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Fluency Disorders


  • Stuttering: speech characterized by an abnormal frequency and/or duration of stoppages in the forward flow of speech.


  • Repetitions: of sound, syllables, or one-syllable words, such as "Too-too-too-tooth."
  • Prolongations: of sounds, such as "Sssssssound."
  • Blocks:of airflow and/or voicing in speech, such as "happy-----------birthday."

Fluency Therapy
  • CLUE: Place several cards in a row. Give one clue at a time about a card. The client that guesses it with the fewest clues wins.
  • CIRCLE GAME: Place cards in a circle and have clients sit at a card. A bean bag is tossed to a player who says the word or a description of the card in front of him/her and then tosses the bag to someone else.
  • LOW LEVEL CATEGORIZING: Display cards of a category, clothing for example. Then say a sentence that the client has to finish by selecting the correct card. For example, the client should pick the hat picture if you say "I am looking for a piece of clothing you can wear on your head!"
  • CROSSWORD PUZZLES: Use the following link to make a crossword puzzle using descriptions for clues. Click here!
  • SPIN AND DESCRIBE: To make the spinnner: Cut a large circle from cardboard. Use a marker to divide the circle into 8 triangular parts like a pie. Repeat this process on a white piece of paper. Cut out one triangle from the paper to use as a pattern. Use the pattern to make triangular "pie pieces" from different colored construction paper. Glue the colored pie pieces onto the cardboard circle. Use pointed scissors to poke a hole through the middle. You can then make a pointer out of lamenated construction paper or cardboard. In the office supplies department of your grocery store you will find metal (usually gold) tabs with bendable "legs." Use one of these to attach your pointer to the spinner. Now label each triangular pie piece with the following: use, category, color, smell, taste, size, etc. Or any type of descriptor you want your students to learn. Have your students select a picture card and then take turns using the spinner and giving the appropriate answer.
  • HIDE-N-SEEK: Place a number of picture cards in front of the student. Show them a sticker and instruct the student to close his/her eyes while you hide it. Give the student clues (descriptions) one at a time until s/he selects the correct picture. For a group of students simply have them take turns. Once the correct picture is selected the student wins the sticker underneath.
Semantics & Word Relationships
  • OPPOSITES & SYNONYMS: Using a puppet, tell the student that you have a grouchy puppet and whatever you say he says the opposite. "If I say it's big, he'll say it's little!" Let the student be the puppet and then say "If I say it's good, what does the puppet say?". (Rhea Paul, Language Disorders, 2001)