I. ELOHIM occurs 2.700 times. Its first occurrence connects it with creation, and give it its essential meaning as the Creator. It indicates His relation to mankind as His creatures (see note on 2Chron. 18:31, where it stands in contrast with Jehovah as indicating covenant relationship). 'Elohim is God the Son, the living "WORD" with creature form to create (John 1:1. Col. 1:15-17. Rev. 3:14); and later, with human form to redeem (John 1:14). "Begotten of His Father before all worlds; born of His mother, in the world." In this creature form He appeared to the Patriarchs, a form not temporarily assumed. 'Elohim is indicated (as in A.V.) by ordinary small type, "God". See table on page 7.
II. JEHOVAH. While Elohim is God as
the Creator of all things, Jehovah is the same God in covenant
relation to those whom He has created (Cp. 2Chron. 18:31). Jehovah
means the Eternal, the Immutable One, He Who WAS, and IS, and IS
TO COME. The Divine definition is given in Gen. 21:33. He is
especially, therefore, the God of Israel; and the God of those who are
redeemed, and are thus now "in Christ". We can say "My God," but
not "My Jehovah", for Jehovah is "MY God."
Jehovah is indicated (as in A.V.) by small capital letters, "LORD"' and by "GOD" when it occurs in combination with Adonai, in which case LORD GOD = Adonai Jehovah.
The name Jehovah is combined with ten other words, which form what are known as "the Jehovah Titles." in the Hebrew Canon (Ap. 1). All are noted in the margin, in all their occurrences:--
= Jehovah will see, or provide. Gen. 22:14.
2. JEHOVAH-ROPHEKA = Jehovah that healeth thee. Ex. 15:26.
3. JEHOVAH-NISSI = Jehovah my banner. Ex. 17:15.
4. JEHOVAH-MeKADDISHKEM = Jehovah that doth sanctify you. Ex. 31:13. Lev. 20:8; 21:8;
22:32. Ezek. 20:12.
5. JEHOVAH-SHALOM = Jehovah [send] peace. Judg. 6:24.
6. JEHOVAH-ZeBA'OTH = Jehovah of hosts. 1Sam. 1:3, and frequently.
7. JEHOVAH-ZIDKENU = Jehovah our righteousness. Jer. 23:6; 33:16.
8. JEHOVAH-SHAMMAH = Jehovah is there. Ezek. 48:35.
9. JEHOVAH-ELYON = Jehovah most high. Ps. 7:17; 47:2; 97:9.
10. JEHOVAH-RO'I = Jehovah my Shepherd. Ps. 23:1.
We have seven of these, experimentally referred to, in Ps. 23, inasmuch as Jehovah, the "Good," "Great," and "Chief Shepherd," is engaged, in all the perfection of His attributes, on behalf of His sheep:--
In verse 1,
we have No. 1 above.
In verse 2, we have No. 5.
In verse 3, we have Nos. 2 and 7.
In verse 4, we have No. 8.
In verse 5, we have Nos. 3 and 4.
III. JAH is Jehovah in a special sense and relation. Jehovah as having BECOME our Salvation (first occ. Ex. 15:2), He Who IS, and WAS, and IS TO COME. It occurs 49 times (7 x 7. See Ap. 10). Jah is indicated by type thus: Lord.
IV. EL is essentially
Almighty, thought the word is never so rendered (see below, "Shaddai").
EL is Elohim in all His strength and power. It is rendered "God"
as Elohim is, but El is God the Omnipotent.
Elohim is God
the Creator putting His omnipotence into operation. Eloah
(see below) is God Who wills and orders all, and Who is to be the one object
of the worship of His people. El is the God Who
all (first occ. Gen. 14:18:22) and sees all (Gen. 16:13) and that
performeth all things for His people (Ps. 57:2); and in Whom all
the Divine attributes are concentrated.
El is indicated in this edition by type in large capital letters, thus: "GOD." It is sometimes transliterated in proper names Immanue-'el, Beth-'el, &c., where it is translated, as explained in the margin.
is Elohim, Who is to be worshipped. Eloah is God in connection with
rather than His power. The first occurrence associates
this name with worship (Deut. 32:15, 17). Hence it is the title used
whenever the contrast (latent or expressed) is with false gods or idols.
Eloah is essentially "the living God" in contrast to inanimate idols.
Eloah is rendered "God", but we have indicated it by type thus: GOD.
first occurs in Gen. 14:18 with El, and is rendered "the most high
(God)". It is El and Elohim, not as the powerful Creator, but as
"the possessor of heaven and earth." Hence the name is associated
with Christ as the Son of "the Highest" (Luke 1:35).
It is Elyon, as possessor of the earth, Who divides the nations "their inheritance". In Ps. 83:18, He is "over all the earth". The title occurs 36 times (6 x 6 or 62 See Ap. 10).
Elyon is the Dispenser of God's blessings in the earth; the blessings proceeding from a Priest Who is a King upon His throne (cp. Gen. 14:18-22 with Zech. 6:13; 14:9).
VII. SHADDAI is in every instance translated "Almighty", and is indicated by small capital letters ("ALMIGHTY"). It is God (El), not as the source of strength, but of grace; not as Creator, but as the Giver. Shaddai is the All-bountiful. This title does not refer to His creative power, but to His power to supply all the needs of His people. Its first occurrence is in Gen. 17:1, and is used to show Abraham that He Who called him out to walk alone before Him could supply all his need. Even so it is the title used in 2Cor. 6:18, where we are called to "come out" in separation from the world. It is always used in connection with El (see above).
is one of the three titles (ADON, ADONAI, and ADONIM), all generally rendered
"Lord"; but each has its own peculiar usage and association. They
all denote headship in various aspects. They have to do with
God as "over-lord."
(1) ADON is the Lord as Ruler in the earth. We have indicated this in type by printing the preceding article or pronouns in small capitals, not because either are to be emphasized, but to distinguish the word "Lord" from Adonai, which is always so printed in the A.V.
(2) ADONAI is the Lord in His relation to the earth; and as carrying out His purposes of blessing in the earth. With this limitation it is almost equivalent to Jehovah. Indeed, it was from an early date so used, by associating the vowel points of the word Jehovah with Adon, thus converting Adon into Adonai. A list of 134 passages where this was deliberately done is preserved and given in the Massorah (107-115). (See Ap. 32) We have indicated these by printing the word like Jehovah, putting an asterisk, thus: LORD*.
(3) ADONIM is the plural of Adon, never used of man. Adonim carries with it all that Adon does, but in a greater and higher degree; and more especially as owner and proprietor. An Adon may rule others who do not belong to him. Hence (without the article) it is often used of men. But Adonim is the Lord Who rules His own. We have indicated it by type, thus: LORD.
The three may be thus briefly distinguished:--
Adon is the Lord as overlord or ruler.
Adonim is the Lord as owner.
Adonai is the Lord as blesser.
IX. THE TYPES
used to indicate the above titles, in the text, are as follows:--
God = Elohim.
GOD = Jehovah (in combination with Adonai, "Lord").
GOD* = Jehovah in the Primitive Texts, altered by Sopherim to Elohim as the Printed Text. (See
GOD = El.
GOD = Eloah.
LORD = Jehovah.
THE LORD = Jah.
LORD* = Jehovah in the Primitive Texts, altered by Sopherim to Adonai as in the Printed Text.
(See Ap. 32.)
Lord = Adonai.
LORD = Adonim.
ALMIGHTY = Shaddai.
MOST HIGH = Elyon.
X. THE COMBINATIONS
are indicated as follows:--
Adonai Jehovah = Lord GOD.
Jehovah Elohim = LORD God.
Elyon El = MOST HIGH GOD.
El Shaddai = GOD ALMIGHTY.