Copyright © 2000, 2001 by Richard I. Schwartz
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David C. Hall
David C. Hall (b Lyme NH 16 May 1822; d Boston 11 Feb 1900) was a keyed bugle player and bandleader. On 15 April 1850, he received a solid gold Eb keyed bugle from the members of the Lowell, Massachusetts brass band as a special presentation; and Hall succeeded Gilmore as conductor of the Boston Brass Band in 1853 (Robert E. Eliason, "Hall, D(avid) C.," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians). Hall performed for years on an exact gold plated replica of the bugle. They had twelve keys and one rotary valve to "extend the tone" ( Ayars 1969, 225).
His interests were also in manufacturing brass instruments. His career started with his employment with Joseph Lathrop ALLEN in 1861, making rotary valve brass instruments with ALLEN valves. In 1862, Hall established his own company. Between 1865 and 1869, Benjamin (b Minot, ME 3 July 1830; d Boston 9 July 1890), George, Leonard, and John Quinby joined forces with David Hall, and the company was known as "Hall and Quinby." The company manufactured "rotary valve instruments of every description" (Boston Directory 1870).
Contributions to the Art of Music by the Music Industries of Boston, 1640 to 1936 (Ayars 1969, 225) mentions that a complete set of "Echo" instruments were manufactured by his company and were performed by members of Hall’s Boston Brass Band when they went on tour. This set was displayed at the Chickering & Son’s Exhibition in 1902. When they were played on tour, "the audience generally supposed that there was an extra band behind the stage." The set was comprised of one Bb Tenor, one Bb "Baritone Trombone," one Bb "Bass Euphonium," one "Baritone Euphonium," one Eb Alto, one "F Ballad or French horn," and one C Trumpet. At the exhibition was also a "piston box valve" Bb cornet and a three "piston box valve" Bb Tenor Trombone.
As "B. F. Quinby", Benjamin and George Quinby were already active in Boston as manufacturers of brass instruments beginning in 1861. In 1865, they were joined by their brothers, Leonard and John. In 1865, "Hall & Quinby" bought the entire stock and tools of "Allen & Hall" and introduced new inventions (Ayars 1969, 268; Waterhouse 1993, 158). In 1870, WRIGHT bought into the firm and it was known as "Hall, Quinby, Wright & Co." After Wright’s death in 1871, the company again became "Hall & Quinby." In 1872, "Hall & Quinby" owned and managed the entire stock and tools of "E. G. Wright & Co." (Ayars 1969, 270).
In 1876, Hall quit the company to form his own firm again and the "Quinby Brothers" began business. The "Quinby Brothers" finally dissolved in 1884, being bought by the Standard Band Instrument Company (Waterhouse 1993, 157-158, 316). After 1880, Hall retired from instrument manufacturing and spent his time as a bandleader until the late nineteenth century (Robert E. Eliason, "Hall, D(avid) C.," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians).
Main references for the above were The New Langwill Index (Waterhouse 1993), Contributions to the Art of Music in America by the Music Industries of Boston 1640 to 1936 (Ayars 1969), and Robert E. Eliason, "Hall, D(avid) C.," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Other references are listed throughout the entry.
Company markings on cornets include: (Myers and Parks 1994, 25)
HALL & QUINBY
Cornets listed in company catalogue dated c1879: (Adams 1998, 78-85)
[1)-6) below built by A. Lecomte & Co., Paris and 7)-10) by Quinby Brothers]:1) Cornopean in Bb with three Stölzel Valves (listed as cornet)
2) Cornet in Bb with three Périnet Valves (not a shepherd’s crook)
3) Cornet in Bb with three Périnet Valves
4) Cornet in Eb with three Périnet Valves "best make" or "Champion, best make"
5) Cornet in Bb with three Périnet Valves "Model P. O., oval bore[?]"
6) Cornet in Bb with three Périnet Valves "Courtois shape" [large round crook] with "Arban & Levy’s latest pattern"
7) Cornet in Bb with three top action rotary valves "Orchestra shape" in brass or German silver
8) Cornet in C/Bb with three side action rotary valves "Orchestra shape" in brass or German silver
9) Cornet in Eb with three side action rotary valves "Pocket shape" or in a "Long pattern" [long lead pipe] in brass or German silver
10) Cornet in Bb with three top action rotary valves "Orchestra shape" in brass or German silver
Prices range from $10.32 for no. 1) to $55.00 for no. 10) in German silver
Known as Hawkes & Co. from 1860 to 1875, the firm was first established in 1860 as an importer of brass instruments in London by William Henry Hawkes (1830-1900), a state trumpet player for Queen Victoria. In 1869, he began to repair instruments, but soon manufactured instruments and sold published music, as well. In the late nineteenth century, the company was one of the most important publishers of brass and military music in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (Newsome 1998, 95). In 1891, W. H. Hawkes and Son began publishing a brass band journal called The Eclipse Band Journal. With the exception of Wright & Round’s publications in England, this journal was one of the most significant publications for brass band music in the early to mid-1890’s (Newsome 1998, 106). It was advertised even as late as 1916. In 1902, the company bought the tools of "A. Morton & Co., late A. Morton & Sons." In 1924, a one acre factory was opened at Edgware, north London, and three years later, the company employed between 200 and 250 workers. This large producer of brass instruments was bought by BOOSEY in 1930 to form what is known today as "Boosey & Hawkes" (Waterhouse 1993, 165).
References for the entire entry were The New Langwill Index (Waterhouse 1993); . Brass Roots: A Hundred Years of Brass Bands and Their Music, 1836-1936 (Newsome 1998); Historical Musical Instruments in the Edinburgh University Collection: Catalogue of the Edinburgh University Collection of Historic Musical Instruments Volume 2 Part H Fascicle ii: Cornets and Tubas (Myers and Parks 1994); and Historical Musical Instruments in the Edinburgh University Collection: Catalogue of the Edinburgh University Collection of Historic Musical Instruments. Volume 2 Part H Fascicle iii: Trumpets and Trombones (Myers and Parks 1998).
Company markings on brass instruments include: (Waterhouse 1993, 165)
HAWKES & SON
Serial numbers for Hawkes & Son: (Myers and Parks 1994, 55, et al.)
(the earliest accessible numbers)
Rivière & Hawkes:
This partnership in London between William H. Hawkes and Jules Prudence Rivière (b Aix-en-Othe 6 Nov 1819; d 1900) was begun in 1865 with the establishment of the journal, The Musical Progress (Newsome 1998, 95). It specialized in brass and military band music. The company was called "Rivière & Hawkes" by 1876. Rivière had emigrated to England in 1857. The company dissolved with the withdrawal of Rivière in 1889. Their business was located at 54 Castle Street, Leicester Square.
Serial numbers:1326 c1885 (Myers and Parks 1998, 65)
2760 c1880 (Myers and Parks 1998, 44)
These dates are not sequentially compatible.
(Manchester, England 1842 – p1950)
Established in 1842 by Joseph Higham (b Manchester 1818; d Manchester 1883), the company was making instruments for the Army by 1852, and by 1863, they were supplying instruments for the Army and Navy and exporting them as well. In 1857, the firm patented the "clear bore system" for rotary valve brass instruments (GB # 123) and in 1895, the "echo bell" trombone (GB #13630). Higham’s cornets had a valve system which consisted of a piston traveling through what appears as a valve casing, operating a rotary valve. Patented by Higham in Great Britain 1857 (GB #123) (Eliason 1981, 44), these valves are much like those of FISKE, who patented the idea much later in 1866 in the United States (US #74331). Some cornets also had a patented quick-change key devise attached to the tuning slide to change the instrument from Bb to A, or vice versa (Rose , 206-207). In 1860, Higham founded the 1st Manchester Volunteer Battalion Band. According to Talks with Bandsmen: A Popular Handbook for Brass Instrumentalists (Rose , 202), he was the first manufacturer to offer instruments as prizes at Brass Band contests in England. He supported such events and helped to establish the Brass Band contest as a viable performing vehicle.
In 1852, William Hillyard (b Athlone, Ireland 1821; d ?Philadelphia) worked for Higham after apprenticing with his uncle, John McNeill in Dublin. He also worked for Henry DISTIN. In 1862, William opened his own instrument manufactory in London (1862-1894) and later in Philadelphia (1896-1897) as "Hillyard & Barnes." Between 1871 and 1882, the famous Alexandre Le Forestier worked for Higham in Manchester before going to J. W. PEPPER as foreman from 1888 to 1895.
In 1883, Higham’s son-in-law, Peter Robinson (b Salford 1835), succeeded him as owner of the company. In 1892, the firm had expanded so much that it opened a branch in London with R. D. Cubitt as manager. 1893, the company had already produced 46,000 instruments, according to their records. In 1894, the company had over 90 people on its payroll, most of them English by birth or naturalized as such. In c1904, the company began to produce woodwind instruments. Peter Robinson sold out his portion of the business in 1911. In 1923, "Mayers & Harrison" were the owners (Clifford Bevan, "Higham, Joseph," in The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments lists the date as 1930). In 1934, the owners became the "Premier Drum Company." During WWII, production of instruments ceased. After the war, "Mayers & Harrison" became the owners once again.
The firm was represented at the London International Exhibition of 1862, being awarded a medal for improving the tubular arrangement in cornets. In 1865, the company also won a medal in Dublin for their instruments(Clifford Bevan, "Higham, Joseph," in The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments). The company was represented at the Columbian Exhibition in Chicago in 1893 (Waterhouse 1993, 175).
Main references for the above were The New Langwill Index (Waterhouse 1994) and
Clifford Bevan, "Higham, Joseph," in The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. Other references are listed throughout the entry.
Company markings on cornets include: (Myers and Parks 1994, 52, et al.)
2. VICTORIA ST & 31 GT DUCIE ST
J. HIGHAM LTD
PATENT (Tarr , 45)
INVENTOR & PATENTEE
2 VICTORIA ST MANCHESTER
Serial numbers: (Myers and Parks 1994, 58, et al.)
4709 1862 (or soon after) (Myers and Parks 1998, 22)
24726 c1876 (Myers and Parks 1998, 64)
31421 c1880 (Myers and Parks 1994, 58, et al.)
38128 c1883 (same)
44193 c1890 (same)
45787 c1892 (Myers and Parks 2000, 42)
52146 c1895 (Myers and Parks 1994, 58, et al.)
54458 c1893 [?] (same)
55162 c1895 (same)
56157 c1910 (same)
71593 c1925 (Myers and Parks 1998, 73)
The serial number 17650 is also listed for c1890 (Myers and Parks 1994, 52). The date, however, is out of order and does not correspond closely with the inscription on the specific instrument.
(London 1780 – p1907)
This London company was successively run by the following individuals:
1) 1780-1801 John Köhler I (b Volkenroda, Cassel c1735; d London c1805)
2) 18-? John Köhler II (b Germany c1770; d London c1870)
3) 1834-1863 John Augustus Köhler(b London c1810; d London 20 April 1878)
4) 1863-p1907 John August and his son, Augustus Charles Köhler
1) John Köhler I was a Hessian mercenary soldier who went to London in c1775. He later became a bandmaster of the Lancaster Volunteers. In 1790, he worked as a maker of horns and entered his silver hallmark "IK" [horn] at Goldsmith’s Hall. In 1794, he was listed as a seller of instruments in Doane’s directory.
2) John I asked his nephew, John II, to join him, and in 1801, John II succeeded him as owner. The firm was hired to make instruments for the Duke of York and later for the Prince of Wales (Horace Fitzpatrick, "Köhler," in The New Groves Dictionary of Musical Instruments). Between the years of 1811 and 1834, Thomas Percival was his business partner and in 1833 the firm built the Thomas Harper’s "improved model" slide trumpet.
3) In 1835, John Augustus, son of John II, entered his silver hallmark "IK" at Goldsmith’s Hall [the type of instrument is unclear in The New Langwill Index (Waterhouse 1993, 210)] and in 1838 purchased the rights to build instruments with Shaw valves. He later improved them with the names "patent lever" and "new patent lever" valves. Their production included cornets with three Shaw disk valves and the "Bailey’s Improved Acoustic" cornet. This long instrument had short wide Berlin type valves and a bell which extended underneath the instrument.
John Augustus was also involved in the manufacture of the three Stölzel valve cornopean with the Macfarlane clapper. His instruments won medals at the London Exhibitions of 1851 and 1862 (Horace Fitzpatrick, "Köhler," in The New Groves Dictionary of Musical Instruments). 4) In 1863, John Augustus formed a partnership with his son, Augustus Charles, called "Köhler & Son." They stayed in business until 1904. In 1907, "Swaine & Adeney" bought Köhler and built short-model and Percival-type hunting horns (Waterhouse 1993, 209-210).
Main references for the above were The New Langwill Index (Waterhouse 1993) and Horace Fitzpatrick, "Köhler," in The New Groves Dictionary of Musical Instruments. Other references are listed throughout the entry.
Company markings on brass instruments include:
KÖHLER & SON (Waterhouse 1993, 210)
1858 (Waterhouse 1993, 210)
KÖHLER & SON
Company markings on cornets include:
KÖHLER SOLE MAKER (Tarr , 65)
35 HENRIETTA STR
COVENT GARDEN LONDON (underneath)
INVENTOR (to the left and right on the sides)
BY HER MAJESTY’S ROYAL LETTERS PATENT (on top)
522 1840 (or soon after) (Tarr n.d., 65)
789 c1860 (Myers and Parks 1998, 74)
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