmetry
and harmony of one part to the other. It must be noted here, that
Yusuf Balasagun's  views in relation to the beautiful coincide in
many aspects with those of Aristotle and Confucius.
     In order to be beautiful, esteemed  in society, a person, in
our case the Grand Chamberlain (the post Yusuf Balasagun occupied
at the Karakhanid  court), according to Yusuf, must  possess both
inner and outer beauty.  Thus, the beauty in the man  acts as the
whole category in Yusuf's conception. The harmony and symmetry of
the mind, physical  beauty and moral  basis in a man,  especially
the  man  influencing the  life of  the  society, is  one  of the
central principles  of the aesthetic conception of Yusuf. On this
occasion he writes the following: [Pp.119-123]
     "...He should be handsome in appearance.... He should have a
     sound mind and a  quiet demeanor. The man with  a sound mind
     does not forget  his word....  He should have  a humble  and
     quiet  heart, full of compassion.  And he should be skillful
     and knowledgeable about royal custom. It is skillful men who
     produce all the beautiful objects in the  world... He should
     have a cheerful face and smiling eyes..."
     Here to some extent one can not help but notice the nearness
of  Yusuf's  conception   to  the  classical   understanding  and
treatment of the beautiful - known to us  from aesthetic views of
the ancient philosophers -  the harmony of the beautiful  in both
spirit and mind.
     In our opinion,  Yusuf's understanding  of the beautiful  is
one of considerable achievements of  aesthetic thoughts of Turkic
people, expressed in written form. This is  simultaneously one of
the significant treatments of the conception of  man.
      The understanding  of this  problem by  the  author is,  of
course, in the ideal rather than  real attitude to existence, for
one can  not forget  that it  matters to  the Chamberlain,  whose
class criteria were on the side of the ruling elite, to whom this
highest title was  given at that  time. lt should be  emphasized,
however, that  Yusuf, developing  his aesthetic  views, states  a
number of important ideas, applicable to the present day.
     The beautiful in  man, the  beautiful man can  not exist  by
himself,  isolated   from  other   people,  from  society;   more
concretely, these qualities  of man  can be evaluated  positively
only in  the case when they are useful  to other people. That is,
as seen from Yusuf's  conception, the beautiful acts, on  the one
hand, inseparably with utility, but on  the other hand, it begins
to  acquire public and social significance. Here, in our opinion,
it would be appropriate to make an analogy between these thoughts
of Yusuf and those of Socrates who spoke about the usefulness and
purposefulness of the beautiful.
     Yusuf  Balasagun  expresses  his  views  in  the  following:
     "Do not give  a job to someone simply because  he happens to
     be in your  service; rather take  into your service men  who
     will be of  genuine use to  you.... Remove useless men  from
     your service. As for those who are of use and benefit,  give
     them  appropriate  jobs  and  provide  them with  honor  and
     Thus,  according  to  Yusuf,  the   beautiful  in  man,  the
beautiful  in  his  deeds  exists  not  only  in  manifesting the
individual but at the same time is in the social  significance of
the  manifested.  Therefore,  from  our   point  of  view,  Yusuf
approaches the understanding and treatment of  the beautiful as a
public and  social phenomenon, which  makes it possible  to speak
about the social purposefulness of his aesthetic views.
     However, the author of Kutadgu Bilig  does not stop here. He
goes further.  In his  work, consisting  of about  6500 couplets,
written more than nine centuries ago,  from the very beginning to
the very end there is the leading, main idea about the harmonious
beautiful man, and  it is not by chance that the author names the
main character  (the  hero) K ntugdi  [Rising Sun],  personifying
Justice. Thus, in Yusuf's opinion,  everything which is connected
with social and personal  life of man, can become  beautiful only
if it is associated with justice  in its high and ideal  meaning.
Without justice man's life will be as if the sun is eclipsed.
     All  this   to   some  extent   witnesses   the   democratic
purposefulness of Yusuf's views, though due to  the narrowness of
his outlook, he sometimes manifests a tendentious attitude toward
simple people.  In special  sections of  the  book, dedicated  to
peasants,  poor  people, craftsmen,  stock-breeders, blacksmiths,
shoe  makers,  carpenters,  carvers,  archers, the  author  gives
tribute to  the common people,  but nonetheless, the  sympathy of
Yusuf in the first  instance refers to the representative  of the
ruling classes. In this, one can see, of course, class narrowness
of  the author  of  Kutadgu Bilig.  Nevertheless,  this does  not
diminish  the  value of  the  basic, progressive  conceptions and
thoughts which are presented in the book of Yusuf Balasagun.
     It is noteworthy,  that sometimes  Yusuf manifests  separate
moments of realizing (of course,  not in the modern understanding
but  on the level of thinking of  his times) the class difference
between people. He states [in P.141]  that he who has riches, has
"long" hands.
     It should be emphasized  that Yusuf is apt to  associate the
beauty in human deeds first of all with his attitude to labor, to
his skill. [P.130-1]
     Naturally, one should bear  in mind that in relation  to the
problem  of  human  perfection  Yusuf  is firmly  connected  with
theological  views  of  his  time,   that  cannot  be  otherwise.
Therefore, much, if not everything in human perfection is treated
by Yusuf as the gift of  the Most High to his obedient  servants.
In Yusuf's opinion, the whole of  human nature, all the beautiful
in man: his  mind, his senses, etc.  is the gift of  God. But not
all the beautiful, earthly is treated by Yusuf in this manner.
     Strange as it  may seem, the  fact that the praising  of the
hereafter, its rewards and benefits are almost missing in Kutadgu
Bilig.  Yusuf  mainly praises  the earthly  joy  of life  and the
beauty of  the real world,  where man  lives and works.  The most
beautiful for the poet seems to be  the beauty of nature which is
limitless and endless. And therefore he praises this  beauty with
great strength.
     It  is  known that  under the  rubric  "word," is  meant the
polynomial attribute  of the  human reason  and thought.  But the
word alone, though very good and correct, is not the very essence
of  the subject arising  from it. Yusuf  writes that  a good word
should become a good deed. [P.47]. Those words appear as if being
addressed  to us from the remote past. They sound so modern, they
need no comment.
     But the unity of the words  and the deeds should express the
wisdom in  the decision  of this  or that  problem. According  to
Yusuf this is not a result, but a purpose. The real result is not
only the  display of  wisdom, but it  is in  its realization,  in
motion. That is why he says definitely: "Any man may don  a cloak
of honor,  but true  nobility belongs  to the  man of wisdom  and
intellect." [P.49].
     Really, these  are  beautiful, aphoristic  lines, which  can
sound quite  sharply today. "Speak knowledgeably,  therefore, and
your words will be an  eye to the blind." - he writes  [P.45]. In
our opinion it is  the word art that is meant  here. The word art
has to bear a social moral content,  which could help a person to
get  rid of  his personal  defects and  misfortunes. This  should
become a definite life guide.
     Developing his thought in this direction, Yusuf puts forward
the following  beautiful words, which have not lost their meaning
in our days and resound even more sharply:
     "The criminal is  hanged by  force of  intellect, and  civil
turmoil is suppressed by means of wisdom." [P.46].
     This means that  according to Yusuf's study,  knowledge, the
power of the word and the power  of reason are more powerful than
weapons. To prevent  evil and fault it is necessary to be able to
use this great power.
     Those words of our ancient ancestor impose a deep obligation
upon us  -  inhabitants of  the planet  at the  end  of the  20th
century  to use  the power  of reason  when  solving any  kind of
conflict. Yusuf noted  that the  words of poets  were more  sharp
than a sword. Like art in  Aristotle's works, according to Yusuf,
the  word  is the  means  of  refinement of  people's  souls from
personal negative passions and one of the main sources of the joy
of comprehension.
     The  main component of  Beauty is kindness.  This opinion of
Balasagun testifies to  the unity of his point of  view with that
of Confucius's. A  person should always  be kind in his  thoughts
and deeds, owing to kindness he can comprehend the source of joy.
Yusuf calls every person  to be among  the people and to  present
each other joy and happiness.
     According to Yusuf Balasagun the most  ugly thing in life is
violence in any form.  The poet compares violence with  a burning
fire [P.106], which swallows  everybody approaching it.  Contrary
to violence, Yusuf puts forward Justice  and compares it to water
- the source of life. Because of water everything is alive. It is
necessary to point out here, that to prove his aesthetic concepts
the author addresses the  things and phenomena of the  Earth, not
the  world  of  paradise  or  hell.   He  composes  his  artistic
characters using the natural phenomena surrounding man. This fact
emphasizes  their nearness  to life  and  their influence  on the
     lt is an important element  in Yusuf Balasagun's aesthetics.
The  traditions   of  his  aesthetics   influenced  greatly   the
development of  the artistic and aesthetic thought  of the Turkic
people of the following  ages. In his poetry Yusuf  addresses the
problems  of  justice, comparing  it  to  a living  water  and he
addresses oppression, comparing  it to burning fire.  For example
[in P.142] Yusuf  says to his ruler  that he put out  the burning
fire of oppression by his living water of justice. These opinions
of  the author were his ideals  and somehow exalted the ruler; in
the  other  couplets Yusuf  wrote  about injustice  and ignorance
existing in  the society  of those  times. There is  no truth  in
life, there is no  justice and understanding -- he  says bitterly
in his book.
     There are some lines in Kutadgu  Bilig where the poet speaks
about justice as the most beautiful thing and about oppression as
the most ugly thing  not only in the Karakhanid's  empire but all
over the world. He continues:
     "Speech is descended from blue heaven to brown earth, and it
     is by  means of  speech that  man ennobles  his soul.  Man's
     heart is like a bottomless sea and wisdom is the pearl  that
     lies at the bottom: if he fails to bring the pearl up out of
     the sea it could just as  well be a pebble as a  pearl... As
     long as  the wise  man does  not bring  out wisdom  upon his
     tongue, his  wisdom may  lie hidden  for years  and shed  no
     light. Fine things indeed are wisdom and intellect: put them
     to  work, if you possess them, and you will soar to heaven."
     Kutadgu  Bilig  was  created  in  Kashgar and  dedicated  to
Tabgach-Bugra Karakhan, describing the events of the Kagan's life
and  including  his  education.  In   its  artistic  content  and
philosophical direction,  the work  goes beyond  the confines  of
this limited purpose  and, in  general the work  is of  universal
humanistic and human  character. The same  can be said about  the
aesthetic value of the work.
     From the portions quoted above, one can see, that Yusuf pays
special  attention  to the  problems  of justice  and oppression,
prosperity  and destruction.  Hence,  Yusuf's aesthetic  opinions
have the character of an aesthetic ideal.  The progressive people
of his time dreamed of this ideal and strove for it.
     So  Yusuf  Balasagun's  appeals  to  justice and  oppression
represent  contrasting forces,  manifesting  themselves first  in
beauty, and second, in ugliness. It is necessary to note that the
great son of  his time calls his rulers to follow the first force
and  to  deny  the second  one.  These  ideas of  Yusuf  are very
progressive for  his epoch. One  can say  that they had  not lost
their meaning even  in our  days. The aesthetic  views of  Yusuf,
keeping in  step  with every  period  of human  development,  are
powerful and modern.
     In  conclusion  I  want to  say  to  my  colleagues, to  the
participants of all international forums, that we should pay more
and more attention  to study  the artistic  heritage of  remotest
times, for example to the investigation of Kutadgu Bilig.
     It  is  sufficient  to  remember  that  the  Fourth  Special
Conference  on Turkology, held in  Leningrad in 1970, was devoted
to the 9OOth anniversary of  Kutadgu Bilig's creation. During the
last two years, two poetical translations of Kutadgu Bilig
were made in Uzbekistan. The translations into  modern
Uzbek were  made by Sadulla  Ahmad and Bakijan  Tuhliyev. Fifteen
years  ago  this   work  was  published  in   transcription  with
interpretation by K.Karimov. Two years from  now, we are going to
celebrate the  920th anniversary  of this  unique masterpiece  of
Turkic people. In this  connection I have a proposal:  perhaps it
would be reasonable for the  international scholarly community to
begin preparations to  mark this date. Nevertheless  it would not
be inappropriate, if  a group of  experts meet in Tashkent  where
one of three extant manuscripts of Yusuf Balasagun is preserved.
     This  measure   would  promote  further   strenghthening  of
international scholarly cooperation working in the  difficult but
very noble branch of modern social sciences.
                           *   *   *
                      NEWS OF THE PROFESSION
AACAR has two  new Institutional Members: Research  Institute for
Inner Asian Studies, INDIANA UNIVERSITY; The National Council for
Soviet and East European Research,  WASHINGTON D.C. We extend our
warm collegial welcome.
AACAR MONOGRAPH SERIES Editorial Board, composed of Thomas ALLSEN
(Trenton State College)  (Secretary of  the Board), Peter  GOLDEN
(Rutgers),  Thomas  NOONAN  (U  of  Minnesota)  Omeljan   PRITSAK
(Harvard), Morris ROSSABI (Columbia),  is interested in receiving
manuscripts pertaining to  the history, literatures  and cultures
of Central and Inner  Asia. All communications should be  sent to
Prof.  Thomas  ALLSEN, Secretary  of  the Editorial  Board, AACAR
MONOGRAPH SERIES, c/o History Department, Trenton  State College,
Trenton, NJ 08625.
AACAR  shall hold  regular  elections  for President,  Secretary,
Treasurer and a Member at large to the Executive Committee. Paid-
up AACAR members will be eligible to vote. Certified Ballots will
be sent to the  address of record during the second  half of 1989
by the election  committee. Please be  sure we have your  correct
Current and future  members of AACAR  should be advised that  the
Central and Inner  Asian Studies journal is edited,  produced and
distributed on its own schedule. Vol. 3 of CIAS was mailed during
December 1988.
announced sixty-four Summer Seminars for College Teachers for the
Summer of 1989. Two  are directly relevant to the  readership: 1.
CENTRAL  ASIA, June 11 to August  4 1989 (six weeks); Directed by
Eden NABY and Richard FRYE. Contact:  Eden NABY, 612 Herter Hall,
U. of Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003.   2. BUDDHISM AND CULTURE,
June 19 to August  11 1989 (eight weeks); Directed by: William R.
LaFLEUR and Stephen F. TEISER. Contact: Department  of East Asian
Languages and Cultures, Royce Hall, RM  290, UCLA, Los Angeles CA
90024. For further  information on  other NEH seminars,  contact:
NEH Seminars Program, 202/786-0463.
32nd   Meeting  of   PIAC   (Permanent  International   Altaistic
Conference) will be  held in Oslo-Norway, 11-16 June  1988, under
the  Presidency  of  Bernt  BRENDEMOEN.  Contact:  Denis   SINOR,
Secretary General, Goodbody Hall 101, Indiana U., Bloomington, IN
Central Asia and its Neighbors: Mutual Influences conference will
be held 26-30 June 1989 by the European  Seminar on Central Asian
Studies (ESCAS III). Contact: Prof. Remy DOR, ESCAS III, Institut
d'etudes Turques, 13 Rue de Santeuil, 75231 Paris Cedex 05.
33rd International Congress of ASIAN and NORTH AFRICAN STUDIES is
to meet at the University of Toronto, Canada, August 19-25, 1990.
The  theme is  Contacts Between  Cultures. Contact:  Secretariat,
33rd ICANAS, c/o Prof. Julia  CHING, Victoria College, University
of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1K7, Canada.
INDIANA  UNIVERSITY  is conducting  a  search for  a  position in
CENTRAL ASIAN STUDIES,  with emphasis on social  sciences. Salary
and  rank  will  be  commensurate  with ability  and  experience.
Qualifications: Ph. D., good (preferrably native) knowledge of at
least one Central Asian language,  and demonstrated excellence in
research and teaching. Post is in Department of Uralic and Altaic
Studies, to commence August 1989.
American Council of Learned Societies  has announced a program to
initiate  new  teaching  positions  in  East   European  studies.
Applications must be prepared by  institutions. Contact: Jason H.
PARKER, ACLS, 228 E 45th Str, NY NY 10017.
Columbia  University  Seminar  for  Studies  in the  History  and
Culture of the Turks  is continuing under the direction  of Prof.
Kathleen BURRILL.  The 1988-89  program  is as  follows: 16  Sep.
Elena  FRANGAKIS-SYRETT  (Queens  College)  "Izmir's  Trade  With
Western Europe  in the  18th and  early 19th  Centuries;" 7  Oct.
Geoffrey   L.  LEWIS   (Prof.   Emeritus,  Oxford)   "Bab r:  the
Professional  King;"  18  Nov.   Mark  PINSON  (Harvard)  "Online
Resources  for Turkish and Middle Eastern Studies;" 16 Dec. Erica
GILSON (Columbia) "Computers in Foreign Language Instruction: The
State  of  the Art.";  27  Jan.  Thomas GOODRICH  (Indiana  U. of
Pennsylvania)  "Ottoman Cartography:  An  Illustrated Lecture  on
Maps of the 16th-17th Centuries;" 17 Feb. Ellen ERVIN  (Columbia)
"The Novels of Adalet Agaoglu:  Feminism in Contemporary Turkey;"
24 Mar. Madeline  ZILFI (U. of Maryland-College  Park) "A Medrese
for the Palace:  Ottoman Dynastic Legitimation in  the Eighteenth
Century;" 21  Apr. Viktor OSTAPCHUK  (Harvard) "The  Role of  the
Black  Sea Frontier in Ottoman, Polish and Moscovite Relations in
the First Half of the 17th Century."  Contact: Ms. Eileen McKEON,
c/o Center of Turkish Studies, 616 Kent Hall, Columbia U., NY, NY
ARIT (American Research Institute in  Turkey) will be celebrating
the 25th  anniversary of  its founding.  Contact: ARIT,  Oriental
Institute, 1155 E. 58th St. Chicago, IL 60637.
research support  programs (in  Asia, Midle  East) are  available
from: CIES, Eleven Dupont Circle,  Washington DC 20036. Fulbright
Scholar-in-Residence Program information may be obtained from the
same address.
The Fundamentalism Project, undertaken by the American Academy of
Arts  and Sciences  (est. 1780), and  funded by  the John  D. and
Catherine T.  MacArthur Foundation, has  held one  of its  public
conferences at the University of Chicago 15-17 November 1988. The
collected essays,  it is  reported, will  be issued  in a  volume
entitled  Fundamentalism Observed. For  future conferences in the
series and  other details,  contact: The  Fundamentalism Project,
Swift Hall, 1025 E. 58th Str., Chicago, IL 60637.
seeking nominations for  its Scholar  Orientation Program,  which
has so far provided more than 500 Chinese scholars -- studying at
US  universities -- over the past eight years the chance to reach
beyond  their  campus  experiences within  the  US.  Contact: 777
United Nations Plaza, NY, NY 10017. 212/922-1385.
JOSEPH FLETCHER MEMORIAL  LECTURE, sponsored by the  Committee of
HARVARD UNIVERSITY  was given  by Denis  C. TWITCHETT  (Gordon Wu
Professor of Chinese  History, Department of East  Asian Studies,
Princeton University), on November 10, 1988 at Harvard U.
Oxford University  Press has  announced the  Population Atlas  of
China. [$250 + $7.50 (postage)]. Contact: OUP Humanities & Social
Sciences Dept.  200 Madison  Ave. NY  NY 10016.  All orders  from
individuals must be prepaid.    *   The  Harriman Institute Forum
is  a  monthly  serial,  which  began  publication  during  1988,
featuring  a  major  essay  on  the  USSR  in  every  issue.  For
subscriptions: The Harriman  Institute, Columbia University,  420
W. 118th St. NY NY 10027.   *   ASEEPL Abstracts of Soviet & East
European  Emigre  Periodical  Literature, published  since  1981,
Edited by Leonid KHOTIN, is  available for subscription. Contact:
1400 Shattuck  Ave.  Ste 7,  #  10, Berkeley,  CA  94705.     *
Research   on   the   Soviet  Union   and   Eastern   Europe,  an
interdisciplinary annual series is announced. Contact: T. Anthony
JONES, Harvard RRC, 1737 Cambridge, Cambridge MA 02138.   *   The
Bulletin  of  the   Csoma  de  K r s  Symposium   offers  regular
information and bibliography  in the  fields of Tibetan,  Central
Asian and Lamaistic studies. It is normally issued  twice yearly.
Contact: Dr.  J.  TERJEK, Library  of  the Hungarian  Academy  of
Sciences, H-1361  Budapest P. O. B. 7   *   Modern Asian Studies,
a  journal  concerned  with  the  history,  geography,  politics,
sociology,  literature,  economics  and  social  anthropology  is
available from Cambridge Univ. Press. Contact: 32 E 57th Str., NY
NY 10022.    *    Current History,  a monthly journal  founded in
1914  by  The  New  York   Times,  is  seeking  new  subscribers.
Specializing  in  single  topic issues,  every  year  the journal
publishes dedicated numbers on China,  Soviet Union, Middle East.
Contact: 4225 Main  Str., Philadelphia PA 19127.    *    CITIZENS
EXCHANGE  COUNCIL Communique is available  from: 12 W. 31st Str.,
NY NY 10001.   *  BEYOGLU KITAP ILIK LTD has issued a beautifully
prepared  catalog,  DIWAN,  of  rare  books  and   out  of  print
periodicals, including titles on Central  Asian topics in several
languages  and alphabets.  Contact: Mr.  Ayhan AKTAR or  Mr. Ugur
G RACAR, Galip Dede Cad. 141/5, T nel, 80050 Istanbul. Phone: 149
06 72.    *   E. J. BRILL issues,  inter alia, regular catalogues
on  Central  Asian  topics. Handbuch  der  Orientalistic  is also
available. Contact: E.  J. BRILL, P. O. Box 9000, 2300 PA Leiden,
The  Netherlands.     *       OXUS BOOKS  published  Central Asia
Catalogue . Conntact: Oriental Booksellers, 121  Astonville Str.,
London SW18 5AQ, UK.   *   ARIS & PHILLIPS Ltd. issues occasional
catalogues   on   Central   Asia.   Contact:  Teddington   House,
Warminster, BA12 8PQ, UK.
Perspectives on the Islamic  World: Basics and Some  Major Trends
was  the theme  of a conference  and workshop  held at the  U. of
Connecticut,  Greater  Hartford  Campus,  14  October  1988,  co-
sponsored  by  U.  of  Connecticut,  The  Middle  East  Institute
(Washington  DC), Connecticut  Council  for the  Social  Studies,
Inc., Connecticut State  Department of  Education, and the  World
Affairs Center of Hartford, Inc. Papers included; Howard REED  (U
Connecticut-Storrs), Ali  ASANI (Harvard),  Amb. Christopher  Von
HOLLEN (Middle East Institute), Amb. Herman EILTS (Boston U.).
The Impact  of the  1838 Anglo-Turkish  Convention: Anatolia  and
Egypt  Compared  was  the topic  of  a  conference  at the  State
University of  New  York  at Binghamton  7-8  October  1988,  co-
sponsored  by  Southwest  Asian/North  African  Studies  Program;
Fernand Braudel  Center for  the Study  of Economies,  Historical
Systems   and   Civilizations;  Institute   of   Turkish  Studies
(Washington  DC). The following  scholars presented papers: Roger
OWEN  (Keynote- St.  Antony's,  Oxford U.);  Feroz  AHMAD (U.  of
Massachusetts); Resat KASABA (U. of Washington); Roderic  DAVISON
(George Washington); Fred  H. LAWSON (Mills Coll.);  Sevket PAMUK
(Villanova);  Zafer  TOPRAK  (Bogazi i);  Elena  FRANGAKIS-SYRETT
(Queens Coll.) Sarah  SHIELDS (Kansas  State U.); Robert  VITALIS
(Texas); Beatrice  St. LAURENT  (Harvard) Ellis  GOLDBERG (U.  of
Washington);  Nancy MICKLEWRIGHT (U.  of Michigan);  Nathan BROWN
(George  Washington);  Paul  BLANK  (Middlebury  Coll.);  Stephan
Fordham University Middle  East Studies Program Outreach  Lecture
Series,  Critical  Issues in  Middle  East Politics,  presented a
colloquium entitled Turkey as Bridge  in the North-South Dialogue
on 24 Oct. 1988. Dankwart A. RUSTOW and Walter F. WEIKER were the
featured  speakers.  For  future  programs,  contact:  Ralph.  A.
VALENTE,  Director  of  Outreach, Middle  East  Studies  Program,
Fordham U., NY NY 10458. Phone: 212/841-5375.
Prof. Howard REED will be retiring from the History Department of
University of Connecticut-Storrs  at the  end of 1988-9  academic
year.    *     S. Enders WIMBUSH  has been  appointed Director of
Radio Liberty.     *    Eden  NABY is  now teaching  both at  the
University of  Massachusetts-Amherst and at Columbia  University
*    Masayuki YAMA-UCHI (University  of Tokyo) has published  THE
our previous  issue, the  details of  Prof. Masayuki  YAMA-UCHI's
book were somewhat scrambled. We offer our sincere apologies.   *
 Peter  REDDAWAY  has  moved  to  George  Washington  University,
vacating  his  post  as  the  Program  Secretary  at  the  Kennan
Institute for  Advanced Russian  Studies (KIARS),  Wilson Center,
Smithsonian Institution.   *    Blair RUBLE has been appointed to
take over as the  Program Secretary of the KIARS,  beginning late
spring 1989.  At this  writing, a search  was on  to replace  Dr.
RUBLE at the  SSRC post which  he is vacating.    *    Thomas  S.
NOONAN (U of Minnesota) gave a seminar entitled "The Millenium of
Russia's First  Perestroika: Economic Development  and Technology
Transfer under Saint  Vladimir" at KIARS, 13  September '88    *
Audrey L. ALTSTADT (CCSU) has received  a short term KIARS grant.
 *    Prof. Kemal H. KARPAT (U of Wisconsin-Madison) has received
IREX travel funding for research  in Hungary.   *    Sarah Moment
ATIS (U of Wisconsin-Madison) has received a Rockfeller grant and
is spending 1988-9 at the U of Michigan as a writer  in residence
 *     Edward  LAZZERINI (U  of New  Orleans) has  been appointed
Director of  the Pacific Basin  Program of his  university.    *
Azade-Ayse RORLICH (USC) has been asked to head the International
Studies  Program  of her  university.     *     Cornell FLEISCHER
(Washington U.) has received a MacARTHUR  Fellowship.   *    John
PERRY  (U of Chicago) has received an Indo-American Fellowship to
study Arabic and  Persian manuscripts in  Indian libraries.    *
Albert HOURANI (Oxford-Emeritus) has been elected Honorary Member
of American  Historical Association.   *     Hisao KOMATSU (Tokai
University)  has  published  a  paper  entitled "Bukhara  in  the
Central Asian Perspective:  Group Identity  in 1910-1928" in  the
Tokyo  University  Institute of  Oriental  Culture  series     *
Ludwig  W.  Adamec (U  of Arizona)  has published  A Biographical
Dictionary of  Contemporary Afghanistan, which is  available from
Akademische  Druck-u.  Verlagsanstalt,   Neufeldweg  75,   A-8010
Graz/Austria.   Information   on  Prof.   Adamec's   four  volume
Historical Gazetteer of Iran, 1976-88 is  available from the U of
Arizona, Department of Oriental Studies, Tucson, AZ 85721.
Comite International  D'Etudes Pre-Ottomanes et  Ottomanes VIIIth
Symposium was held  at the U. of  Minnesota-Humphrey Center 14-19
August  1988,  Caesar  E. FARAH  Presiding.  Under  the theme  of
Decision  Making and the Transmission of  Authority in the Turkic
System, the following  papers were  read: Halil INALCIK  (Keynote
Speaker,  Chicago-Emeritus)  "Decision  Making   in  the  Ottoman
State;"  Bruce  MASTERS  (Wesleyan) "The  Implementation  of  the
Anglo-Ottoman  Capitulatory Treaty  of  1675;" Christoph  NEUMANN
(Institute  for  the Culture  and History  of  the Near  East and
Turkey, Munich) "Decision Making in  Ottoman Foreign Policy About
1780;" Ezel  Kural SHAW (California  State-Northridge) "Integrity
and Integration: Assumptions and Expectations Behind Solutions to
the Eastern Question;" Pal FODOR  (Hungarian Academy of Sciences)
"Dilemmas  of  a Political  Decision:  The Ottoman  Occupation of
Hungary,  1541;" Geza DAVID (U.  of Budapest) "Decision Making on
the Confines: Administrative Problems in the 16th Century Ottoman
Hungary;" Robert OLSON (U. of Kentucky) "The  Significance of the
1740  Treaty  Between the  Ottoman  Empire and  France;" Muhammad
BENABOUD (Mohammed V U. - Rabat)  "Ottoman Authority and Power in
the  Arab  Provinces in  the  Eyes  of an  18th  Century Moroccan
Ambassador;"  Josef   MATUZ  (U.   of  Freiburg)   "Practices  of
Transmitting Decisions by  the Central  to Local Authorities  and
Foreign Powers  in  Both  the  Ottoman  Empire  and  the  Crimean
Khanate;"  Michel  Le  GALL (St.  Olaf  Coll.)  "Centralization &
Decentralization   in    Late   19th   c.    Ottoman   Provincial
Administration: A  note from Tripolitania;" Sinan  KUNERALP (ISIS
Publishing)  "Career Patterns  of  XIXth c.  Ottoman  Diplomats;"
Thomas GOODRICH (Indiana U. of Pennsylvania)  "A 17th c. Atlas in
the  1526  Kitab-i  Bahriye  of  Piri Reis;"  Danuta  CHMIELOWSKA
(Warsaw  U.)  "The  Image  of  Ottoman  Turks  in  Polish  Travel
Literature;" Timothy COATS (U. of  Minnesota) "The 1540 Captain's
Log of D.  Joao de Castro's Red Sea Voyage in the context of 16th
c. Portuguese-Ottoman Rivalry;" Gy rg HAZAI (Hungarian Academy of
Sciences)  "Travelers  in  the  Ottoman  Empire:  A Bibliographic
Project;" Keith HOPWOOD (St.  David's Coll.-Wales)" The Formation
of the  Begliks of  Pre-Ottoma era;"  Yitchzak KEREM  (Jerusalem)
"Immigration Patterns  From Greece to  the Ottoman Empire  in the
19th  c.;"  Ethel  STEWART (Ottawa-Canada)  "An  Apache  Tribe of
Turkish  Origins;" Muhammad Al-AIDAROOS  (UAR U.)  "A Comparative
Study between the Ottoma Turks and the Spanish  Crusaders;" Jacob
LANDAU (The Hebrew U.) "Research Projects  on the History of Jews
in Ottoman Egypt;" Roderic DAVISON (George Washington) The Impact
of  the Electric  Telegraph  on the  Conduct  of Ottoman  Foreign
Policy;" David KUSHNER (U. of Haifa) "The Haifa-Damascus Railway:
The British Phase 1891-1902;" Janos  HOVARI (Hungarian Academy of
Sciences) "Ottoman Commercial Activity at  the Southern Border of
Hungary Before the Battle of Mohacs;" Butros LABAKI (Lebanese U.)
" The  Commercial  Network of  Beirut  in the  last  25 Years  of
Ottoman Rule;" Rachel  SIMON (U.  of Washington) "Commercial  and
Communication Networks in  Ottoman Libya;" Momir  JOVIC (Pristina
U.-Yugoslavia) "Communications  Between Adriatic  Cities and  the
Turkish Hinterland in  the Balkans  up to the  XVI c.;"  Virginia
AKSAN (U. of Toronto) Ottoman Sources of Information on Europe in
the  18th  c.;"  Jean-Louis  BACQUE-GRAMMONT  (French  Institute-
Istanbul)  "Cimetieres ottomans  et  banque de  donees. Premieres
remarques;" Nacereddine SAIDOUNI (U.  d'Alger) Fonds des archives
algeriennes relatifs  a l'epoque  ottomane-Contenu-Exploitation;"
Issam KHALIFAH  (Lebanese U.)  "Capuchin Archives  on Lebanon  in
Ottoman  History;"   Andrea  ZSIGA-KISS  (Hungarian   Academy  of
Sciences) ""Waqf  Conscriptions  in Hungary  Under  Ottoman  Rule
(16th-17th c.);" Melik DELILBASI (U. of Ankara; Fellow, Dunbarton
Oaks)  "The  Significance  of  Ottoman  Archives and  the  Tahrir
Defters for  Ionnina;" Alexander  H.  de GROOT  ((U. of  Leiden);
Ekmeleddin  IHSANOGLU (Research  Center for Islamic  History, Art
and  Culture, Istanbul)  "Bashoca Ishak  Efendi as  a Pioneer  of
Modern  Science  in the  Ottoman State;"  Howard  A. REED  (U. of
Connecticut) "Turkish  American Educational  Cooperation: Over  a
Century  of  Achievement;"  Martin  STROHMEIER  (U.  of  Bamberg)
"Education in  Ottoman Lebanon, ca.  1880-1917;" Donald  QUATAERT
(SUNY-Binghamton) "Conditions  of  Labor  in  Ottoman  Factories,
1800-1914;"  Maria TODOROVA  (Fellow-Wilson Center; U.  of Sofia)
""Midhad Pasha's Governership of the Danube Province;" Abdul Aziz
AWAD (Yarmouk U.)  Ottoman Public  Administration in Concept  and
Practice  in the  19th c.;"  Abdul-Karim RAFEQ  (U. of  Damascus)
"Society and Economy in Ottoman Syria  in the 1650s;" Joseph Abou
NOHRA  (Lebanese  U.)  "Le  role  preponderant  des   conseillers
(mudabbirs) Moronites dans  le governement  de Mont-Liban au  18e
siecle;"  Linda DARLING (U. of  Chicago) "The Finance Scribes and
Ottoman  Politics;"  Douglas  HOWARD  (Indiana  U.) "Central  and
Provincial Administrative Interaction in  Timar Bestowals and the
Meaning  of New  Developments  in  the  early 17th  c.;"  Palmira
BRUMMETT  (U.  of  Tennessee) "The  Ottoman-Safavid  and  Center-
Province Frontiers: A Case of  Campaign Troop Mobilization, 1577-
1581;: Daniel GOFFMAN  (Ball State) "Ottoman Authorities  and the
Contours of Commerce  in Aleppo, Istanbul and  Izmir, 1600-1700;"
Tadeusz  MAJDA  (Warsaw  U.)  "Nabi's  Fethname-i Kameni e  as  a
Historical Source;" N. OIKONOMIDES (U. of Montreal) "The Turks in
12th  c.  Byzantine  Literature;"  Abdul-Rahim  ABU-HUSAYN  (AUB)
"Juridical Literature as a  Source for the Social History  of and
Religious  Trends  in Ottoman  Syria;"  Samir SEIKALY  (AUB) "The
Fatawa of  Khayr al-Din  al-Ramli;" Jan  SCHMIDT  (U. of  Leiden)
"Fazil Beg Enderuni,  Social Historian or Poet?;"  Robert DANKOFF
(U. of Chicago) "The Last Days  of Melek Ahmed Pasha;" Nimetullah
HAFIZ  (U.   of  Pristine)   "Kosova  T rk   Destanlarinda  Tarih
Kaynaklari;" Tacida HAFIZ (N.A.) "Nobelci Ivo Andri 'in  'Travnik
Olaylari'  ve 'Drina  K pr s '  Eserlerinde  Osmanlilar;" C.  Max
KORTEPETER (NYU)  "System Analysis  and the  Ottoman Empire;"  E.
Z RCHER (Catholic U.-Nijmegen) "A Biographical  Dictionary of the
Turkish Revolution;" Mark PINSON (Harvard) "Reforms of the Second
Tanzimat  Period  (1856-76)  in  Bulgaria,  Through the  Eyes  of
Foreigners and of a Computer ";  Frederic DeJONG ((U. of Utrecht)
"The Transmission of Authority  Over the Bektashi Tekkes  in Iraq
in the Ottoman Period;" Ahmed Ibrahim DIAB (Omdurman  Islamic U.-
Sudan) "The Relations  Between the  Mahdiyya and the  Sanusiyya;"
Dina  LeGALL  (Princeton)  The Naqshbandi  Order  in  the Ottoman
Middle East:  The Early  Phases;" Saidi  BAYRAM (General  Dir. of
Vakiflar-Ankara) "An Ahi Geneology."
23 September 1988,  Prof. Dr.  Ali ALPASLAN (Director,  Turcology
Research Center)  presiding. More  than  two-hundred papers  were
read  by  scholars from  twenty-seven  countries  in twenty-eight
sessions. For further details or  future activities, contact: Yd.
Do .  Dr. Osman SERTKAYA,  Secretary General, Turcology, Istanbul
 niversitesi Edebiyat Fak ltesi, Istanbul.
the  T rk  Dil Kurumu,  26  September-3 October  1988, Organizing
Committee consisting: Hasan EREN, Zeynep KORKMAZ, Hamza Z LFIKAR,
Osman SERTKAYA.  Sixty-eight papers  were read  by scholars  from
nineteen  countries  in eight  sessions.  For further  details or
future activities, contact: Prof. Dr.  Hasan EREN, Director, T rk
Dil Kurumu, Atat rk Bul. 217, Kavaklidere-Ankara.
                            *   *   *
                           BOOK REVIEWS
Ross E. Dunn, The Adventures of Ibn Battuta: A Muslim Traveler of
the 14th Century. University of California Press, 1986. Pp.357.
     Of  Tamarshirin,  the  Chaghatay   ruler  whose  camp   near
Samarkand he visited  in 1333  or 1335, Ibn  Battuta reports  (in
Gibb's translation): "He used to sit reciting a litany in Turkish
after the dawn  prayer until sunrise...."  What do we know  about
such Turkish "litanies?"  And how did  it happen that a  Moroccan
faqih was on hand to overhear them?
     Dunn's  book  does not  attempt to  answer questions  of the
first sort. It does  an excellent job answering questions  of the
third sort: the  romance of  Ibn Battuta's life  takes shape  and
substance  in  Dunn's recounting.  As  for the  questions  of the
second sort: Dunn provides brief essays explaining the background
of the major  episodes in the  traveler's account. Thus we  learn
enough about  the Mongol conquests (p.83), or  about education in
Mecca (p.108), or about  Indian ocean shipping (p.120) --  or, in
the instance in the question, about the Chaghatay khanate (p.177)
-- to  be able  to place  Ibn Battuta's  reports in their  proper
contexts. Taken together, these essays, though based on secondary
sources  and  somewhat  superficial,  provide  a fine  survey  of
Eurasian geography during the waning of Pax Mongolica.
     Dunn devotes chapters to each of the major regions which Ibn
Battuta visited, from the Maghrib to  China. He spares the reader
discussions of the confused itineraries,  consigning these to the
footnotes. He has helpful regional biographies  at the end of the
book. Some of these could have been fuller: for  example, the one
for Anatolia fails to list the studies of Taeschner, so useful in
elucidating  the Akhi  institution,  for which  Ibn Battuta  is a
primary source.
     In the  Preface, Dunn insists that  his study is not  a book
about a  book. He  chracterizes it  as "part  biography and  part
cultural  history,"  and says  that  it  is addressed  to  a non-
specialist audience. In  part, Dunn tries  to do for Ibn  Battuta
what Leonardo Olshki  did for Marco Polo in his book Marco Polo's
Asia.  Dunn's  book does  not achieve  the  level of  insight and
detail that Olshki's did. But it does succeed in what it sets out
to do. The  book should be  assigned in any undergraduate  survey
course on Islamic civilization or on medieval Eurasia.
     One word about  the claim  (p.1) that Ibn  Battuta was  "the
greatest traveler of  premodern times." Should not  that title go
rather to another Muslim traveler, Evliya Chelebi? (Of course, we
must agree that the seventeenth century was still "premodern"  --
as it surely was at least with regard to modes of transportation)
Possibly Ibn Battuta  logged more  miles. But if  we are  judging
greatness by the quantity and quality of the travel accounts, the
one  left  by the  Turkish  traveler  far outweighs  that  of his
Moroccan   counterpart.   Unfortunately,   textual  studies   and
translations of the former are still at a primitive level, and it
will  be some  time before  anyone  will be  able to  write about
Evliya's "adventures" in as comprehensive  a fashion as Dunn  has
written about Ibn Battuta.
                                                 Robert Dankoff
                                            University of Chicago
Thomas  T. Allsen, Mongol Imperialism.  The Policies of the Grand
Qan  Mongke in  China,  Russia and  the  Islamic Lands  1251-1259
(University of California Press, Berkeley, 1987).
     In  the  course of  the last  two  decades, there  has been,
relatively speaking, a quiet explosion in studies in the history,
structure,  political,  social and  economic organization  of the
nomadic  societies  of  Medieval  Eurasia.  Long treated  as  the
stepchild  of Chinese, Middle  Eastern-Islamic or Russian studies
in the United States, this  field, notwithstanding the remarkable
works of its  pioneers, is only now showing signs  of coming into
its own.  For  understandable reasons, having largely to  do with
the availability  of sources, these studies have  tended to focus
on the major empires  created by the nomadic peoples,  especially
those  of  the Huns,  Khazars and  Mongols.  Of them,  the Mongol
Empire was  the largest  and not  unexpectedly, having  conquered
sedentary  societies with  old and  well-developed traditions  of
historical writing (e.g. China, Iran, Armenia, Georgia and Rus'),
the best  documented in  our sources.  While other studies  have,
perforce, been heavily philological and sought to reconstruct, on
the shaky footing of an imperfect  source base the broad outlines
of  their  origins  or  history,  Mongol  imperial  studies  have
advanced  considerably   beyond  that.  Thomas   Allsen's  Mongol
Imperialism is  an outstanding  example of  the new,  more mature
history of the medieval Eurasian nomadic world. It asks important
historical questions.
    Allsen,  making  use  of the  Chinese,  Arabic,  Persian and
Russian  sources  in the  original  and Latin,  Syriac, Armenian,
Georgian  and Mongol  sources in  translation for  his study,  is
equally at home in all parts of the Mongol "world-realm." This is
no small achievement.  The primary focus  of his work centers  on
the question (p.5) of  how the Mongols, a not  particularly large
confederation (perhaps numbering 700,000) of nomadic pasturalists
and  hunting-gathering  forest tribes  who had  long been  on the
fringes of the major nomadic empires  of Inner Asia, with limited
resources could  "acquire the  needed manpower  and materiel"  to
conquer  and  retain  a trans-continental  empire?    Allsen (see
Chapter  7  in  particular)  shows  that  the  Mongols  possessed
military  superiority  not in  numbers  (at least  initially) nor
technology,  but  in training  and  leadership. The  Mongols were
exceptionally well-schooled  and disciplined soldiers.  They were
able to increase rapidly  the number of military men  under their
control   (both   nomadic   and  sedentary)   by   co-opting  and
conscripting the  subject  populations. This  followed the  well-
known  paradigm  for  nomadic confederation-  and  statebuilding.
Superstratification, a  term first  used by  Jozsef Deer  (Pogany
magyarsag, kereszteny  magyarsag,  Budapest,  1938,  pp.1O16)  to
describe this process,  is certainly  one of the  keys to  Mongol
success. But, they  went further. Previous nomadic  statebuilders
conquered the  other nomads  and some  sedentary elements  (often
making  extensive  use  of  the  latter,  cf.  the  Soghdian-T rk
relationship), but never on the scale  of the Mongol achievement.
The  Mongols,  moreover, who  would also  fall  prey to  the same
internecine,  dynastic  strife  that  afflicted  earlier  nomadic
states  as  well  as  the  lure  of the  subject  sedentary  high
cultures, in their drive for  domination, proved to be remarkably
adept  at  exploiting   their  victories  organizationally.  Each
success provided further fuel for the next. Allsen maintains that
the  "Mongols  succeeded  in   creating  the  largest  contiguous
landbased  empire in  human  history because  they  were able  to
mobilize  effectively  the human  and  material resources  of the
areas under their  control" (p.7). To  see this clearly, we  must
view Mongol policies  from a  pan-imperial perspective, which  is
what Allsen's book does.
     After defining, in  the introductory chapter, the  nature of
the problem, the sources and  methodology, Allsen devotes chapter
2 to the  politics of  M ngke's accession to  and maintenance  in
power. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the structure and workings of the
centralized  government headed  by  M ngke.  The  intricacies  of
Chinggisid dynastic politics  are fully  elucidated. At the  same
time,  Allsen shows  that  Barthold's thesis  that  Batu was  the
kingmaker who not  only brought M ngke  to power but, in  effect,
shared power with him cannot be sustained. Rather, M ngke and the
Toluids  had  military  superiority  over  the Jochids  who  owed
whatever special status they did enjoy to  M ngke's assistance in
the subjugation of  Western Eurasia. Batu  was "only a  respected
and valuable  ally." M ngke's  authority in  foreign affairs  was
"absolute"  and  his  role  in  domestic  matters  "predominant."
(pp.56-63). In organizing his  empire, M ngke was not so  much an
innovator as a  prudent and selective reformer  who pragmatically
built on what had worked in  the conquered areas. Although making
use of all the available, polyethnic  talent of his realm, M ngke
was always careful to staff the more important pan-imperial posts
with Mongols who often came from his personal guard (the keshig).
These  were long-time  servitors of M ngke  and his  family whose
presence  in  key  posts  gave  Mongol government  "a  pronounced
patrimonial flavor" (p.lOO). Within the imperial government there
were  "multiple  chains of  command  and considerable  sharing of
responsibility" (p.112). To this a judicious mix of ethnic rivals
added a further level  of checks and  balances. Chapters 5 and  6
discuss the workings of the Mongol  census and tax systems, which
are, of course, related. Allsen surveys the available data, which
is often confusing as a number  of taxes were known by different,
local  names. The  ultimate  origins  of  this system  are  still
obscure. It seems likely that the  Mongols, who like most nomadic
societies had little or no  organized taxation, borrowed from the
pre-existing  systems   of  their   sedentary  subjects  or   had
remarkably creative  individuals,  such as  the Khwarazmian  Turk
Mahmud Yalavach, who created new  forms or imaginatively reworked
and applied older ones. Chapter 7, as was noted above, discusses,
in some  detail, the  Mongol military  organization and  manpower
recruitment that won them an empire. In his final chapter, Allsen
concludes that M ngke, the last Qaghan  of a united Mongol realm,
was a great  but not unflawed ruler.  He failed to provide  for a
smooth and peaceful transferal of  power. This plunged the empire
into a throne-struggle that  marked the beginning of  the state's
dissolution. He  was, however,  able to  carry out  a program  of
fiscal   and   organizational   reform   while   deflecting   his
conservative opposition with  a program of conquest.  The reforms
enabled the  government to marshal  the resources needed  to fuel
this expansion and the expansion produced the new resources which
the  administration  could  now  efficiently  harness  to achieve
further conquests.  It was  this system  of  government that  the
Chinggisids  bequeathed  to  Central Asia.  Allsen's  magisterial
command of the  sources and  his clearly  articulated and  richly
documented exploration of the inner workings of this great steppe
empire  make this book  essential reading for  those studying the
formation  of Central Asian Society  in medieval and early modern
                                             Peter B. Golden
                                             Rutgers University
Khubilai Khan, His Life  and Times, by Morris Rossabi.   xvii+322
pages,  list of illustrations,  preface, note on transliteration,
notes, glossary of  Chinese Characters, bibliography of  Words in
Western Languages,  bibliography of Works  in Oriental languages,
index. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988. $25.00.
     Study of the history of Mongol China has long, of westerners
in particular, been an  extremely onerous task not the  least due
to an almost complete  lack of the subject and  period monographs
which,  for  other  areas  of  Chinese history,  provide  initial
guidance at least in always  difficult waters. Recently, however,
this  has begun to change for  the better and now  a major gap in
our   knowledge  has  been  filled  with  the  appearance  of  an
important, well-researched, clearly-written biography of Khubilai
khan  (1215-1294),  in   many  ways  most  successful   and  most
influential of all  the Mongol rulers,  and his times, by  Morris
     Rossabi's book is a topical examination of the maior periods
of Khubilai's  life based  upon thorough  synthesis of  available
Western, Chinese and Japanese secondary scholarship, supplemented
by new primary source research where necessary. The  biography is
in  eight  chapters,  with  copious  notes and  bibliography.  In
chapter  1, Rossabi brings into  focus Kubilai's credentials as a
Mongol and the world into which he was born, and in which he grew
up. Chapter 2  handles with  great skill the  critical period  of
Khubilai's life  when he  served  as his  brother's (qan  M ngke)
viceroy in  China, and nearly became a  victim of the great purge
unleashed by the new qan against  all real and perceived enemies.
Chapter 3 turns  to the key struggle of Khubilai with his brother
Arigh  B ke,  a  claimant  to  succession  as  "great khan"  with
credentials  better than  Khubilai's,  the potentially  dangerous
rebellion  of  Shan-tung   warlord  Li  T'an,  and   the  initial
institutional reworking of  Mongol China  to suit new  conditions
(government of an isolated  regime separate from the rest  of the
Mongolian world order)  by Khubilai and  his advisors. Chapter  4
narrates the high point  of Khubilai's life, the conquest  of the
south, his  greatest contribution  to Chinese  history, but  also
begins   the  tale   of   unsuccessful   foreign  invasions   and
never-ending Central Asian  troubles with  Khaidu and others.  In
chapters 5 and  6 Khubilai  appears as emperor  and law-giver  in
full control of his  powers, and as an important  cultural patron
in interesting times.   The last  chapter, chapter 7, deals  with
the  great   monarch's  decline  and  foreign   policy  mistakes,
principally the second invasion of Japan and attempts to  acquire
extensive  domains  in  mainland   and  insular  southeast  Asia.
Although each  chapter stands  by itself  and covers  a different
period  or  aspect of  Khubilai's  age, Rossabi  skilfully forges
links between them by his considerations  of the khan himself, as
a personality, the lives of those  around him, and certain common
themes developed throughout the book.
     Each topical discussion provides much more than a chronology
of events of  bare bones discussion  of some complex subject.  In
each case, even in those in which much more research is obviously
needed before definite  statements can be written  (e.g. Khubilai
and Buddhism, the  Mongois and Yuan culture  etc.), Rossabi makes
an effort  to provide  a synthesis  of what  has been written  to
date,  as well  as his own  views on  the subject. His  book will
become, as a consequence, not only a guidebook for those carrying
on where Rossabi has left off, but a general introduction to Y an
dynasty history, something  urgently needed but lacking  prior to
the publication of the Rossabi biography.
     Rossabi's book thus  has many strengths  and much merit  and
will  certainly become  a  classic in  the  field. Its  principal
weaknesses lie, in  this reviewer's  eyes, in two  areas. One  is
Rossabi's failure to take a broad enough view of the "Mongolness"
of  Khubilai  and  of  his  dynasty.  Although  Rossabi makes,  I
believe, more effort  than anyone else  in Y an studies to  avoid
looking  at  the Mongols,  and  their  state in  China,  too much
through the rose-colored  glasses of  the Confucian historian,  I
still find his Khubilai too much a Chinese sage emperor,  and too
little a Mongol potentate (which even Prof. Rossabi claims he was
and remained--pg.23). The problem, in my  view, has arisen due to
Rossabi's  repeated  failure to  consider  the Mongolian  side to
certain  key  events  in  Khubilai's  life, and  to  certain  key
institutions  with  which Khubilai  was associated.  Rossabi, for
example, presents  Khubilai's "reforms"  in his princely  apanage
and other territories  placed under his  control in China by  qan
M ngke largely  in Confucian terms  as resulting from  the "sage"
advice of Chinese  advisors, as they  are presented in the  later
Chinese  sources.  In fact  such  reforms, as  Thomas  Allsen has
demonstrated in his  Mongolian Imperialism  (U.C.  Press,  1987),
were going on throughout the Mongolian world, in a highly uniform
manner (Khubilai, by the  way, held exactLy the same  position in
China  that  his  brother H leg   did  in  Khorasan-Iran). Later,
moreover,  when   Rossabi  comes  to  discuss   the  institutions
"created" by Khubilai  for his  new "Y an Dynasty,"  he seems  to
regard  them as more  or less (except  for the darughachi)  a new
creation,  and  completely  Chinese. In  fact,  nothing  could be
further  from  the case  and  later "Y an"  institutions included
substantial Mongolian  elements (the  imperial bodyguard  system,
the apanage system, the province system, even the organization of
the Chung-shu  Sheng, to give but a  few examples), some of which
were not only continued by later Mongol rulers in China, but were
even taken over by the Ming. Rossabi also is incorrect in my view
in the small  space he devotes  to Khubilai's relations with  the
allied Il-khans in Iran (--Rossabi  hardly mentions them but both
sides pursued  them  with great  interest  since through  them  a
fiction  of Mongol  unity was maintained--),  and his  failure to
discuss the great symbolical importance of the "old homeland" and
the "capital," the city of Kara  Kurum. This city, and not Shang-
tu  or  Tai-tu, as  Ch. Dalai  points  out (Mongoliya  v XIII-XIV
vekakh,  Moscow,  1983),  remained the  official  capital  of the
Mongolian world  empire into  the 14th century,  even though  the
supposed "great khans" had taken up residence in China. Many more
examples could be provided.
     Other problems of the book are more minor. In several places
Rossabi  may  have   credited  Khubilai  with  the   creation  of
institutions actually created by others (--this is someting often
done in  Chinese traditional  histories to  buoy up  the "sagely"
qualifications of an emperor). On page  121, for example, a "new"
system  is  described  whereby revenues  from  apanages  would be
entirely turned  over to  central government agents  (and not  to
grasping apanage holders),  who would then divide them up between
central  government  and apanage  holders,  and redistribute  the
shares of income to the interested parties. If I am not mistaken,
this change had already been accomplished under qan  g dei at the
suggestion of  Yeh-l  Ch'u-ts'ai.  Khubilai may  have been  doing
little  more than  confirming already  established practice.  The
same must also be  true for the she (pg.120)  ordered "organized"
by Khubilai.  The "new" system  seems identical  to that  already
existing under the Sung.  Extending the system to north,  as well
as south, would of course have been  a change and perhaps this is
what Rossabi means.
     There are minor  problems of  transliteration: Sub tei is  a
spelling  contrary to  Mongolian vowel harmony  and would  not be
correct even if the u were umlauted. The General's name in Middle
Mongolian is Sube'edei-ba'adur. It would also be correct to write
it S bedei, with a  long mark over the second syllable.  Batur is
another form  which is neither  here nor there. Is  the name from
Mongolian ba-atur (M. Mong. ba'adur) or is it the Turkic form  of
the same name, which should be properly be written badur. Also, I
think the  preferred reading  of the  Chinese name  of Khubilai's
winter capital is Tai-tu (Daidu), not  Ta-tu. Better yet would be
     In conclusion:  Prof.  Rossabi  has  written  an  excellent,
readable book marred,  in my view,  by only one serious  problem,
Rossabi's  attitude  towards  the "Mongolness"  of  Khubilai, his
times, and his  regimes.  However,  read with this limitation  in
mind,  the  book  is   to  be  highly  recommended  not   ony  to
Sinologists, and historians of the Mongol  world, but also to any
outside these fields  desiring a  general introduction to  Mongol
China. This the book provides amply.
                                                  Paul D. Buell
     Center for East Asian Studies, Western Washington University
                                   Bellingham, Washington, 98225
Edward  Allworth (Ed.), Tatars of the  Crimea: Their Struggle for
Survival (Central  Asia Book  Series). Durham and  London:   Duke
University Press, 1988. xii+396 pp. $52.50.
     There are individual  heroes and  collective heroes in  this
analysis of ethnic consciousness among the Tatars and case  study
of their fate after  their expulsion from the Crimea in 1944. The
authors clearly  admire the tenacity  with which the  Tatars, far
from their traditional  centers of culture, have  preserved their
sense of community, and  they seek to account for  its remarkable
cohesiveness. They describe  the hardships  of the Tatars'  exile
and their campaign to regain lost civil and political rights as a
legally recognized  ethnic community,  and they  place all  these
events in a proper historical context.   Description and analysis
are reinforced by  contemporary sources such  as the writings  of
leading Tatar  cultural figures of  the past and  recent samizdat
publications, all of which are published  here for the first time
in English.
     Two figures stand  out as  representative of Tatar  cultural
and political aspirations  at crucial  periods in their  history.
Both asserted the claims of their people to an identity  of their
own and  to an  existence as  a distinct  cultural and  political
community. Alan Fisher  discusses the goals of  Ismail Gaspirali,
the  founder  of the  influential  newspaper, Terj man,  in 1883,
particularly his  ideas about the importance of a common literary
language  for  the  Turkic people  of  Russia  and  the need  for
educational reform.  Fisher also  suggests interesting  parallels
between Gaspirali and  his Tajik contemporary, Ahmad  Donish, who
looked  to Russia  as an  intermediary  between Central  Asia and
Europe, a connection both thought was essential if Muslim society
was to  be reinvigorated.  Edward Lazzerini  develops this  theme
further.  He points out  that Gaspirali  wanted not  only Russian
approval but also sustained support of  his program and shows how
he tried to persuade  the Russians (and his Muslim  critics) that
"drawing closer" to Russia did  not mean Russification, which, he
was certain, could only have the  opposite effect of driving them
further apart.
     The figure  who embodies contemporary Tatar aspirations most
dramatically is Mustafa  Jemilev. Like  Gaspirali earlier, he  is
both the ideologist  and the inspirational leader  of the Tatars.
Ludmilla Alexeyeva calls  him a "national  hero," a title he  has
earned through his persistence in the face of unrelenting police-
state persecution.  Extensive excerpts  from samizdat  materials,
including his dignified  and reasoned testimony at  his trials in
1970 and  later on  charges of  slandering the  Soviet state  and
social system, establish  him as  one of the  major human  rights
activists in the Soviet Union.
     Not  only  strong  individuals  but  also  whole communities
pressed  the  case  for  Tatar  rights. Several  authors  examine
underlying  social  and  cultural  traditions  to  explain  Tatar
cohesiveness  in  adversity. Seyit  Ahmet  Kirimca shows  how the
Tatar national anthem and  the works of three poets  provided the
symbols  essential  for  survival:  Riza   G l m  points  to  the
importance of dance, the theater, and  folk poems in endowing the
community with a sense of ethnic  identity and continuity; and M.
Batu   Altan  emphasizes  the  crucial  role  of  the  family  in
preserving an awareness of ethnic identity for two generations of
children at a  time when the  regime discouraged the teaching  of
Tatar  history  and   culture  in   institutions.    The   moving
recollections of Ayshe Seytmuratova, a girl of seven when she was
deported to Uzbekistan, are eloquent testimony to the strength of
family and  community associations.   She tells in  direct, spare
language of her  efforts to  obtain an education  and a  teaching
position for herself without renouncing her Tatar heritage and of
her perseverance in seeking justice for her people.
     The  scholarly  articles.  the  memoirs,  and  the  samizdat
documents constitute a powerful case  study of Soviet nationality
policy. As  Edward Allworth  points out  in his  analysis of  the
ambiguities and dilemmas of that policy, even as late as 1986 the
Communist  Party  continued  to  display  its  hostility  to  the
slightest  act  of  self-determination   when  it  declared   its
intention to combat vigorously all "expressions of localism." The
cause of the Tatars, which encompasses  a century, is at the same
time  a case study of modern nationalism. The materials assembled
here add substantially to our understanding of the phenomenon.
                                                  Keith Hitchins
                                  University of Illinois, Urbana

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