"The Book Of The Law."
This Is Appendix 47 From The Companion Bible.
It is an allegation of the "Higher" Criticism (which dispenses with documentary or Manuscript evidence, and therefore differs altogether from "Textual" Criticism) that the five books known as the Pentateuch were not written by, or during the time of Moses, but in the time of a king Manasseh, or even as late as Ezra.
But a definite "book" is spoken of throughout the Old Testament as being constantly written in, with directions how it was to be added to and kept up by the prophets raised up from time to time for that purpose, among others.
The first occurrence is in Exodus 17:14. To this, in the margin, all the others are referred back. They are given below, so that the chain may be examined link by link and its completeness and perfection seen.
- Exodus 17:14. Written by Jehovah's command (compare Deuteronomy 25:19). Hebrew "the book" (bassepher).
- Exodus 24:4, 7. Written by Moses, and "the book of the covenant sprinkled", with the people.
- Exodus 34:27. Jehovah's command, "Write thou".
- Numbers 33:1, 2. Written by Moses "by the commandment of Jehovah". From the first three months of first year to last quarter of fortieth year (compare Deuteronomy 1:2, 3 with 2:14).
- Deuteronomy 1:5. The word "declare" = set forth plainly, and implies writing (the word occurs only in Deuteronomy 27:8 and Habakkuk 2:2), and includes from Deuteronomy 1:6 to 33:29.
- Deuteronomy 4:8 includes more than this book of Deuteronomy, and 4:2 must refer to what was then written (compare 26:16; 29:21).
- Deuteronomy 17:18. The book kept "before the priests the Levites", and to be copied by the king. This was the standard copy (chapter 31:9, 25, 26); to be read at the Feast of Tabernacles in the Sabbatic years (chapter 31:10-13).
- Deuteronomy 31:19, 22, 24. "The song of Moses" to be written (compare the reason, verses 16-18). Ascribed to Jehovah.
- Joshua 1:8. "This book of the law" came into custody of Joshua (compare 1-8) as distinct from the book of Joshua, and containing, not Deuteronomy merely, but the whole "book of the law" as thus traced above (compare Psalms 1:2. Luke 24:44).
- Joshua 8:30-35. A copy of the law made from "the book" on the rocks in mount Ebal.
- Joshua 23:6, 7 again referred to.
- Joshua 24:26. Joshua himself "wrote in the book", and doubtlessly added Deuteronomy 34.
- 1Samuel 10:25. Samuel continued the writing in "the book". (So the Hebrew.)
- 1Kings 2:1-4. David charges Solomon with regard to this "written" law of Moses.
- 2Chronicles 17:7-9. Jehoshaphat sent the princes, Levites, and priests, and they "taught in Judah, and had the book of the law of Jehovah with them".
- 2Chronicles 23:11 (2Kings 11:12). It was given to Joash according to Deuteronomy 17:18.
- 2Chronicles 25:4 (2Kings 14:6). Amaziah spared the children of his father's murderers according to "that which was written in the book of the law of Moses" (compare Deuteronomy 24:4).
- 2Chronicles 30:2, 5, 18. Hezekiah's passover kept in second month as "it was written". This was written in Numbers 9:6-14.
- 2Chronicles 35:12. Josiah's passover kept "as it is written in the book of Moses".
- 2Kings 17:37. "The law ... which He wrote for you", that is to say, Jehovah (compare verse 35).
- 2Kings 22:8. "Hilkiah, the high priest ... found the book of the law in the house of the Lord". In verse 10, "Shaphan read it before the king" (Josiah). Huldah the prophetess confirms this reference (verses 14-20). In 2Chronicles
34:14 it is described as "the book of the law of Jehovah by the hand of Moses".
- Jeremiah refers to this event when he speaks, as in chapter 15:16.
- Isaiah refers to this book as, in his day, a "sealed" book (chapter 29:11-13). The Lord Jesus refers to this as opposed to the "precepts of man" (Matthew 15:1-9. Mark 7:1-13).
- Ezra ascribes the law of Moses. Compare 3:2 (Numbers 28, 29); 6:18; 7:6, 10, 14, 21, 25. And all is to be done according to it (compare 10:3 with
9:11, 12. Leviticus 18:24-30, and Deuteronomy 23:3-6).
- In Esther 3:8, the laws were extant, and known as "diverse from all people".
- Nehemiah (1:7-9) speaks to Jehovah of the "statutes and judgments He gave by Moses".
- Nehemiah 8:8. The book is read according to its requirements.
- Nehemiah 8:14, 17. The Feast of Tabernacles was kept according to Leviticus 23:39-43.
- Nehemiah 10:28, 29. A solemn covenant was made "to walk in God's law, which was given by Moses the servant of God".
- Nehemiah 13:1. "They read in the book of Moses" concerning the law as written in Deuteronomy 23:3, 4.
- Daniel in his prayer (chapter 9:11) refers to the curse fulfilled on the nation as "written in the law of Moses the servant of God".
- Malachi 4:4 completes the cycle, and refers all to Horeb where the people received the law (as distinct from Sinai, where Moses received it), and to Moses by whom it was given (not to Ezra or to some "Redactors" of a later day).