US History Course Review
US History 1870 to Present
Grade 11

1945 - 1960

1945-1949--Nuremberg Trials-surviving Nazi leaders were tried for war crimes
1945-1953--Harry Truman (D) President
1946--Iron Curtain Speech by Winston Churchill
1946-1964--"Baby Boom"

Containment Policy--George Kennan: the US will contain Communism from spreading to democratic states by military force if necessary.
"Cold War"--US and allies versus Soviet Union and allies; not "hot”--no direct conflict/no nuclear weapons use; both sides use "proxies"/"clients"--nations and/or military forces conventional and unconventional to fight against forces of the other side.
These forces are not necessarily directly linked to the "sponsor" nation; they try to destabilize countries friendly to the other side or defend areas of interest to the sponsor

Truman Doctrine--US aided forces of democracy in Turkey and Greece against Communist insurgency
National Security Act--established the Dept. of Defense, National Security Council, and CIA
Taft-Hartley Act--(anti-union--reduced union ability to strike)

1948-49--Berlin Airlift
Israel declares nation status
First Arab-Israeli War; both the US and Soviet Union will provide varying support to different nations in the region until the early 1960s, when the US begins to consistently support Israel and the Soviet Union begins to consistently support Arab national states
1948-52-Marshall Plan-provide resources to rebuild Western Europe
Military desegregated by Executive Order

Fair Deal legislation
NATO forms to counter perceived threat from the Soviet Union China falls to communists forces under Mao Zedong (PRC-People's Republic of China); nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek retreat to Taiwan (Formosa)
USSR detonates an atomic bomb

WARSAW PACT formed by Soviets to counter NATO
NSC-68--Statement of governmental policy toward communism; assumed an expansionist nature was needed to defend against aggression; linked to containment policy and later policies toward Cuba and Vietnam

1950-1953 (1)
The Korean War began when North Korea(Kim II Sung) invaded the South(Syngman Rhee) crossing the 38th Parallel dividing line. The United Nations voted to provide military support while the US and South Korean forces were pushed back to the Pusan perimeter. MacArthur took command and counterattacked by landing behind the North Koreans at Inchon and pushed to the North Korean-Chinese border despite being warned by the Chinese to stop. China sent a million man "volunteer" army to the south and drove UN forces to the area of the 38th Parallel where a stalemate developed.

1950-1953 (2)
MacArthur was fired for advocating the use of atomic weapons and other disagreements with President Truman. Peace talks were held and an armistice was signed in 1953. Technically, the Korean War has never ended.

1950-1953 (3)
Second Red Scare--fear of communists spread to all sectors of society; hearings before the Congress led to the "blacklisting" of actors, directors, and other movie-related professions--individuals on the "blacklist" couldn't get work under their real names

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg-atomic bomb spies; executed
22nd Amendment-provides no person shall serve more than 10 year as president (two terms and no more than two year of an unexpired term)

1953-1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) President
1953-59-"Brinkmanship" policy developed--John F. Dulles, Secretary of State
Korean War armistice signed
CIA involved in the overthrow of the Premier of Iran

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. KS; Supreme Court rules the doctrine of "separate but equal" unconstitutional
Dien Bien Phu--French Army loses to the Vietminh, which leads to the Geneva Accords--a peace treaty which divided Vietnam into North (Ho Chi Minh) and South (Ngo Dinh Diem) at the 17th Parallel; elections were to be held in 1956 (but weren't)

1954 (2)
Domino Theory--idea that if one country in a region falls to communism, others will fall as well--leads to increasing American involvement in Vietnam and other areas where communists are active
CIA involved in the overthrow of the Guatemalan government
Federal Highway Act (Eisenhower Interstate System) passes Congress and will lead to an increase in population migration from urban to suburban areas

1955-1956--Montgomery Bus Boycott; Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus and is arrested; bus companies eventually end designation of seats (led by Dr. Martin Luther King)

Hungarian revolution-uprising against Soviet control-it fails when the US doesn't come to the revolutionaries support
Suez Canal crisis-After Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal, Israel attacks Egyptian forces in the Gaza strip and Sinai supported by France and Britain which seize control of the canal.
 President Eisenhower forced a cease fire and eventual withdrawal by France and Britain after USSR threatens nuclear response in defense of Egypt and other geopolitical considerations

1957 (1)
Eisenhower Doctrine-support for Middle Eastern nations moving toward democracy including the use of military force to prevent the spread of communism
Sputnik launched-first artificial satellite in space

1957 (2)
Desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock AR-federal marshals and troops used
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) formed; Dr. Martin L. King, Jr. will lead
Open Skies Policy (also 1955)--Eisenhower proposal that nations could overfly other countries and verify military preparedness; rejected by USSR

Cuban revolution--Fidel Castro overthrew the regime of Batista--Castro later becomes a client of the USSR
"Kitchen Debates“--Nixon and Khrushchev

U-2 Spy plane shot down over the USSR and pilot Frances Gary Powers is captured--he is later exchanged for several Soviet agents
USSR cancels summit with US
John F. Kennedy defeats Richard Nixon for president
First televised debates
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) formed