This is a set of descriptions of Doll Makers and a sampling of the marks they used to show that the doll was indeed made by them.
Alt, Beck & Gottschalck 1854-1925+ Located in Nauendorf, Thüringia, Germany. Had a water operated porcelain factory (Porcellanfabrik von Alt.) Made heads for Borgfeldt and the Bye-Lo- Baby.
Bähr-Pröschild 1871-1925+ Located on Ohrdruf, Thüringia, Germany. Was strictly a porcelain factory. Made china dolls, dolls' heads and bathing children. In 1910 registered trademark in Germany. Also, later, made celluloid dolls and doll parts.
George Borgfeldt & Co. 1881-1925+ Located in New York City (1881-+); Hanover, Germany (1882); Sonneberg, Thüringia, Germany (1887); then London, Paris, Bavaria, and Vienna. Doll importer and manufacturer. Made heads for the Bye-Lo-Baby.
C. M. Bergmann 1889-1925+ Located in Waltershausen, Thüringia, Germany. An employee in a doll factory from 1877-1889. He was a native German. In the 1870's, he came to America and fought Indians in the West; returned to Germany in 1877. Produced ball-jointed composition bodies. Did not make the heads used on his dolls, but purchased them from Simon & Halbig or Armand Marsaille.