Confucian Analects, Confucius, 500 B.C., Part 18
The Viscount of Wei withdrew
from the court. The Viscount of Chi
became a slave to Chau. Pi-kan
remonstrated with him and died.
Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty
possessed these three men of virtue."
Hui of Liu-hsia, being chief criminal
judge, was thrice dismissed from his
office. Some one said to him, "Is it not
yet time for you, sir, to leave this?"
He replied, "Serving men in an upright
way, where shall I go to, and not
experience such a thrice-repeated
dismissal? If I choose to serve men in a
crooked way, what necessity is there for
me to leave the country of my parents?"
The duke Ching of Ch'i, with reference
to the manner in which he should treat
Confucius, said, "I cannot treat him as
I would the chief of the Chi family. I
will treat him in a manner between that
accorded to the chief of the Chil and
that given to the chief of the Mang
family." He also said, "I am old; I
cannot use his doctrines." Confucius
took his departure.
The people of Ch'i sent to Lu a present
of female musicians, which Chi Hwan
received, and for three days no court
was held. Confucius took his departure.
The madman of Ch'u, Chieh-yu, passed by
Confucius, singing and saying, "O FANG!
O FANG! How is your virtue degenerated!
As to the past, reproof is useless; but
the future may still be provided
against. Give up your vain pursuit. Give
up your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those
who now engage in affairs of
Confucius alighted and wished to
converse with him, but Chieh-yu hastened
away, so that he could not talk with
Ch'ang-tsu and Chieh-ni were at work in
the field together, when Confucius
passed by them, and sent Tsze-lu to
inquire for the ford.
Ch'ang-tsu said, "Who is he that holds
the reins in the carriage there?"
Tsze-lu told him, "It is K'ung Ch'iu.',
"Is it not K'ung of Lu?" asked he.
"Yes," was the reply, to which the other
rejoined, "He knows the ford."
Tsze-lu then inquired of Chieh-ni, who
said to him, "Who are you, sir?" He
answered, "I am Chung Yu." "Are you not
the disciple of K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?"
asked the other. "I am," replied he, and
then Chieh-ni said to him, "Disorder,
like a swelling flood, spreads over the
whole empire, and who is he that will
change its state for you? Rather than
follow one who merely withdraws from
this one and that one, had you not
better follow those who have withdrawn
from the world altogether?" With this he
fell to covering up the seed, and
proceeded with his work, without
Tsze-lu went and reported their remarks,
when the Master observed with a sigh,
"It is impossible to associate with
birds and beasts, as if they were the
same with us. If I associate not with
these people,-with mankind,-with whom
shall I associate? If right principles
prevailed through the empire, there
would be no use for me to change its
Tsze-lu, following the Master, happened
to fall behind, when he met an old man,
carrying across his shoulder on a staff
a basket for weeds. Tsze-lu said to him,
"Have you seen my master, sir?" The old
man replied, "Your four limbs are
unaccustomed to toil; you cannot
distinguish the five kinds of grain:-who
is your master?" With this, he planted
his staff in the ground, and proceeded
Tsze-lu joined his hands across his
breast, and stood before him.
The old man kept Tsze-lu to pass the
night in his house, killed a fowl,
prepared millet, and feasted him. He
also introduced to him his two sons.
Next day, Tsze-lu went on his way, and
reported his adventure. The Master said,
"He is a recluse," and sent Tsze-lu back
to see him again, but when he got to the
place, the old man was gone.
Tsze-lu then said to the family, "Not to
take office is not righteous. If the
relations between old and young may not
be neglected, how is it that he sets
aside the duties that should be observed
between sovereign and minister? Wishing
to maintain his personal purity, he
allows that great relation to come to
confusion. A superior man takes office,
and performs the righteous duties
belonging to it. As to the failure of
right principles to make progress, he is
aware of that."
The men who have retired to privacy from
the world have been Po-i, Shu-ch'i,
Yuchung, I-yi, Chu-chang, Hui of
Liu-hsia, and Shao-lien.
The Master said, "Refusing to surrender
their wills, or to submit to any taint
in their persons; such, I think, were
Po-i and Shu-ch'i.
"It may be said of Hui of Liu-hsia! and
of Shaolien, that they surrendered their
wills, and submitted to taint in their
persons, but their words corresponded
with reason, and their actions were such
as men are anxious to see. This is all
that is to be remarked in them.
"It may be said of Yu-chung and I-yi,
that, while they hid themselves in their
seclusion, they gave a license to their
words; but in their persons, they
succeeded in preserving their purity,
and, in their retirement, they acted
according to the exigency of the times.
"I am different from all these. I have
no course for which I am predetermined,
and no course against which I am
The grand music master, Chih, went to
Kan, the master of the band at the
second meal, went to Ch'u. Liao, the
band master at the third meal, went to
Ts'ai. Chueh, the band master at the
fourth meal, went to Ch'in.
Fang-shu, the drum master, withdrew to
the north of the river.
Wu, the master of the hand drum,
withdrew to the Han.
Yang, the assistant music master, and
Hsiang, master of the musical stone,
withdrew to an island in the sea.
The duke of Chau addressed his son, the
duke of Lu, saying, "The virtuous prince
does not neglect his relations. He does
not cause the great ministers to repine
at his not employing them. Without some
great cause, he does not dismiss from
their offices the members of old
families. He does not seek in one man
talents for every employment."
To Chau belonged the eight officers,
Po-ta, Po-kwo, Chung-tu, Chung-hwu,
Shu-ya, Shuhsia, Chi-sui, and Chi-kwa.
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