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Note: interesting article for the Just intonation freaks....:-)

Just Intonation Defined:

Just intonation refers to music in which the scale intervals are precisely
tuned to pure harmony. Harmonics are exact,
whole-number multiples of a fundamental frequency, and are a natural phenomenon
of vibrating bodies. A string vibrating at a fundamental frequency of 100 cycles-per-second, 
also vibrates simultaneously
at harmonic frequencies of 200, 300,
400, 500, etc. cycles-per-second. Historically, the notes of musical scales
in all cultures were based on these pure

Singing or playing in just intonation requires slight shifts in pitch for
any given note. For example, in just intonation
middle-C varies in pitch depending on the other notes with which it is being
played. Choral and chamber groups can
perform in this manner, but fixed tone instruments like pianos and guitars
cannot. Therefore, these instruments use
tempered rather than just intonation. Tempered intonation is not in tune
with natural harmonics. Just intonation is.

Historic Tuning Problem:

Music, the timeless international language, is being transformed by modern
computer and signal processing technology.
Justonic Tuning Inc. is contributing to this revolution with a solution to
one of music's oldest challenges: precise harmonic

Ancient Chinese and Greek musicians discovered the natural harmonics, and
the scales of all cultures were derived from
those harmonics. They also discovered that fixed tone instruments cannot
freely modulate to all musical keys when so
tuned. In the middle ages musicians began tempering their keyboard and fretted
instruments to allow for some

Keyboards and frets digitized musical intonation, dividing the natural continuum
of tones into distinct points that were not
meant to change. Skilled musicians loathed the aesthetic compromise. "The
easiest (system) to sing," said Marin
Mersenne in 1636, "is that which follows the natural harmonics." At that
time, when Giovani Monteverdi introduced the
dominant seventh chord, its dissonance was more sharply felt than it is today.
When a modern, tempered orchestra plays
Monteverdi, the contrast between true consonance and dissonance is obscured.
Inversions, modulations, and other
compositional resources have also been dulled by temperament.

In 1685, the year that Bach was born, Andreas Werckmeister applied integral
calculus to the problem and came up with
the entirely contrived equal tempered scale, eventually adopted by piano
makers. Bach, however, wrote for meantone
and "well" temperament in which the thirds and fifths were sweet and pure
in the "near" keys and became more out of
tune in the "distant" keys. When played in equal temperament the full radiance
of Bach harmony is compromised.
Likewise, a Mozart vocal harmony was written to be sung in tune. A tempered
version is still music, but it isn't what the
composer intended, and it does not reveal the full genius behind the harmony.

Equal temperament was the final compromise, making all keys equally out of
tune. Beethoven introduced the age of fast
chord changes and modulations made simple by equal temperament. Strauss,
Verdi, Brahms, Tchaikovsy, and others
carried on this tradition, and there is no question that they wrote great
music, but none could restore the harmonic
integrity abandoned for the convenience of equal temperament.

The simultaneous achievement of both pure harmony and free modulation has
long been the elusive Holy Grail of
instrument makers. Nineteenth century keyboard designers built instruments
with up to 53 digitals per octave to solve the
problem, but these mechanical solutions proved too cumbersome to play, and
instrument makers abandoned the search.

There is no way around it: For music to modulate freely, and for all intervals
to remain in perfect harmonic relationship,
the actual frequency of all notes must be flexible. Furthermore, to be practical,
the changes must be instantaneous in real
time. By using original software, computer memory, and signal processing
innovations, Justonic Tuning Inc. has achieved
an historic solution to this musical problem.

The patented Justonic innovations not only restore to music the lost harmonies
of Monteverdi, Bach, and Mozart, but
open up a whole new world of tonal possibilities for modern musicians. The
Justonic method facilitates the use of
international musical scales since most of these scales are based on pure
harmonic intervals.

"Wean singers early from the piano. When the piano plays ... proper vertical
intonation cannot be
achieved." Harvard choral director Jameson Marvin.

The Justonic method not only solves this problem for choral directors, but
makes the piano a source of correct intonation
rather than a hindrance to correct intonation. Pure harmonic intonation by
Justonic will set a new standard in musical
sound quality.

The medieval sacrifice of harmonic integrity for a dubious gain in simplicity
has limited the ability of musicians to achieve
the full power and delicacy of their art. Justonic Tuning Inc. believes that
its methods and products will benefit the world
of music by returning to composers and musicians their full and rightful
pallet of tonal colors, the foundation of their art

On Harmonic Intonation:

"Even J.S. Bach had to put up with these limitations and the harmonic impurity
they engender. I'm sure that he would be
delighted to use electronic musical instruments if he were alive today. Digital
synthesizers have sufficient precision and
control to bring microtonality into more general use." Wendy Carlos, in the
Forward to Tuning In, Microtonality in
Electronic Music, Hal Leonard Books, 1988.

"...once you've heard what it sounds like to play absolutely in tune, there's
no turning back." John Schneider, "Fine
Tuning," Acoustic Guitar, May/June, 1994.

"The twelve equal tempered scale gives a sound too mechanical, artificial
and limiting. It is not adequate for expressing
the purity and complexity of religious experience. The wonderousness of the
human mind is too great to be transfered into
music only by 7 or 12 elements of tone steps in one octave. There are millions
of steps of microtones, and none is to be
thrown away, just like nothing is to be wasted in this world." Masayuki Koga,
Shakuhachi master, The Japanese
Bamboo Flute, 1989.

What Musicians Are Saying About Justonic Tuning:

"The Justonic tuning is more mellow, because of the overtones, defininetely."
Paul Horn, Grammy award winning flutist.

"I rigorously tested every type of chord from C major to F#13 (b9, b5). .
. all chords sound better in the Justonic
system." Juno award winning jazz guitarist Oliver Gannon.

"An exciting new product ... a microtunable synthesizer unlike any on the
market today ... avoids the rounding errors that
can arise from computation-based systems. It's also faster, which makes it
ideal for live performance." Scott Wilkinson,
technical editor, Electronic Musician magazine.

"I am delighted that you are working on an idea I have dreamt of for years
... one day somebody making a machine that
can tune to any scale and play in real time." Fathi Saleh, composer, Cairo,
Egypt, 1995.

Market Demand for Just Intonation:

"I'm passionately excited by the promise of any possible timbre, any possible
tuning." Wendy Carlos, composer,
Switched on Bach, Beauty in the Beast; from Computer Music Journal, 11 (1),

"Wean singers early from the piano. When the piano plays, the conductor cannot
hear or listen acutely for problems of
intonation... Perfect [intervals] that are in tune with the overtone series
are not in tune with the piano; thus, proper vertical
intonation cannot be achieved." Jameson Marvin, Director of Choral Activities,
Harvard University, "Choral Singing, In
Tune," Choral Journal, 32 (5), 1991.

"Sustained major thirds, which work perfectly well on an organ tuned to one
of the unequal temperaments common in the
seventeenth century, ... fight unmercifully on today's equally tempered
instruments." Arthur Benade, Fundamentals of
Musical Acoustics, Oxford University Press, 1976.

"Once you have heard the power and beauty of these alternative frettings,
modern equal temperament seems a very poor
substitute indeed." John Schneider, "Fine Tuning," Acoustic Guitar, May/June,

Your Input Is Important:

We would like to know what you think about our site, about just intonation,
about our products and also the features you
would like to see in our products. Please e-mail us at

Return To:

Historic tuning problem
How to order
Other just intonation sites
Justonic Home Page

Last update Feb. '97 © 1996-1997 Justonic Tuning Inc. e-mail:

How to order the Pitch Palette music software:

Phone --> 1-888-688-3456 VISA, MasterCard, AMEX

Fax --> 1-604-669-3301 Fax your order

E-mail --> With your mailing information and credit
card, or your mailing information and phone
number so we may contact you for your credit card #.

Mail --> Send your order to: Justonic Tuning Inc., #103, 1650 Alberni
Street, Vancouver, BC V6G 1A6 Canada


1.Pitch Palette for PC, Windows $199.00 USD
2.Pitch Palette for PC, Windows for institutions and schools (3-5 copies).
For larger orders contact Justonic.
$99.00 USD
3."Stay Tuned" T-shirt (M, L, XL) $19.00 USD
4.Story of Harmony book $22.50 USD

Mac users: let us know if you wish to be on our mailing list for the Mac-version

Other pages:

Historic tuning problem
What exactly is just intonation?
What are they saying about us?
Other just intonation sites
Justonic Home Page

Last update Feb. '97 © 1996-1997 Justonic Tuning Inc. e-mail:

On This Page:

Justonic's system
Justonic Pitch Palette
What It Does
Screen shots
Supported synths
Justonic Tone Palette
Ordering software
Home Page

What You Can Do With Justonic's System:

Dynamic, real-time harmonic intonation
International and historical musical scales
ChorDetector automatic chord and tonal center recognition
Manual override of tonal center selection
Precise harmony parts for choral arrangements
Complete intonation and scale flexibility
User scale editor

Justonic Pitch Palette:

Software contains the MicroTuner, Scale Editor, Scale Calculator, Root Selection,
Scale Graph, Sequencer, Menu of
historic and international scales, and much more.

PC with Windows 3.1, WFW 3.11 or Windows 95, 1.5 megs of free hard-drive
space (Mac version coming soon).

Pitch Palette works with any sound card or synthesizer with microtuning

Sound card: with a sound card you can play chords using only the computer,
and the software keyboard included
in the Justonic MicroTuner for teaching or rehearsals, or you can play MIDI
Sound module, keyboard or guitar synthesizer: connect your synth to the computer
via a computer-MIDI
interface, like the Voyetra Parallel MIDI port.


Separate keyboard or guitar MIDI controller
Additional keyboard for Key and Root input
Foot pedal keyboard for Root input while playing with both hands busy
MIDI-merge boxes to merge these separate keyboards
Other MIDI software, sequencer, accompaniment software, whatever you like


Five easy steps:

1.Connect your computer and your MIDI synthesizer
2.Install the software
3.Bring up the software on your desktop: you will see the Justonic pure harmony
tuner at the bottom of your screen,
the ChorDetector at the top right, and a graph of the default harmonic scale
in the top left. Select scales from the
4.Select a key to start (just click on the key button!)
5.Play music!

What It Does:

With the Justonic Pitch Palette software, the musician plays in the familiar
context although the system is using more than
150 distinct tones within each octave. The Justonic software makes the same
tuning adjustments a well trained chamber
music player makes based on the parameters of reference pitch, scale, key,
and harmonic structure. Pure just intonation
requires that the frequency of each note varies with the harmonic structure.
The Justonic method refers to this parameter
as the "tuning root".

The tuning root can be sequenced or selected by the Justonic software, but
the discerning musician may want manual
control over this parameter. Musicians who use the Justonic tuning method
soon discover not only the natural beauty of
properly tuned chords, but the exquisite power and subtle nuances of tuning
root variations.

The default reference frequency of A-440 can be changed at the discretion
of the musician. A chromatic scale is selected,
allowing harmonic experiments with world music scales. The musical key may
be preselected, and may change at any
time during performance. The choice of a tuning root sets the dynamic intonation
of the instrument. Notes are selected by
the player in the traditional manner using keyboard, guitar, or other controller.

During performance, the key and tuning root may be changed in real time by
several means:

Sequenced: key and tuning root instructions on a MIDI sequence track for
any pre-determined musical piece or
Software: For free improvisation Justonic has written software that recognizes
harmonic structure on the fly, and
assigns a tuning root. However, ambiguous chords such as Cmaj6 and Am7 may
be tuned differently. Since these
chords are meant to perform different musical roles, the fact that they can
sound different is musically
advantageous. In this way, just intonation restores the subtlety of tonal
techniques obscured by temperament.
Musicians will discover that this is a point of artistic choice, and will
want manual control over the tuning root.
Manual: Key and tuning root may be selected manually in real time with foot
pedals, a secondary keyboard, or
other switches. The switches may control all tuning root selections in a
piece of music, or may simply override the
sequenced or software selection at the discretion of the musician. A single
"root player" could select the tuning root
for all networked instruments in an ensemble.

Musicians will find that the tuning root parameter is a important and expressive
musical element. By ignoring this
fundamental feature of music, temperament allowed music to be played without
the musician having to listen to and adjust
the intonation of each note. Musicians will discover new sources of creativity
once this intonation awareness is reclaimed,
and the Justonic music synthesizer makes this not only possible, but simple.

Scale selection: there are an infinite number of scale choices. Another of
the serious aesthetic limitations of tempered
music is that we have locked ourselves into one chromatic scale. It's as
if painters were forced to throw out all but a few
simple colors from their palette, or if dancers hobbled themselves with leg

We have virtually ignored the harmonic seventh, the neutral thirds and sevenths
of middle eastern music, the alternative
minor thirds, and variety of wholetones. All of this we have relinquished
for simplicity. Modern technology allows us to
reclaim these lost musical scale resources. The Justonic system allows the
composer or musician to use any cultural,
historical, or newly created just scale. This opens the whole world of tonal
possibilities to modern musicians.

Blues scales, quartertone scales, Raga scales, and hundreds of other choices
are available and simple to use with the
Justonic system. One difficulty musicians have had in the past with these
just scales is that they require flexibility with each
note if one is to play polyphonically. Arabic music, for example, has developed
with very little harmonic embellishment
because of this problem. Justonic is working with musicians around the world
to solve this problem for any harmonic or
just scale.

Western musicians looking for something new in music will be delighted with
the tonal possibilities available simply by
having more scale choices that are easily available and simple to apply to
familiar harmonic forms.

For choral or chamber ensembles who strive for pure harmony, the Justonic
system will be helpful since the chords may
be played in precise just intonation, and each player can hear his or her
intonation in harmonic context.

Musicians may want to detune an interval up or down to achieve any number
of musical effects. The Justonic system
allows for these additional pitch shifts, and when the default intonation
is pure, the musician can more easily hear the
desired detuning effect.

Each generation, each culture, gives something new to music. Music evolves.
It is the goal of Justonic Tuning Inc. to
restore the lost harmonic foundations of music that were sacrificed because
of the limits of an earlier technology. Music
evolves, and returns to where it all started.

The Justonic Tone Palette:

Justonic Tuning Inc. has built a DSP-based additive synthesizer that surpasses
anything on the market in tuning resolution
and in the flexibility of building sounds.

Our software works with any synth or sound card that has microtuning capability,
but we have discovered that none -
none! - of these synthesizers or sound cards have the tuning resolution required
by good harmonic music. Therefore, if
you want to achieve perfectly pure harmonics, recommend the Justonic Tone

This synth can be controlled be either keyboard or guitar. For guitar control
we use the Virtual DSP Corp. Predictor

We were unhappy also with current sampling technology. Sampling can give
a fairly accurate, but completely frozen
sound. We wanted sounds that matched acoustic sounds perfectly, and yet were
entirely flexible, so that new sounds
could be easily created and used. We've gone back to additive synthesis,
the bedrock of good sound synthesis. In
alliance with Virtual DSP Corp. we have pioneered three levels of efficiency
in DSP (digital signal processing) and
additive engineering. Using the latest, fastest, most compact DSP technology,
we have increased - by two orders of
magnitude - the number of operators available to create sounds. This gives
the Justonic Tone Palette both accuracy and
flexibility. We call this synthesis engine High Definition Additive

The tuning resolution of most synthesizers on the market - if they are tunable
at all - is around 1 cycle per second (Hz.)
As a result, even a nominally "harmonic" tuning will result in audible beats
within the chord. The Justonic Pure Tone™ has
a tuning resolution of 0.01 Hz, 100-times finer. This resolution gives the
musician true harmonic chords. Once you've
heard what these chords sound like, your idea of music will be changed forever.
We call this tuning technology Justonic
High Resolution Tuning. Precise and flexible tuning. Precise and flexible
sound generation. These are the quality features
of the Justonic Tone Palette.

Other pages:
Music & Numbers:

The mathematics in this page are nothing more than we were all exposed to
in the fifth grade, the multiplication of
fractions. The precise tuning of the musical scale relies on such fractions,
and cannot be accurately presented without
them. Everyone knows that 1/2 equals one-half. Similarly, 3/2 is three-halves,
and 5/4 is five-quarters. Pure harmonic
tuning, known as just intonation, is based on these fractions and these
relationships to each other. What we will discover
is that Ab's and all the E's and all the C's are not equal in just intonation,
and this is the problem of pure tuning.

For example, the first three notes of the scale (Do, Re, Me) beginning with
the note "C" are: "C", "D", and "E". The
second note, "D", is 9/8 times the frequency of the first note, and the third
note, "E", is 5/4 times the frequency of the
first. So, the frequencies of these three notes in the "C" scale are:

C 1/1 x 528 = 528 cycles per second

D 9/8 x 528 = 594 cycles per second

E 5/4 x 528 = 660 cycles per second

However, if we want to start our scale on the "D" note, we face the tuning
problem head on with the second note of that

D 1/1 x 594 = 594 cycles per second

E 9/8 x 594 = 668.25 cycles per second

The "E" in the scale of "C" is 660 cycles per second, whereas in the scale
of "D" it is 668.25 cycles per second. Making
this small adjustment is not difficult for singers, violin players, cellists,
or players of instruments that do not have fixed
tones. But this is a problem for any instrument with fixed tones such as
a piano, organ, or guitar. Should the "E" be tuned
to 660 or 668.25 cycles per second?

There are many more of these tuning adjustments required in all the possible
chords of all the musical keys. To play pure
harmonic music, every note must be flexible. Since piano strings and guitar
frets are fixed, not moveable, these
instruments are tempered, always slightly out of tune.

The Justonic software makes the same tuning adjustments a good a cappella
choir or chamber group makes. This allows
pianos and guitars, with MIDI interface, to accompany just intonation ensembles,
choral, chamber, and jazz groups that
were previously restricted to instruments such as the voice, violin, or horns.
Furthermore, popular music based on pianos
and guitars, can now be played in pure harmony. Ancient and classical music
written for just intonation can now be
re-recorded and re-released in correct intonation as the composers intended.
Finally, the Justonic method opens up the
whole world of historic and international scales. These scales, based on
pure harmonics require real-time tuning changes
to allow for free modulation and harmonic development.

What Does The Justonic Music System Do?

Short definition for those who just want to play: (go to technical definition)

The Justonic system allows fixed tone or fretted instruments (keyboards and
guitars) to play pure harmonic music which
requires that all notes must be flexible, and they must be precisely retuned,
on the fly, in real-time as you play.

Some synthesizers on the market today allow you to create an harmonic scale.
For example, you can retune your synth
to a C harmonic scale. You can then play a beautiful C chord or C melody.
However, when you move to a D, E or
other chord, you are hopelessly out of tune. Likewise, you can tune guitar
strings to pure harmonics, but when you do
this the two E-strings are out of tune, and as you play up the neck, the
frets are not in tune with the harmonics. You're

The Justonic system automatically reads the chord structure and retunes all
the notes on the fly. This allows the musician
to play pure harmonic music. You don't have to be a synth wizard or computer
programmer to use this system. Just play.

In addition to allowing pure harmonic tuning, the Justonic system allows
musicians to experiment with international and
historic scales, Indian raga scales, Arabic scales with quarter-tone thirds,
harmonic blues scales, and other choices.
These scales, based on pure harmonics will add richness and variety to music.

Choral teachers and barbershop quartets will find that the Justonic software
or synthesizer is a useful tool for hearing
precise harmony arrangements. Likewise, chamber ensembles will be able to
use the system for rehearsals. The Justonic
system gives precise harmonic chords that the musicians can clearly hear
and mimic on acoustic instruments. Music
teachers will find this useful for teaching students to hear what proper
harmony sounds like.

For the more technically inclined:

The Justonic system starts from any 12-tone just, or harmonic scale based
on whole-number ratios. A default scale is
ready to go, other harmonic scales are provided, and the user can create
his or her own scales to use with the system.

From this basic scale the system creates a 3-dimensional array of tones based
on the parameters of musical key, chord
or tonal center, and selected intervals. Rather than twelve tones per octave
the Justonic system employs - depending on
the scale being used - anywhere from 100 to 150 tones per octave. A starting
key is selected by the user. The Justonic
software follows the music, and adjusts the tonal center. The musician simply
plays the keyboard, guitar, or other synth
controller, and the Justonic system does the rest, precisely retuning each
note as it is sounded.

There are default settings for rooting each chord on a tonal center, but
the discerning musician will soon discover this
selection has an element of artistic choice. Therefore, the Justonic system
allows the musician to override these defaults
by using a secondary keyboard, foot pedals, or designated octave of the primary
controller. This flexibility allows the
musician to achieve vast artistic nuance with each chord. Try a minor-7 rooted
on its tonic. Try a minor-7 rooted on its
fifth. These two versions of the chord will sound different, although both
will be true to harmonics, and both will be useful
in different musical contexts.

For even greater nuance, try these chords in various harmonic scales. For
example, the "septimal" blues scale bases the
minor-third and minor-seventh on the seventh harmonic. These bluesy notes
are much flatter than the tempered versions,
they are harmonically pure, and they give the blues scales a rich but haunting

This is only the beginning. Musicians will soon discover that with the Justonic
system the tonal palette has been expanded
to allow virtually infinite combination of scale and tonal flexibility. Music
has at last been unchained from the mechanical,
seventeenth century, equal tempered scale.

The Scale Editor below, makes it easy for Musicians to make artistic choices:
(for more product information, goto the
Products page)

On this page: Rex Weyler, Bill Gannon, Steve Dame, Anne L Coulombe, Shelly
Kantrow, Thomas Langley, Linda
Gannon, Yasha Spong, Oliver Gannon, Paul Horn, Patty Hervey.

Rex Weyler:

Rex is a journalist, author, and an amateur musician. He has a background
in mathematics and engineering. About his
interest in harmonic tuning he says: " My partner, Bill, and I used to amuse
ourselves with solving mathematical problems.
We also played in a band together. The day Bill first played a pure harmonic
major triad for me on his MIDI setup I
knew I was hearing something very beautiful. My natural pitch recognition
was only average, but I could clearly hear the
difference with that very first chord, and I thought then and there that
this is the way harmonic music was meant to sound.

"Our research into the problem of harmonic tuning and free modulation led
us to all the familiar pronouncements that the
problem was 'insurmountable,' and the tempered compromise 'inevitable.' Oh
yeah? This was just the sort of problem
that both Bill and I love to tackle. Since good choral groups, a cappella
groups like the Nylons, and other musical
ensembles not based on pianos and guitars can achieve these pure, resonating
harmonies, we reasoned that there must
be a way to design modern instruments to do the same.

"We developed a software solution, and with the help of DSP engineer, Steve
Dame, we were able to embody that
solution into a practical music synthesizer. I am so pleased that we can
now give to the great musicians and composers of
our age this wonderful tool for making music in keeping with pure harmony.
I am overjoyed that we have been able to
use advanced technology to achieve something truly beautiful and completely
natural. It is an honor to play a part in
making available to musicians the full flexibility and power of their art

Rex Weyler is the President of Justonic Tuning Inc. and can be reached by
e-mail at

Bill Gannon:

Bill grew up with music. His father was a jazz band leader from Dublin, Ireland.
In high school he taught himself the Paul
McCartney bass lines for all his favorite Beatles songs. His brother, Oliver,
became Canada's top jazz guitarist, and Bill
had a brief career as a rock bass player. Later, he became a successful
accountant and computer programmer. His
combination of talents in music, mathematics, and programming lead to his
breakthrough work on the just intonation
problem. He remembers: "When I bought my first PC in 1982, I was already
aware of the tuning problem that led to the
tempered musical scale. I assumed a computer could be used to help solve
the problem. I was amazed to discover that
Bill Gates' program BASIC had the tempered tones burned into ROM.

"MIDI instruments were just beginning to come on the market. These too simply
accepted the tempered scale for
emulating all instruments. Therefore, MIDI violins, for example, were tempered
whereas real violins could play in pure
harmony. There had to be a solution.

"I rigged up my MIDI equipment with my computer and began experimenting.
I showed my work to my friend Rex, and
the rest is history. Our goal has been to achieve perfect harmony while retaining
the practical simplicity of tempered
instruments, and giving the musician complete freedom in choosing from an
unrestricted palette of sounds."

Bill Gannon is VP, Technical Development for Justonic Tuning Inc., and in
January 1997 he was named Chairman of the
MIDI Manufacturers Association's MIDI Tuning Standard Workgroup. You can
reach him by e-mail at

Steve Dame:

Mr. Dame is the chief engineer for the Justonic synthesizer project. He is
the president and founder of Virtual DSP
Corporation, and formerly the Manager of Digital Signal Processing Systems
at Advanced Technology Labs (ATL) in
Bothell, WA. He was appointed ATL Technical Fellow in 1994 for his contribution
to Doppler signal processing on
ATL products. Mr. Dame studied music theory and composition as an undergraduate,
and performed
semi-professionally as a jazz guitarist. In 1993 he formed Virtual DSP Corp.
to develop musical pitch recognition
technology. With Justonic he is managing the High Resolution, High Definition,
Additive Synthesis Engine project.

He says: "Our goal is to build the most expressive synthesizer in the industry
with the exclusive capability of allowing
every note to be precisely tuned on the fly to better than 1/100 of a Hz.
The Justonic/VDSP innovations in synthesis
technology will also provide unprecedented levels of temporal control over
sound timbre. These advancements,
combined with other proprietary methods of linking expressive instruments
such as the guitar to the synthesis engine, will
yield new levels of musicality for the performing artists."

Anne L. Coulombe:

Justonic's software product manager, Ms. Coulombe has an MBA in Technology
Engineering Management, Cert in
Computer Science and a B.A. in Industrial Relations. She is the former Director
of Technology for Electronic Arts
Canada, and worked with Microsoft as a Program Manager for many years. She
is also Director of Special Projects for
the Vancouver Chapter of the IICS - International Interactive Communications

Ms Coulombe has successfully shipped over 20 applications and titles as well
as delivered many internal technology
based projects using interactive medias. She has been involved in technology
as well as the marketing side of software
companies for many years. Her specialty is fostering communication specially
between the technologists and the
marketing oriented interests in growing technology companies.

On the subject of the Justonic solution she first exclaimed "singing harmonies
used to drive me crazy when accompanied
by the piano or guitar, I knew it didn't sound right, but I did not have
any way of fixing it!". "The Justonic solution offers
artists the tools to revolutionize the music industry, harmonies will be
forever changed, old scales will be rediscovered,
and music lovers will delight in the new sounds that will be heard."

You may reach her by e-mail at

Shelly Kantrow:

Mr. Kantrow has been both a musician and software developer for over 30 years.
Before joining Justonic, Mr. Kantrow
developed the industry standard MIDI show control system at Richmond Sound
Design, used by Disney, Universal
Studios and many more.

Thomas Langley:

Mr. Langley is our resident jazz musician who's love is the trumpet. As he
forges ahead with increasing our repertoire of
MIDI files, he is actively looking towards the next version of the Pitch
Palette as well as completing is degree in music
at Capilano College. You may e-mail him through our address.

Musical advisors

Oliver Gannon:

Justonic musical adviser Oliver Gannon is one of Canada's most respected
jazz musicians. He won the 1982 Juno
Award for best jazz album for I Didn't Know About You, recorded with tenor
saxophonist Fraser MacPherson. He has
performed at jazz venues and festivals throughout North America, Europe,
and Russia. He recorded seven albums with
MacPherson, three albums in the late 'sixties and early 'seventies with his
group Pacific Salt, and has lately appeared on
several jazz albums including his own Oliver Gannon and Company on What it
Be Records, and RIO and Three on
Innovation Records. He is a renowned Canadian jazz guitarist known throughout
the jazz community.

He says: "I rigorously tested every type of chord from C-major to F#13(b9,b5)
... all chords sound better in the Justonic

Paul Horn:

Grammy award-winning and world-renowned flutist, Paul Horn's work spans the
genres from traditional jazz to modern
experimental music. His solo albums recorded inside the Taj Mahal and the
Pyramids pioneered what is now known as
New Age music. "The Justonic tuning is more mellow," Paul says, "because
of the overtones."

Patty Hervey:

Esteemed jazz singer Patty Hervey was an award-winning choral singer at age
8, a professional at 14, and soon began
releasing country and gospel singles in Nashville. In the 1960s she had a
#1 hit single and an album produced by Chet
Atkins. She has since focused her career on jazz, singing and playing bass
in Vancouver's best jazz venues.

Of the Justonic system she says: "I had no idea there could be a solution
to the inherent problems I have encountered
using the tempered scale. The Justonic system produces correct, pleasing
and in tune chords."

Justonic office staff:

Linda Gannon, Yasha Spong