i. The Verb.
hamartano = to miss the mark or aim; then, to miss or wander from the right path; to go, or do, wrong.
ii. The Noun.
1. hamartia = a failing to hit the mark; aberration from prescribed law (connected with and resulting from the above). In N.T. always in a moral sense = a sin, whether by omission or commission, in thought, word, or deed. Also used in connection with the sin-offering (Heb. 10:6, 8, 18; 13:11, as in Ps. 40:6, cp. Lev. 5:8).
2. hamartema = the actual sin. The evil principle in action; the sinful act or deed.
3. paraptoma = a falling aside, when one should have stood upright. Hence (morally) a fall, a falling aside from truth and equity; a fault, or trespass.
In Romans 5:12, No. 1 entered the world. The disobedience of Adam
(vv. 15, 17, 18) was No. 3, and the law entered that No. 3 which
before was error, might become criminal in the knowledge of the sinner.
After this, where No. 1 abounded, grace did much more abound.
1. poneria = depravity; iniquity, the wicked acting of the evil nature. See No. III. 1 below.
2. kakia = depravity, the vicious disposition and
desires, rather than the active exercise of them, which is No. 1 (poneria).
1. poneros = full of labors and pains in working mischief; evil intent (Matt. 12:39. Luke 11:29); grudging, in connection with the idea expressed in the "evil eye" (Matt. 6:23; 20:15. See the context, and cp. Luke 11:13).
2. kakos = depraved, bad in nature. Cp. No. II. 2.
3. anomos = lawless, contempt of law.
4. anomia = lawlessness.
5. athesmos = breaking through all restraints of
ordinances or institutes, divine or human, to gratify one's lusts.
Occurs only in 2Pet. 2:7; 3:17.
asebeia = impiety, absence of "the fear of God", having
no reverence for sacred things; irreligious. Sept. for pasha'.
Ap. 44. ix.
1. apeitheia = unwillingness to be persuaded, leading to obstinacy.
2. parakoe = unwillingness to hear, disobedient.
1. parabaino = to step on one side, overstep, go aside from, violate, transgress.
2. parerchomai = to go past, pass by, neglect.
3. parabates, one who steps aside, or oversteps.
1. adikia = unrighteousness, wrongdoing.
2. adikema = a wrong done.
3. paranomia = acting contrary to law or custom.
Occ. only in 2Pet. 2:16.
1. planao = to cause to wander or go astray; used of doctrinal error and religious deceit. Cp. planos 1Tim. 4:1, "seducing").
2. apoplanao. No. 1 with apo = away from, prefixed (Ap. 104. iv). In Pass., to go astray from, swerve. Occ. only in Mark 13:22 and 1Tim. 6:10.
3. astocheo = to deviate from. Occ. only in
1Tim. 1:6; 6:21. 2Tim. 2:18.
hettema = a diminishing of that which should have been
rendered in full measure; diminution, decrease. Occ. in Rom. 11:12
and 1Cor. 6:7.