DePalma, Free Energy, Anti-Gravity, Space-Drive and the Future of Science

The following was prepared as an information offering for the network of collaborators associated with the Internet Science Education Project

Recent work in theoretical physics to evaluate the potential of new energy technologies may be furthered by more careful evaluation, replication, and expansion of the experiments done in the 1970's by the late Bruce DePalma, experiments which document anomalous influences of rotation on the gravitational, inertial, and electromagnetic properties of rotating objects.

The following is an overview of some of these results presented on the DePalma website with some additional information from personal experiences of this writer with DePalma in Santa Barbara, California, beginning in May of 1979.

Bruce DePalma graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1958. He attended graduate school in Electrical Engineering and Physics at M.I.T. and Harvard University. At M.I.T. he was a lecturer in Photographic Science in the Laboratory of Dr. Harold Edgerton and directed 3-D color photographic research for Dr. Edwin Land of Polaroid Corporation. He commenced his work in Free Energy through his studies on the gyroscope and the nature of motion. He invented the N-machine, a free energy electrical generator for which he is most widely known. To the physicist though, it may be his earlier experiments that led him to this discovery which are of even more significant interest. Some of these will be summarized here after a review of the circumstances by which DePalma came to Santa Barbara in 1978 to verify his prediction of the n-Machine, a prediction made as a result of his understanding of the "energy field in space itself" which he felt interacted with rotating objects to produce his previously observed anomalous rotation effects.

During the 1970's the third largest "new age" community in the U.S. was located in Santa Barbara, the Sunburst Community founded by Norman Paulsen who previously was a close disciple of Paramahansa Yogananda but whose philosophical perspective was deeply influenced by his purported multiple encounters with "UFO's" including direct interactions as he reported in his autobiography published in 1980 "Sunburst: Return of the Ancients". Based on his experiences Paulsen is convinced that his encounters were with beings responsible for ancient and future civilizations on Earth whose "spacecraft" also have the capability of time travel. Normally I would not bring such a story to the attention of theoretical physicists but this might be appropriate here because of its connection to the history of DePalma's N-machine experiments.

Paulsen was the one who brought Bruce DePalma to Santa Barbara in 1978 and sponsored the first quantitative tests of DePalma's n-Machine overunity homopolar generator. According to Paulsen's autobiography, during one of his numerous encounters with either advanced or non-human intelligences of superior technological capabilities, he was taken aboard a spacecraft on a round trip to Jupiter during which time he communicated telepathically with the piloting beings who communicated to him how the power-plant on their ship worked. From his description of this information I believe that the reason he sponsored DePalma was because of how the n-Machine idea correlated with what he was "told" on that journey. In addition, if one takes seriously the authenticity of DePalma's preceding carefully measured anomalous influences of rotation on the physical properties of material objects, it seems likely that in the deeper understanding of these results may lie keys to the development of spacedrive and/or antigravity technologies as well as devices to extract usable energy as electricity or heat from the "energy field inherent in space itself" that he felt his experiments measured. If one believes that DePalma was either incompetent or dishonest in his work, it is very easy to dismiss the enormous implications of these experiments, but having known him fairly well over a period of 13 years in Santa Barbara and being acquainted with several of his research colleagues with whom I am still in contact, I am convinced that he was both capable and honest in all of his scientific research so I would like to offer the following summary for consideration.

To finish with the Paulsen connection here I will relate what Norman wrote in his book about the power plant of this "spacecraft". The information conveyed to him was that the ship's propulsion was due to the effect of two magnetic discs rotating in opposite directions. The relationship of their axes of rotation was not mentioned. The interesting "coincidence" was that he was "told" that "if you take one half of this propulsion system, with it can be made a device to produce power for the people on Earth which would be far better that technologies in current use". Apparently when DePalma's schematic for the n-Machine prediction was brought to Paulsen's attention he recognized it as fulfilling this message.

The rest of this document may be considered independent of the "twilight zone" aspects of this story as I will attempt to briefly describe some of the relevant keystone experimental results which led DePalma to the prediction and verification of what he called the n-Principle behind this "overunity" electric power generator which turns out to have been an independent rediscovery and expansion on Faraday's homopolar (or unipolar) motor/generator principle (apparently different from induction) first entered in his diary at Christmastime 1831. Faraday's diary diagram and DePalma's discussion of this effect are at in his 1 February 1995 notes on "The secret of the Faraday disc".

Again, the big presumption here is that these experiments were carefully and honestly done by a competent researcher, which I believe they were. The pity is that the results seem to be so contradictory to the established body of knowledge in theoretical physics I have yet to find anyone beside Dr. Paramahamsa Tewari of India and Dr. Shiuji Inomata of Japan who have any kind of theoretical interpretation of how the "overunity effect" of n-Machine works (whose performance they have each verified), let alone anyone at all who can offer explanation of the numerous preceding experiments documenting previously unsuspected influences of rotation on physical objects, some described below having potential applications to spacedrive engineering. It is my hope that some qualified experimenters will take the following seriously enough to allocate the time and funding to replicate these results and that during the same time frame some integrated theoretical understanding may be developed to enable their publication in the peer reviewed literature without their apparent contradiction of certain cherished "fundamental laws" of physics.

Two chapters of Dr. Tewari's book [PHYSICS OF FREE POWER GENERATION (BEYOND MATTER), by Paramahamsa Tewari, Published by Crest Publishing House, New Delhi, INDIA, 1996 ISBN No: 81-242-0113-7] describing his "Space Vortex Theory" interpretations of related physics, including his view on the structure of the electron, can be found at GENESIS OF FREE POWER GENERATION, and at LIMITATION OF THE LAW OF ENERGY CONSERVATION whose abstract on space power generation mentions Tewari's n-Machine Space Power Generator test results, explains that "The energy-balance shows that the output exceeds input by 3690 watts, which is in violation of the law of conservation of energy in this specific experiment involving electro-magnetic induction effect", and discusses gravity field production, gravity field variation due to oscillation, light from atomic vibration, and electromagnetic interactions between atoms.

The turning point in DePalma's scientific career came while he was a lecturer at MIT in the late 1960's and he began pondering the inadequacies of explaining the physics of the gyroscope and he began wondering if there was a deeper principle operating in the behavior of rotating objects.

One of the first experiments that DePalma did in this area was to test to see if there is a difference in the gravitational behavior of a spinning vs non-spinning ball bearing. After an extensive literature search prompted by a question from one of his students at MIT, they could not find any evidence that this experiment had ever been done and so it became an educational exercise to see if in fact this variation on Galileo's "big rock vs. small rock" experiment would show any variation in the rate of fall.

At that time Bruce was a senior scientist specializing in photographic sciences with the Polaroid Corporation and lecturing part time at MIT on photographic science, physics, and electrical engineering over a period of several years in the late 1960's. He set up this experiment using two one-inch diameter pinball machine ball bearings where one was not spinning and one was made to spin at 18,000 rpm by a hand held router motor with cups to hold the balls, one on the spinning shaft and one affixed to the casing of the motor. He then he gave the assembly a thrust at an appropriate angle and in the dark with a 60 cycle strobe light and open camera lens he photographed the parallel trajectories of the two ball bearings. Repeating this numerous times and analyzing the photographs, this experiment showed that there is indeed a variation in the gravitational behavior of the spinning vs non-spinning ball bearing. The spinning ball, given the same thrust, went to a higher point in its trajectory, fell faster and hit the bottom of the trajectory before the non-spinning ball. Later he made a device with a magnetic release which could test this small but significant, reproducible, and clearly visually perceptible effect with a stationary vertical drop over a height of just six feet.

After years of reflection on these results he wrote an evaluation on 3 May 1977 called "Understanding the Dropping of the Spinning Ball Experiment"

The essence of this experiment was duplicated with another setup using spinning vs non-spinning enclosed gyroscopes to control for aerodynamic factors and these results are posted in "GYRO DROP EXPERIMENT" Performed by Kenneth Gerber, M.D., Richard F. Merritt, Analysis by Edward Delvers.

An overview of some of these rotational anomalies is discussed in DePalma's 4 November 1974 "Fundamental Discoveries of the New Physics and Mathematics and their Relationship to the UFO Flying Saucer Observations and Encounters"

"1) Rotating objects falling in a gravitational field are accelerated at a rate greater than "G", the commonly accepted rate for non-rotating objects falling in a vacuum.

2) Pendula utilizing bob weights which are rotating, swing nonsinusoidally with periods increased over those of pendula with non-rotating bobs.

3) A precessing gyroscope has an anomalous inertial mass, greater than its gravitational mass.

4) An anomalous field phenomenon has been discovered, the OD field, which confers inertia on objects immersed within it. This field is generated by the constrained forced precession of a rotating gyroscope."

One of the early devices that DePalma used to observe these effects consisted of an apparatus that he called the "force machine" which consisted of two counter-rotating gyroscopes described in "The Generation of a Unidirectional Force, 22 April 1974" as "The archetypal gravitational engine or Free Energy machine is a combination of two counter-rotating gyroscopes with axles parallel and rotors co-planar. The original Force Machine was constructed in 1971, figure (1). The total weight of the apparatus was 276 lbs. The "active" mass at the rim of the flywheels was 10 lbs. The assembly was suspended from a spring scale and the gyroscopes driven counter-rotating at 7600 r.p.m. Under these conditions the support cylinder was driven at 4 r.p.s. to precess the gyros. A consistent set of experiments repeatably showed 4 - 6 lbs. of weight loss."

A variation of this device also described in this paper is called the "Linear Force Machine" and even a small model provided enough of a propulsion "force against space itself" or "space-drive" effect that he was able to propel himself across the floor on a wheeled cart or wagon. This device is diagrammed in that article and described, "The machine of figure (4) becomes a fundamental drive unit, capable of generating a thrust against "space" itself, and thus may replace all earlier methods of generating unidirectional motion, i.e. gears wheels transmission units for road travel, and propellers and jets for airborne vehicles."

These "force machine" experiments are discussed further at in the 29 April 1995 article "The Secret of the Force Machine" which includes Anti-gravitational Effects and Electrical Force Machines like the N-machine, explaining how "Space power is developed out of distortion of the normally isotropic space, the amount of distortion being represented by the reflected internally constrained forces explicitly developed in these machines" and showing diagrams of the force machine, Anti-Gravitational Force Machine, Sunburst N-Machine, fully compensated n-machine with twin contra-rotating magnetised rotors, etc.

In one his experiments showing the properties of an "inertial field" created in the proximity of a rotating object, the frequency of a tuning fork in an accutron watch is changed by this field effect as demonstrated by a variation in the time shown on the watch. This experiment is discussed in Appendix 1 of the later writeup dated 18 June 1975 "Simple Experimental Test for the Inertial Field of a Rotating Real Mechanical Object"

After these and other experiments including those showing increased inertia and momentum in the collisions of rotating vs non-rotating objects in the 1970's, and then a number of different configurations of n-Machine devices in the 1980's during which time some of the n-Machine experiments were replicated by Tewari and Inomata, by early in the 1990's DePalma finally got published a peer reviewed article on his work, "Magnetism as a Distortion of a Pre-Existent Primordial Energy Field and the Possibility of Extraction of Electrical Energy Directly from Space", Bruce de Palma; the proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), August 4-9, 1992, Boston, Massachusetts; sponsored by The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Among its references this paper cites the results of a 1986 independent testing of the original Sunburst n-Machine by then Stanford University EE Professor Emeritus W. Robert Kincheloe, "Kincheloe, Homopolar 'Free Energy' Generator Test, presented at 1986 meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration, San Francisco, CA, U.S.A., 21 June 1986, revised 1 February 1987. Contains references to earlier DePalma papers re N-machine."

About this time others began writing about integrating these ideas into an understanding of the "cold fusion" anomalies first reported in 1989 by Pons and Fleishmann, such as [1] "Hypothesis of Homopolar Atomic Model for Cold Fusion Energy", by Emidio Laureti, whose abstract explains "By the means of a macroscopic structure, which reproduces homopolar induction, it is defined a form of interaction which might offer an hypothesis of atomic models, for a possible explanation of cold fusion energy", and [2] "NEW APPROACH TO COLD FUSION (LOW-TEMPERATURE NUCLEAR FUSION)" I. L. Cerlovin, R. Kh. Baranova, and P. S. Baranov (Translated from Zhurnal Obshchei Khimii, Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 230-232, January, 1992. Original article submitted December 15, 1991) 0022-1279/92/6201-0193, 1992 Plenum Publishing Corporation. "This is the first communication giving the results of a fundamentally new approach to low-temperature nuclear fusion, based on a new unified fundamental field theory, together with experimental corroboration of predictions of the theory and illustrations of possible practical uses of the results."

After DePalma moved from Santa Barbara to Australia and then to New Zealand where he died in late 1997, some of the papers that he wrote reflect his continued re-evaluation of the implications of this "new knowledge". 28 July 1993 "On the Nature of Electrical Induction" begins with the quote "It is the conceptualizations which are important" (from A. S. Eddington in Fundamental Theory, 1944) and proffers "The phenomena of electrical induction which are fundamental to electrical science have long since passed into everyday experience. Recently the nature of this fundamental principle has been re-examined in the light of experiments with electrical machines, which, in their operation violate the conservation laws of charge and energy." Diagrams include (1) Toroidal Model of the universe (space orthagonal to time flow) correlating geometrically the direction of time flow with the movement in spacial dimensions (3 space), (2) Cross section diagram shows direction of time flow from future to past, (3) Interpretation of magnet showing direction of time energy flow through the magnet, (4) n-Machine or One-Piece Faraday Homopolar Generator. 16 July 1993 "Where Electrical Science Went Wrong" discusses Michael Faraday's performance of the initial experiments resulting in the discovery of the one-piece homopolar generator of December 26, 1831, in figure (1), diagram reproduced from Faraday's notebook. Also at that url is the paper of 4 January 1994, "On the Nature of Electricity" which includes diagram "Rotation of a magnetize gyroscope, the N-Machine" showing relationships between directions of magnetic polarity, rotation, and current flow. DePalma's paper of 1993 "FREE ENERGY The Political, Social, and Economic Implications of The N- Machine / Space Power Generator" opens with the thought: It is said, "The whole Universe and created world is a thought in the mind of God", from The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna, and then Bruce's counterpoise "If that be the case, wouldn't He want it to be the finest show in town?"

By 1994 DePalma wrote about some deeper evaluations of Alternating Current in 20 September 1994 "Power Output of A.C. Induction Machines" which discusses "Slip of a.c. motors: The parameter of importance in this discussion is the a.c. motor slip frequency which is the difference between the unloaded motor speed, governed by the frequency in c.p.s. of the mains supply, and the speed at which the motor rotates under load. The torque of a polyphase motor varies almost directly as the magnitude of the rotor slip r.p.m." and explains "The Method of DePalma for characterisation of polyphase a.c. electromechanical energy converters consists of the measurement of rotor slip frequencies with sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal motor excitation and at constant motor loading."

In his paper of 14 March 1995, "The Problem of Free Energy", he says "Some inventions are good inventions, others are bad inventions. We all know what the good inventions are, the bad ones are guns, atomic bombs, poison gases, germ warfare, etc. I am not advocating my machine or any other machine in particular to be 'the solution'. What is needed is a change of attitude. Our theories of Nature must take into account the transcendence of all things that exist, and the possibility of an energetic principle latent in Nature. With this we may survive." In his piece of 18 July 1995, "That is Science", he concludes that "The development of insight, and observational instincts to discriminate between the real and the unreal. That is Science." In the 27 February 1997 ON THE NATURE OF THE PRIMORDIAL FIELD: "For those of us who consider ourselves sophisticated we amuse ourselves with a pastime called Science. This the application of logic (the self-defining reasoning process in Nature), to Nature. This self-examination in itself has the limitation of the manifest in attempting to describe the un-manifest." From 17 July 1996 The Absurdity of Knowledge: "The Absurdity of Knowledge relates to the fact that Knowledge is an interpretation of reality. What was known to be true at a certain time can be replaced with 'new' knowledge resulting in a different interpretation." From 6 August 1996 The Experiment of Existence: "Is God an a priori condition for the existence of reality? What is prior before prior? The cosmic primordial field exists because it exists. I am because I am is the first statement of God. God is exploring the inner anatomy of himself. Dive deep into the sea of mind and find the gem of love."

And in an article dated a few months before his passing, 27 July 1997 "Physics without DePalma" concludes, "Science without philosophy is as empty as philosophy without science... The best instrument for the exploration of this question is the human mind... I didn't make it this way, I found myself here. Awakening on the sandy beach of time, which pretty pebble shall I pick up."

For more information on Bruce DePalma's work and legacy one may contact Andrew Mount, who was DePalma's assistant for the last decade of his life, is a trustee of DePalma Institute, and one who is continuing to archive DePalma's numerous papers on the "Primordial Energy" website whose introduction states "We designed this page to disseminate knowledge and accurate data relating to the Pre-Existent Primordial Field of the Universe - a sea of 'free energy' which permeates all. The N-1 Homopolar Generator -- invented by Bruce DePalma -- is an example of the type of device which is able to "plug in" to this Free Energy and eliminate the "need" for the continued use of fossil fuels and the consequent destruction of our only home - Earth. This device - and many others like it - have been proven to possess "over-unity" characteristics, ie: the power output is more than 100% of the input. It is our hope that in the near future Free Energy will enable mankind to progress from a state of dependence to one of abundance."

Among the yet-to-be-posted papers in this site's listed bibliography is a letter from the US Deptartment of Energy, 9 May 1978, acknowledging their receipt of the N-Machine diagram. On page 57 of the US DOE Comprehensive National Energy Strategy of 1998 it mentions, in the section summarizing public comments, that "One commenter recommended that the DOE look into zero-point energy and mentioned a specific device for harnessing this energy source called the "N" machine. He challenged the Secretary of Energy to fully investigate this technology and let the American public know about it."

David Crockett Williams

8May99 (205th anniversary of Lavoisier execution)

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