In the first mention of the heavenly bodies, the purpose of the Creator is clearly stated. Gen. 1:14-19 reveals the fact that they were created, not only "to divide the day from the night, and to give light upon the earth"; but, they were set "for SIGNS, and for SEASONS, and for days and years".
The figure Polysyndeton (see Ap. 6) emphasizes these four purposes, and bids us single them out and consider them separately and independently.
They are "for SIGNS'.
Heb. 'oth, from 'athah, to come. Signs, therefore, of something or some One to come. Those who understand them are enlightened by them. Those who do not may well be "dismayed" (Jer. 10:2).
The stars are numbered and named. There are twelve signs of the Zodiac, called "the stars" in Gen. 37:9 (eleven of which bowed down to Joseph's, the twelfth). The word Zodiac means the degrees or steps, which mark the stages of the sun's path through the heavens, corresponding with the twelve months.
The stars were all named by God (Ps. 147:4). Most of these names have been lost; but over 100 are preserved through the Arabic and Hebrew, and are used by astronomers to-day, though their meaning is unknown to them. Many of them are used in Scripture as being well known, though the translations are somewhat speculative : e.g. Job 9:9. Heb. 'ash (Arcturus, R.V. the Bear), kesil (A.V. Orion), kimah (Pleiades). John 38:31, 32, mazzaroth (margin, Zodiac). Cp. 2Kings 23:5, 'ash (Arcturus with her sons, R.V. the Bear with her train, both versions being incorrect as to the names). See also Isa. 13:10. Amos 5:8.
These names and the twelve "signs" go back to the foundation of the world. Jewish tradition, preserved by Josephus, assures us that this Bible astronomy was invented by Adam, Seth, and Enoch.
We see evidence of it as early as Gen. 11:4, where we read of the Tower of Babel having "his top with the heavens". There is nothing about the wrongly supplied italics "may reach unto". The words, doubtless, refer to the signs of the Zodiac, pictured at the top of the Tower, like the Zodiacs in the Temples of Denderah, and Esneh in Egypt.
The Babylonian "Creation Tablets" refer to them, though their primitive meaning had been either corrupted or lost. It is the same with the Greek mythology, which is a corruption of primitive truth which had been lost and perverted.
We have to remember that our written Scriptures began with Moses, say in 1490 B.C. : and thus, for more that 2,500 years, the revelation of the hope which God gave in Gen. 3:15 was preserved in the naming of the stars and their grouping in Signs and Constellations.
These groupings are quite arbitrary. There is nothing in the positions of the stars to suggest the pictures originally drawn around them. The Signs and Constellations were first designed and named; then, the pictures were drawn around them respectively. Thus the truth was enshrined and written in the heavens, where no human hand could touch it. In later years, when Israel came into the possession of the written "Scriptures of truth", there was no longer any need for the more ancient writing in the heavens. Hence, the original teaching gradually faded away and the heathen, out of the smattering they had heard by tradition, evolved their cosmogonies and mythologies.
Ps. 19 contains a vivid reference to these two Books of revelation. That is why there is the very sudden change of subject at verse 7; a change which still perplexes and baffles all the skill of commentators.
The teaching is preserved in the structure of the Psalm, where we have
B -4-6. "In them, the sun".
A 7-10. The Scriptures.
B 11-14. "In them (the same Heb. as in v. 4.), Thy servant".
In this structure every line emphasizes the elaboration of the design : for, while, in the first half, all the terms are literary, in the latter half they are all astronomical, thus welding the two portions of the Psalm into one harmonious whole.
For the meaning of the words, reference must be made to the Psalm itself. We can only note here that the first part does not refer to the wonders of creation, but to the eloquence of its teaching and revelation : they "declare", tell, or narrate (Gen. 24:66. Ps. 71:15), they "utter speech", but without words (omit "where" in v. 3); they prophesy "day by day", "night by night". The question is : What do they prophesy? What knowledge do they show forth? What glory do they tell of?
The answer is -- Gen. 3:15. The one great central truth of all prophecy -- the coming of the One, Who, though He should suffer, should in the end crush the head of the old serpent, the Devil.
But, where are we to open this book? Where are we to break into this circle of the Zodiacal signs?
Through the "precession of the Equinoxes" the sun gradually shifts its position a little each year, till in about every 2,000 years it begins the year in a different sign. This was foreseen; and it was also foreseen that succeeding generations would not know when and where the sun began its course, and where the teaching of this Heavenly Book commenced, and where we were to open its first page. Hence the "Sphinx" was invented as a memorial. It had the head of a woman and the body and tail of a lion, to tell us that this Book, written in the Heavens, began with the sign "Virgo", and will end with the sign "Leo". The word "sphinx" is from the Greek sphingo, to join; because it binds together the two ends of this circle of the heavens.
The number of the Signs is twelve, the number of governmental perfection or "rule" : cp. Gen. 1:18 (Ap. 10). They are divided into three books of four chapters (or signs) each : twelve being the product of 3x4, i.e. of Divine truth working in the heavens and in the earth (see Ap. 10).
Each book, therefore, consists of four signs; and these are all arranged, by structure, in exactly the same way. Each is an introversion. Thus we have the three books:
First Book. The Redeemer.
(His first coming).
A VIRGO. The prophecy of the promised seed.
B LIBRA. The Redeemer's work (grace).
B SCORPIO. The Redeemer's conflict.
A SAGITTARIUS. The prophecy fulfilled.
Second Book. The Redeemed.
(His work and its results).
C CAPRICORNUS. The prophecy of deliverance.
D AQUARIUS. Results of work bestowed.
D PISCES. Results of work enjoyed.
C ARIES. The prophesied deliverance fulfilled.
Third Book. The Redeemer.
(His Second Coming).
E TAURUS. The prophecy of coming judgment.
F GEMINI. The Redeemer's reign in glory.
F CANCER. The Redeemer's position safe.
E LEO. The prophecy of triumph fulfilled.
Each of the four chapters in each of these three Books consists of three sections; and each section is represented by a Constellation. There are thus thirty-six (3x12) Constellations, which, with the twelve Signs, make forty-eight (4x12) in all.
They may thus be set forth :
The First Book. The Redeemer.
"The sufferings of Christ."
I. VIRGO (A)
The prophecy of the promised seed.
1. COMA ( = The desired). The woman and child the
desired of all nations (in the most ancient Zodiacs).
2. CENTAURUS (with two natures). The despised sin-offering.
3. BOOTES. The coming One with branch.
II. LIBRA (B).
The Redeemer's atoning work.
1. CRUX. The Cross endured.
2. LUPUS. The Victim slain.
3. CORONA. The Crown bestowed.
III. SCORPIO (B).
The Redeemer's conflict.
1. SERPENS. Assaulting the man's heel.
2. OPHIUCHUS. The man grasping the serpent.
3. HERCULES. The mighty man victorious.
IV. SAGITTARIUS (A).
The Redeemer's triumph.
1. LYRA. Praise prepared for the Conqueror.
2. ARA. Fire prepared for His enemies.
3. DRACO. The dragon cast down.
I. CAPRICORNUS (C).
The result of the Redeemer's sufferings.
1. SAGITTA. The arrow of God sent forth.
2. AQUILLA. The smitten one falling.
3. DELPHINUS. The dead One rising again.
II. AQUARIUS (D).
The Blessings assured.
1. PISCIS AUSTRALIS. The blessings bestowed.
2. PEGASUS. The blessings quickly coming.
3. CYGNUS. The Blesser surely returning.
III. PISCES (D).
The Blessings in abeyance.
1. THE BAND. The great enemy, "Cetus."
2. ANDROMEDA. The redeemed in bondage.
3. CEPHEUS. The Deliverer coming to loosen.
IV. ARIES (C).
The Blessings consummated.
1. CASSIOPEIA. The captive delivered.
2. CETUS. The great enemy bound.
3. PERSEUS. The "Breaker" delivering.
I. TAURUS (E).
Messiah coming to rule.
1. ORION. The redeemer breaking forth as Light.
2. ERIDANUS. Wrath breaking forth as a flood.
3. AURIGA. Safety for His redeemed in the day of wrath.
II. GEMINI (F).
Messiah as Prince of princes.
1. LEPUS. The enemy trodden under foot.
2. CANIS MAJOR. The coming glorious prince.
3. CANIS MINOR. The exalted Redeemer.
III. CANCER (F).
Messiah's redeemed possessions.
1. URSA MINOR. The lesser sheepfold.
2. URSA MAJOR. The fold and the flock.
3. ARGO. The pilgrim's arrival at home.
IV. LEO (E).
Messiah's consummated triumph.
1. HYDRA. The old serpent destroyed.
2. CRATER. The cup of wrath poured out.
3. CORVUS. The birds of prey devouring.
The Hebrew and Arabic names of these, and of the principal stars contained in them, are full of truth, and eloquent in their teaching. Thus :
VIRGO (the Virgin). Here we have the star
Heb. Zemach, the branch. Isa. 4:2. Jer. 23:5, 6.
Zech. 3:8; 6:12. All the other stars have cognate meanings.
COMA. The Desired (Hag. 2:7). Num. 24:17. (Egyptian Shes-nu = the desired son.)
CENTAURUS, Al Beze, the despised (Isa. 53:3).
BOOTES (Heb. bo', to come), Ps. 96:13. Heb. Arcturus (Job 9:9 = He cometh). Egyptian = Smat, one who rules.
LIBRA was anciently the Altar (accadian = Tulki).
The two bright stars are to-day called in Arabic
Zuben al Genubi =
the price which is deficient, and Zuben al Chemali = the price which
CRUX. Heb. karath, cut off (Dan. 9:26).
LUPUS. Greek name Thera, a beast. Lat. Victima. Heb. sabah, slain. In the Zodiac of Denderah = Sura, a lamb.
CORONA. Heb. 'atarah, a royal crown. Arab. Al iclil, a jewel. Its brightest star = Al phena, the shining one.
SCORPIO. Heb. 'akrab (Ps. 91:13). Coptic name
= Isidis = the attack of the enemy. Arabic = Al aterah,
the wounding of the coming One. The brightest star is
(Arab. = wounding). Heb. Lezuth, perverseness.
SERPENS. The brightest star is called (Heb.) 'anak = encompassing. Heb. kelalah = the accursed. Arab. Al hay, the reptile.
OPHIUCHUS is from Arab. Afeichus = the serpent held. The brightest star is Ras al hagus = the head of him who holds. Other names are Megeras = contending. In the Zodiac of Denderah he is Api-bau = the chief who cometh. Other stars are Triophas = treading under foot; Saiph = bruised; Carnebas = bruised.
HERCULES. In the Zodiac of Denderah called Bau = who cometh. Arab. Al giscale, the strong one. The brightest star, Ras al Gethi = the head of him who bruises.
SAGITTARIUS. Heb. kesheth (an archer) (Gen. 21:20).
The brightest star, Heb. channun = the gracious one (Ps. 45:2).
Accadian, Nun-ki = Prince of the earth. In Zodiac of Denderah,
Pi-maere = graciousness, and Knem, He conquers.
LYRA. (Ps. 65:1.) The brightest star Vega = He shall be exalted. In Zodiac of Denderah = Fent-kar = the serpent ruled. Originally an eagle, from confusion between Heb. nesher, and shir (song, or music).
ARA, and alter upside down, pointing to Tartarus (Isa. 63:4, 5). Arab. Al mugamra = the completing or finishing (Ps. 21:9-12).
DRACO. Ends the first book. The dragon cast down. CETUS ends the second book. Leviathan bound. HYDRA ends the third book. The old serpent destroyed. Draco = trodden on. (Ps. 91:13; 74:12-14. Isa. 27:1). In Zodiac of Denderah it is a serpent under the fore-feet of Sagittarius and called Her-fent = the serpent accursed. The brightest star called Thuban = the subtle.
CAPRICORNUS = the goat of atonement. In Zodiac of Denderah
and Esneh, Hu-penius = the place of the sacrifice. Heb. Gedi,
the kid, or Gada, cut off. The brightest star is Al-gedi
= the kid. The next is Deneb al gedi = the sacrifice of the
SAGITTA, the arrow. (Ps. 38:2. Isa. 53:4, 5.) Heb. Shamad, or shamem = destroying.
AQUILA, the eagle, pierced and wounded and falling. The brightest star, Al tair = wounding. All the others are similar.
DELPHINUS. Always a fish full of life, the head upwards. Heb. Dalaph = the pouring out of water. Arab. Dalaph = coming quickly.
AQUARIUS. In the Zodiac of Denderah he has two urns.
The fish seems to have come out of one of them. Heb. name Dali
= water-urn or bucket (Num. 24:7). Brightest star
Sa'ad al Melik
= the record of the pouring forth. The next
Sa'ad al Sund
= who goeth and returneth (cp. Isa. 32:1, 2; 35:1, 6; 41:18; 44:2-6; 51:3).
PISCIS AUSTRALIS. The southern fish. Arab. Fom al haut = the mouth of the fish. Zodiac of Denderah = Aar, a stream.
PEGASUS. The winged horse. Zodiac of Denderah Pe and ka = Peka, or pega. Heb. pehah = the chief, and sus, a horse; name thus come down. The brightest is Markab, Heb. merhak = returning from afar.
CYGNUS. In the Zodiac of Denderah, Tes-ark = this from afar. A mighty bird, not falling dead like Aquila. Brightest star Deneb = the Judge; called also Adige = flying swiftly. The second, Al Bireo = flying quickly. Two others: Azel = who goes and returns quickly, and Fafage = gloriously shining forth.
PISCES. Egyptian name in the Zodiac of Denderah = Pi-cot
Orion or Pisces Hori = the fishes (i.e. swarms and multitudes)
or Him Who cometh. Heb. Dagim, the fishes (Gen. 48:16).
Syr. name, Nuno = lengthened out (i.e. in posterity). Cp.
Isa. 53:10. Ps. 33:12; 37:22; 115:14, 15. Isa. 61:9; 65:23;
26:15; 9:3. Jer. 30:19. Ezek. 36:10, 11; 37:26. Note
the two fishes = the earthly and heavenly callings (one fish horizontal,
the other looking upward). 113 stars much of the same magnitude.
The brightest star is Okda = the united. The next (Arabic)
samaca = the upheld. (Isa. 41:8-10.)
THE BAND. Egyptian name U-or = He cometh binding them together (Hos. 11:4); and breaking the band which binds them to their old enemy Cetus.
ANDROMEDA. Name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Set, which means seated as a queen. Also, Sirco = the chained. The brightest star is Al Phiratz = the broken down. The next, Mirach = the weak. The next, Al amok (Arab) = stuck down. (Isa. 54:11-14; 51:21-52:3. Jer. 14:17.)
CEPHUS. The king. In the Zodiac of Denderah Pe-ku-hor = this one cometh to rule. Cepheus is Greek from the Heb. zemah = the Branch. Ethiopian name, Hyh = a king. The brightest star is Al Deramin = coming quickly. The next is Al Phirk - the Redeemer. The next, Al Rai' = who bruises or breaks. (Jer. 31:1.)
ARIES. The ram or lamb full of vigor. Not falling
in death like Capricornus. The name in the Zodiac of Denderah
Tametouris Ammon = the reign of rule of Ammon. Heb. name Taleh
= the lamb. Arab. Al Hamel = the sheep. Syr.
Amroo, as in John 1:29. The Accadian name was Bar-Ziggar
= the altar making right = the sacrifice of righteousness. The brightest
star is El nath, or El natik
= wounded, or slain. The
next, Al Sharatan = the bruised, or wounded. Cp. Rev. 5:9-12.
CASSIOPEIA. The enthroned woman. Arabic name El seder = the freed. In the Zodiac of Denderah Set = seated as queen. Arabic Ruchba = the enthroned. The brightest star is Schedir = the freed. The next, Kaph (Heb.) = the branch. (Isa. 54:5-8; 62:3-5. Jer. 31:3-12. Ps. 45:9-17. Isa. 61:10, 11.)
CETUS. The sea monster. The great enemy bound (Rev. 20:10; cp. 20: 1-3). The name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Knem = subdued. The brightest star is Menkar = the enemy chained. The next is Diphda, or Deneb Kaitos = overthrown, or thrustdown. Another is Mira = the rebel. (Job 41:1-10. Isa. 51:22, 23; 26:21-27:1. Ps. 74:12-14.)
PERSEUS. The Breaker. Heb. Perez. Greek, Perses, or Perseus (Rom. 16:12. Mic. 2: 12, 13). Name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Kar Knem = he who fights and subdues. The brightest star is Mirfak = who helps. The next, Al Genib = who carries away. The next is Athik = who breaks.
TAURUS. Messiah coming in judgment. Chald. Tor.
Hence, Arabic Al thaur; Greek, Tauros; Lat. Taurus.
The common Heb. name is Shur = coming and ruling, and Re'em
= pre-eminence. The brightest star is
Al Debaran = The Leader
or Governor. The next is El nath = wounded or slain.
The group Pleiades is Kimah = heap or accumulation. (Job 9:9;
38:31, 21. Amos 5:8.) A bright star is Al Cyone = the
centre. Heb. and Syr. name is Succoth = booths. Another
group, Hyades = the congregated. (Deut. 33:17. Ps. 44:5.
Isa. 13:11-15; 34:2-8; 26:21.)
ORION. The coming Prince. Light breaking forth, through the Redeemer. In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Ha-ga-t = this is He Who triumphs. Oarion = Heb. 'Or, light; or coming forth as light (cp. Job 9:9; 38:31. Amos 5:8). Heb. Kesil = a strong one (translated "Orion" in Job 9:9; 38:31. Amos 5:8). The brightest star is Betelgeuz = the coming of the Branch (Mal. 3:2). The next is Rigel or Rigol = the foot of him that crusheth. The next is Bellatrix = swiftly destroying. Another is Al Nitak = the wounded One. Many others with names of cumulative meanings. (See Isa. 42:13, 14; 60:1-3.)
ERIDANUS. the river of judgment. In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Peh-ta-t = the mouth of the river. The brightest star is Achernar = the after part of the river. So with the other names, going forth, flowing on (to the lower regions of the south). Dan. 7:9-11. Ps. 97:3-5; 50:3. Hab. 3:5. Isa. 30:27-33. Nah. 1:5, 6. Isa. 66:15, 16. 2Thess. 1:7, 8.
AURIGA. The Shepherd. (Isa. 40:10, 11. Ezek. 34:22). Auriga = Charioteer. The brightest star is Alioth = a she-goat. Modern Lat. name is Capella, same meaning. The next is Menkilinon = the band of the goats; bound, never to be again lost. (John 10:11.) In the Zodiac of Denderah, the shepherd carries a sceptre (Trun), the top with a goat, and bottom with a cross. (Mal. 4:1-3. Ps. 37:38-40).
GEMINI. The Twins. Name in the Zodiac of Denderah
is Clusus, or Claustrum Hori = the place of Him Who cometh.
The old Coptic name was Pi-Mahi = the united. Heb. Thaumim
(from ta'am) = double. The root used in Ex. 26:24 (twinned
together). The brightest star is Apollo = ruler or judge.
The next is Hercules = who cometh to labour and suffer. Another
is Al henah = hurt, wounded. (Isa. 4:2; 32:1, 2. Jer.
23:5, 6; 33:14, 15.)
LEPUS (the enemy trodden under foot). In the Zodiac of Denderah the name is Bashti-beki = falling confounded. Aratus says "chased eternally". The brightest star is Arnebo = the enemy of Him Who cometh. Other stars are Nibal = the mad; Takis, the bound; Sugia, the deceiver. (Isa. 63:3, 4.)
CANIS MAJOR. Sirius, the Prince. In Zodiac of Denderah it is Apes = the head. In Persian Planisphere = a wolf (Heb. Ze'eb). The brightest star is Sirius = the Prince. In Persian Tistrya or Tistar = the chieftain. The next is Mirzam = the prince. Another is Wesen = the shining, and another Adhara = the glorious. Many other cognate names. (Isa. 9:6; 55:4. Dan. 8:23, 25.)
CANIS MINOR. The second Dog. In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Sebak = conquering, victorious. The brightest star is Procyon = Redeemer. The next is Gomeisa (Arabic) = the burdened, bearing for others. Many other cognate names. (Isa. 49:24-26; 59:19, 20; 53:12.)
CANCER. The Crab. Messiah's possessions held fast.
In the Zodiac of Denderah and Esneh it is a sacred beetle. Its name
there give is Klaria = cattle-folds. Arabic name is Al
Sarta'n = He Who holds or binds together (Gen. 49:11). The Greek
name is Karkinos = encircling; the same as the Lat. Cancer,
from Arabic Khan an Inn, and Ker, or Cer = encircling.
The ancient Accadian is Su-kul-na = the seizer, or possessor of
seed. A bright cluster is called Praesepe = a multitude or
offspring. The brightest star is Tegmine = holding.
Another is Acubene = the sheltering or hiding-place. Another,
= assembled thousands. North and south of Praesepe are two
bright stars, Assellus North and Assellus South; their sign
is 69, and called the two asses, thus connecting it with Cancer, which
is the sign of Issachar (cp. Gen. 49:14. Num. 2:5).
URSA MINOR. The little Bear = the lesser sheep-fold. The brightest star of Ursa Minor is Dubheh = a herd. Arabic Dubah means cattle. Heb. Dober = a fold, from dobe' = rest or security, rendered "strength" in Deut. 33:25. See R.V. marg. All points to this (cp. Judg. 5:16). The Heb. Dob = a bear. So Arabic Dub, and Persian Deeb or Dob. Hence the mistake. The brightest star is Al riccaba = the turned or ridden on, denoting it as the Polar star. The Greeks called it Kunosoura = Cynosure, but this word is Accadian. An-nas-sur-ra = high in rising; or high in heavenly position. The next bright star is Kochab = waiting Him Who cometh.
URSA MAJOR. The great Bear = the Fold and the Flock (Obad. 17-19). In Job 9:9 and 38:31, 32 it is called 'Ash and her offspring. A.V. = Arcturus and her sons. R.V. = Bear and his train (marg., sons). Arabs still call it Al Naish or Annaish = the assembled together as in a fold. The brightest star is Dubhe = a flock, which gives its name to the two constellations. The next is Merach = the flock (Arabic = purchased). The next is Phaeda or Pharda = numbered or guarded (Ps. 147:4). Another is called Benet Naish = daughters of the assembly. Another, Al Kaid = the assembled. Many other cognate names. (Cp. Ezek. 34:12-16.)
ARGO. The Ship = the Pilgrims, safe at home. In the Egyptian Planisphere there are two ships (like the two folds). they occupy one-half of the south meridians. The brightest star is Canopus = the possession of Him Who cometh. Other names are Sephina = the multitude. Tureis = the possession. Asmidiska = the released who travel, &c. (Jer. 30:10, 11. Isa. 60:4-9.)
LEO. The Lion. Messiah's consummated triumph.
In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Pi Mentikeon = the pouting out (of
Divine wrath). The tree constellations crystallize the truth :
1. Hydra = the old serpent destroyed.
2. Crater = the cup of wrath poured out on him.
3. Corvus = the bird of prey devouring him.
The Denderah picture exhibits all four in one. The Syr. name is Aryo = the rending lion. Arab. Al Asad = the lion leaping forth as a flame. The brightest star is Regulus = treading under foot (as pictured). The next is Denebola = the Judge or Lord Who cometh. The next is Al Giebha = the exaltation. Another is Zosma = shining forth. All the others are cognate. (Gen. 49:8, 9. Num. 24:8, 9. Amos 3:4, 8. Isa. 42:13.)
HYDRA. The Old Serpent. Hydra = he is abhorred. The brightest star is Cor Hydra = the heart of Hydra. Its ancient name is Al phard = the put away. Another is Al Drian = the abhorred. Another is Minchar al Sugia = the piercing of the deceiver.
CRATER. The Cup [of wrath poured out]. (Ps. 75:8; 11:6. Rev. 14:10; 16:19.) The constellation has thirteen stars, (cp. Ap. 10).
CORVUS. The Raven. The birds of prey devouring. The name in the Zodiac of Denderah, Her-na = the enemy breaking up. there are nine stars (see Ap. 10). The brightest star is Chiba (Num. 23:8) = accursed. Another is Minchar al Gorab = the raven tearing to pieces.
They are "for SEASONS".
Not only are the stars made for signs ('othoth, from the root 'athah = to come), but for Seasons. These are not the four seasons of the year, but Cycles of time. The figure Polysyndeton (see Ap. 6) in gen. 1:14 emphasizes this : "and for seasons, and for days, and years". The word means appointed times. (Cp. Gen. 17:21; 18:14; 21:2.) Thus the sun, moon, and stars are for "signs" (things to come), and for "seasons" (appointed times).
There are no less that ten of these cycles, all of them different; not concentric, but yet all of them coinciding at creation, but never since : like a number of hoops of different sizes hanging from a nail. This shows that they must have had a given simultaneous start.
1. They cycle of 24 hours for the day, an evening
2. The revolution of the Moon round the earth.
3. The lunar cycle, which began at the same moment as the solar cycle.
4. The daily revolution of the Sun, which places him on the meridian at noon each day.
5. The Solar Cycle, coinciding with the first of the seven years of lunar motion and repeating itself every 365 days.
6. The beginning of a Week of seven days on the first day of the week, of the first month of the first year of the first solar cycle.
7. The first Eclipse of a cycle of eighteen years and eleven days, to which the ancient astronomers gave the name of Saros; each Saros containing an average of seventy eclipses, divided into two portions of 594 years and 666 years, making together 1,260 years.
8. Besides these, there is the period of the Heliacal rising of Sirius, in a cycle of 162 years.
9. The Transits of Venus.
10. And the grand cycle known as the Precession of the Equinoxes.
All these combine and unite in showing that the chronology of Archbishop Usher was substantially correct. And this proves that the inflated chronology of modern historians and theologians is entirely un-scientific, being the hypothesis of men who dabbled in things outside their own sphere, and of which they were incompetent to form a correct judgment.