US History Course Review
US History 1870 to Present
Grade 11

1961 - 1976

Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles sponsored by the CIA with J. F. K's permission--it fails because the Cubans know when and where it will take place
Freedom Rides-civil rights movement
Berlin Wall construction began to stop uncontrolled movement from East Germany to West Berlin and freedom
Peace Corps formed

Eisenhower's Military Industrial Speech--said that the people and government must be vigilant against the combination of M-l trying to control policy for its own purposes
23rd Amendment--electors for DC to the electoral college
Kennedy's Moon Speech--America would put a man on the moon by 1970
"Flexible response"—Kennedy’s idea that force by the communists would be met with a measured response instead of a nuclear one

Cuban Missile Crisis--Russia backs down and removes intermediate range ballistic missiles from Cuba
James Meredith integrates the University of Mississippi (Ole Miss)
Rachel Carson writes A Silent Spring--book on the effects of chemicals in the environment

1963 (1)
United Farm Workers (Cesar Chavez)--union of Hispanic migrant workers
Feminine Mystique written by Betty Friedan
March on Washington (“I Have a Dream” speech)
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty--stops above ground testing by US and USSR; beginnings of detente
Vietnam advisory force increased from 700 under Eisenhower to 15,500 under J. F. K

1963 (2)
Diem is overthrown and killed by South Vietnamese military forces
Gideon v. Wainwright--"You have a right to an attorney. If you cannot afford one ..."
Kennedy assassinated in Dallas, November 22 by Lee Harvey Oswald
1963-1969 Lyndon B. Johnson (D) President

1964 (1)
1964-1969--Great Society programs-government to take care of individuals Medicare/Medicaid/Welfare
"War on poverty"; Economic Opportunity Act (Head Start, Job Corps, VISTA)
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)

1964 (2)
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution after possible attack of US warships by NV attack craft--president given free hand in Vietnam by Congress
"Escalation" policy-a gradual build up of US military forces will be cost effective and put enough pressure on North Vietnam to end the war
 US forces top 50,000

1964 (3)
Freedom Summer--Goodman, Schwerner, and Chaney killed outside Philadelphia, MS
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Jim Crow laws outlawed)
Fannie Lou Hamer and the MDFP
24th Amendment--prohibits poll taxes in federal elections Council of Federated Organizations(COFO) formed
Nation of Islam becomes more prominent--Elijah Muhammad founder--Malcolm X chief spokesman

1965 (1)
Medicare; Medicaid
Voting Rights Act--the use of literacy tests and poll taxes outlawed
Watts riots--section of Los Angeles, one of many urban areas involved in race riots in the 1960s
1965-1968 time period US forces top 100,000

1965 (2)
Battle of Ia Drang valley (We Were Soldiers)
Doctrine of Air Mobility/Vertical Envelopment, Pacification, and Relocation processes begin in Vietnam--battle for the "hearts and minds" of the Vietnamese people
Malcolm X killed by members of the Nation of Islam

Miranda v. Arizona--"you have the right to remain silent..."
US forces top 200,000 in Vietnam

US forces top 550,000
25th Amendment--presidential succession and the selection of a new Vice-President

1968 (1)
Tet Offensive--Celebration of the Lunar New Year--Viet Cong (VC) and NVA (North Vietnamese Army) attack across South Vietnam--military defeat for the North; Viet Cong virtually destroyed; political victory for the North--many more Americans began to question the progress of the war since the government had continually announced that the war was going well and that it was possible to see "light at the end of the tunnel"

1968 (2)
US forces top 700,000
Johnson announces he will not run for re-election
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. assassinated in Memphis by James Earl Ray
My Lai Massacre--Lt. William Calley--uncovered in 1969 by Seymour Hersch

1968 (3)
Both major party candidates--Nixon (R) and Humphrey (D)--announce that they will withdraw military forces from Vietnam
Nixon campaigns on the slogan "Peace with Honor”
George Wallace (I) runs on "law and order" campaign theme
American Indian Movement (AlM) formed

1960s-1980s--Detente--gradual thawing of relations between the US and USSR
1969--Apollo 11--Eagle lander lands on the moon  --Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin
AIM occupies Alcatraz Island
US forces drop to 600,000+
Nixon Doctrine--slow disengagement and turning over the war to the South Vietnamese Army (ARVN)--“Vietnamization"
Cambodia bombing
1969-1974--Richard Nixon (R) elected; resigns because of Watergate (1974)

US invades Cambodia to attack NVA formations staging to attack in the South--this triggers protests on many college campuses across the US
Kent State--students killed during protests by National Guard
Jackson State--students killed during conflict with police
Clean Air Act
Environmental Protection Agency formed
First Earth Day

26th Amendment--18 yr. old right to vote
US forces drop below 200,000
Pentagon Papers leaked by Daniel Ellsberg--secret documents outlining US foreign policy in Vietnam and SE Asia since 1945--published by the Washington Post and NY Times--Ellsberg went to jail

Official China/US relations reestablished
Break in at the Watergate Hotel
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) proposed to the states--only gets 31 states to ratify before the deadline and dies
Clean Water Act
US forces in Vietnam drop below 125,000
SALT I--Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty US/USSR cuts the number of launch vehicles capable of delivering nuclear weapons

1973 (1)
Paris Peace Accord--ends US war in Vietnam
US withdraws most forces-small adviser and air detachments left POWs return home
War Powers Act-Congress attempts to limit the ability of a president to commit military forces without a declaration of war

1973 (2)
AIM conflict with federal marshals at Wounded Knee
Supreme Court legalized abortion in case of Roe v. Wade
Energy Crisis over oil—OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) cuts exports to punish the US for support of Israel in the 1973 "Yom Kippur" War; gas prices double

Nixon resigns
1974-1977--Gerald Ford (R) President
Ford pardons Nixon

Evacuation of Americans and friendlies from Vietnam
North Vietnamese win the war
Helsinki Accords--Human rights treaty

US commercial ship Mayaguez captured by Communists on Cambodian island; US military attacks and saves most of the crew.
American Bicentennial

1977-1981--Jimmy Carter (D) President
1977--Panama Canal Treaty gave the canal to Panama in 1997
1979---Iran hostage crisis
Camp David Accords (between Israel and Egypt)